Dissertations & Theses
Memorial University and the Department of Archaeology provide all of the resources necessary for the successful completion of Masters and Ph.D. degrees in archaeology. To see what our students have accomplished please view the lists of completed M.A. theses and Ph.D. dissertations below.
- Archer, J.D. "Smoky, Noisy, Bloody, Violent, and Smelly": Ferryland's 'Manor House' kitchen.
- Bethune, Eileen. Cobbling Together the Past: Investigations into Ferryland's "Prettie Streete".
- De La Plante, Jake. Examining the Lives of Garrisoned Soldiers at Admiral's Point in Trinity, Newfoundland (ca.1744-1820).
- Levasseur, Francois P. Nodes, Edges, and Networks: Dorset Harpoon Edge Variability in the Eastern Arctic and Subarctic.
- Robinson, Sarah. Investigating Palaeopathology, gender and status through 18th Century London Archives.
- Kuehn, Sarah. Dual-Bivalve Proxy Analysis of Shellfish Harvest Intensity, Seasonality, and Palaeotemperature in Powell River, British Columbia.
- Osmond, Jazpyn. When you can't unearth the covered up: archaeology and the memorialization of Mount Cashel orphanage.
- Sparrow, Anna. Examining diets, identities, and entanglements of Coast Salish dogs.
- Spiwak, Alexa. "A slator or two": Exploring the 17th-century slate industry at Ferryland.
- Wilson, Sarah. Following stones: navigating the landscape in northern Labrador.
- Brenan, Julia. Archaeology and memories on Birch Island.
- Jankunis, Vince. Divided but Together: Variation in 18th – Century Labrador Inuit Housing as Seen in House 3 at Double Mer Point (GbBo-2).
- Jones-Doyle, Annique. Maritime Consumption on Newfoundland’s Petit Nord: Material Expressions of Identity on the Champ Paya Fishing Station, 1504-1904.
- Petty, Ian. "As Elegant as They are Novel": Exploring Consumption Patterns of 18th Century Ceramics in Newfoundland and the Northeast.
- Williams, Duncan. ‘A Large House on the Downs’: Household Archaeology and Middle-Class Gentility in Early 19th-century Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Wolfrum, Allan. Archaeo-geophysical survey on the Ushpitun landform, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador.
- Leclerc, Natasha. Long-term Histories of Clam Harvesting and Seasonal Settlement Strategies on Shíshálh Lands, British Columbia.
- Walley, Meghan. Examining Precontact Inuit Gender Complexity and its Discursive Potential for LGBTQ2S+ and Decolonization Movements.
- Chase, Amy. On the Emergence of Art and Symbolism: The Case of Neandertal "Art" in Northern Spain.
- Elliot, Deirdre. Investigating the Effect of European Contact on Inuit-Animal Interactions in Labrador.
- Johnson-Henke, Anita. Testing the waters: intertidal zone archaeology at the Beaches site (DeAk-01).
- Lacy, Robyn. "Here lieth interr’d": An Examination of the 17th-Century burial landscape of coastal British North America.
- Merner, Courtney. Reconstructing southeast Iberian Copper Age mobility: a strontium isotope analysis of the Camino del Molino mass burial.
- Newcombe, Simon. An Examination of Military Life in 18th-Century Newfoundland Using the Archaeological Remains of an Officer’s Barracks on Bois Island, Ferryland.
- Riley, Dustin. The Caves of Cantabria: Non-figurative Cave Arts in Northern Spain.
- Venovcevs, Anatolijs. Not Just Fisherfolk: Winter housing and Seasonal Lifeways of Rural Euro-Newfoundlanders.
- Campbell, John Andrew. Mu Awsami Keji'kewe'k Mi'kma'ki: New Perspectives on the Transitional Archaic Period in Southwestern Nova Scotia.
- Harris, Alison. Stable Isotope Evidence for Amerindian Subsistence in Newfoundland.
- Hawkins, Catherine. English Border Ware Ceramics in Seventeenth-Century British North America.
- Bohms, Jeralyn. Illuminating Inuit Life at Double Mer Point: The Excavation of an 18th-century Communal Winter House.
- Hamilton, Tyrone. An Experimental Geochemical Characterization Analysis of Archaeological Iron from the Central Contact Period of Newfoundland and Labrador.
- Ingram, Sarah. "By Which So Much Happiness Is Produced": An Analysis of the Seventeenth-Century Tavern at Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Munkittrick, Jess. A Nursery for Sailors: Life histories from the St. John's Royal Naval hospital cemetery, Newfoundland.
- White, Lori. The Saddle Island Cemetery: Human Remains at a Sixteenth-Century Basque Whaling Station.
- Young-Boyle, Chandra. Archaeological otoliths as environmental recorders: high resolution sampling of pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) otoliths from Kiska Island, Alaska.
- Davies, Michelle. Changing Relations: Gender, Work and Value among the Inuit in 18th Century Labrador.
- Dobrota, Paulina. Integrated Soil Analysis at an Inuit Tent Camp: Huntingdon Island 5 (FkBg-3), Sandwich Bay, South Labrador.
- Ellerbrok, Brittany Ann. An Isotopic Reconstruction of Diet and Origins in an 18th-Century Mass Burial Site at the Fortress of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia.
- Miszaniec, Jason. Dorset Use and Selection of Firewood at Phillip’s Garden, Northern Peninsula, Newfoundland: An Application of Wood Identification on Archaeological Charcoal and Contemporary Driftwood.
- Pike, Kelly-Anne. Bearing Identity: A Bicultural Analysis of Human Remains from Old Mission Point, New Brunswick.
- Tapper, Bryn. An archaeological analysis of the distribution of French fishing rooms on the Petit Nord, Newfoundland.
- Brandy, Eliza. Inuit Animal Use and Shifting Identities in 19th Century Labrador: The Zooarchaeology of Snooks Cove.
- Keddy, Josh. An Analysis of Artifact Morphology and Material Frequence in Eight Early to Middle Labrador Archaic Lithic Assemblages from Northern Labrador.
- Hatcher, Hilary. Exploring an Anglophone Presence at the French Fishing Room, Champ Paya, at Dos de Cheval (EfAx-09) in Cap Rouge Harbour, Newfoundland.
- Tudor, Corina. Geophysical Investigations at the Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site at Phillip’s Garden, Port au Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland.
- Wolfe, Kara. Culture Contact in Southern Labrador and Newfoundland’s Great Northern Peninsula: An Ethnohistorical and Archaeological Approach.
- Guiry, Eric. Dogs as Analogs in stable isotope based human paleodietry reconstructions: Assessing the Canine Surrogacy Approach.
- Anstey, Robert. The Dorset Palaeoeskimo Sites of Point Riche and Phillip’s Garden, Port au Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland: Investigating Social and Functional Connections.
- Clausnitzer Jr., Arthur. "As well as any beere”: The Seventeenth-century Brewhouse and Bakery at Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Cromwell, Thomas. The New Fort: An Examination of the Design and Construction of an 18th-Century Fort in Placentia, NL.
- Hutchings, Corey. Complexity and Continuity: Labrador Archaic Occupations at Nulliak Cove, Labrador.
- Jalbert, Catherine L. A Lesson in Stone: Examining Patterns of Lithic Resource Use and Craft-learning in the Minas Basin Region of Nova Scotia.
- Kelvin, Laura. The Inuit-Metis of Sandwich Bay: Oral Histories and Archaeology.
- Murphy, Phoebe. The Southern Component of the Labrador Inuit Communal House Phase: The Analysis of an 18th Century Inuit House at Huntingdon Island 5, Sandwich Bay.
- Negrijn, Megan. Consumer Choice in Komaktorvik, Seven Islands Bay and Kongu, Nachvak Fjord.
- St. John, Amy. An Interpretation of French Ceramics from a Migratory Fishing Station, Dos De Cheval, Newfoundland (EfAx-09).
- Cloutier-Gelinas, Maryse. Through Space, Time and Otherness: A Spatial Analysis of Fifteenth to Twentieth Century Labrador Inuit Settlement Patterns.
- Fleming, Robyn. Robert's Cove 1 (DjAv-05): A Transitional Recent Indian Site on the Northeast Coast of Newfoundland.
- Kristensen, Todd J. L'anse aux Meadows (EjAv-01): An Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Investigation of Bird Use During the Recent Indian Period in Newfoundland and Labrador.
- Lavers, Dominique. The Recent Indian Cow Head Complex Occupation of the Northern Peninsula, Newfoundland: A Geochemical Investigation of Cow Head Chert Acquisition.
- Noel, Stephane. Fishermen's Foodways on the Petit Nord: Faunal Analysis of a Seasonal Fishing Station at the Dos de Cheval Site (EfAx-09), Newfoundland.
- Bambrick, Jillan. Palaeoeskimo Sealskin Processing in Port au Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland: A Paleoenvironmental Analysis.
- Dick-Jacobson, Talva. A view of folk pottery's muddy past as seen through clay: An Analysis on a Sample of Ceramics found at the historic Caldwell Pottery Factory Site in Arrow Rock, Missouri.
- Hardenberg, Mariane. In Search of Thule Children: Miniature Playthings as a Means of Socializing Children.
- Jones, Jennifer. Pecheurs, Paturages, Et Petit Jardins: A Nineteenth-Century Garden Homestead in the Petit Nord, Newfoundland.
- Staplefeldt, Kora. A Form and Function Study of Precontact Pottery from Atlantic Canada.
- Tourigny, Eric. What Ladies and Gentlemen ate for dinner: The Analysis of Faunal Materials Recovered from a Seventeenth-Century High-Status English Household, Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Barnable, Stuart. Rattling Brook 1 (DgAt-1): An Examination of Middle Dorset Inner Bay Settlements.
- Beaudoin, Matthew. Sweeping the Floor: An Archaeological Examination of a Multi-Ethnic Sod House in Labrador (FkBg-24).
- Burns, Melissa. Symbols of the French Presence in Newfoundland: Breton Crosses and Calvaries- 1680 to Today.
- Butler, Don H. Geochemical Exploration of Inuit Soilscapes in Northern Labrador.
- Fay, Amelia E.M. Creating a Community Archaeology in Nain, Labrador.
- Godbout, Genevieve. Breton Bread Ovens of the Petit Nord: The Archaeological Landscape of Foodways in the French Fishing Stations of Newfoundland.
- Higdon, John. An Experimental Approach to Inuit Ground Stone Technology at Nachvak Fiord, Labrador.
- Knapp, Rebecca E. An Analysis of Tabular Slate Tools from Phillip's Garden (EeBi-1), A Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site in Northwestern Newfoundland.
- Newstead, Sarah. Merida No More: Portuguese Redware in Newfoundland.
- Pace, Jessica E. This is Where I Live, But It's Not My Home: Archaeology and Identity in Sandwich Bay, Labrador.
- Pentz, Benjamin C. A River Runs Throught It: An Archaeological Survey of the Upper Mersey River and Allains River in Southwest Nova Scotia.
- Swinarton, Lindsay. Animals and the Precontact Inuit of Labrador: An Examination Using Faunal Remains, Space and Myth.
- Brake, Jamie. Ashuanipi Kupitan: Excavation at the Ferguson Bay 1 Site in Western Labrador.
- Hranka, Teal. After the Fire: The Resettlement of Ferryland, Post 1696 (CgAf-02, Area F).
- Jurakic, Irena. Up North: European Ceramics and Tobacco Pipes at the Nineteenth-Century Contact Period Inuit Winter Village Site of Kongu (IgCv-7), Nachvak Fiord, Northern Labrador.
- Leskovec, Barbara. A Rural Drinking Establishment in Ferryland: Life in Eighteenth-Century Newfoundland.
- Melnik, Mary. Salmon Net (EfAx-25): An Investigation of Groswater Material Culture Stylistic Variability in Newfoundland.
- Millson, Dana. A Re-Evaluation of Grooved Ware in the Milfield Basin, Northumberland: A Vitrified Foundation.
- Brandon, Nicole. Rhenish, English and French Stoneware, 1550-1800, From the Ferryland Site (CgAf-2), Newfoundland and Labrador.
- Cogswell, Ainslie. House 18 and the Middle Phase of Occupation at Phillip's Garden (EeBi-1).
- Halwas, Sara. Where the Wild Things Grow: A Palaeoethnobotanical Study of Late Woodland Plant Use at Clam Cove, Nova Scotia.
- Lewis, Roger. Pre-Contact Fish Weirs: A Case Study from Southwestern Nova Scotia.
- Neilsen, Scott. Intermediate Indians:The View From Ushpitun 2 and Pmiusik 1.
- Penney, Mark. Pre-Contact Period Technological Organization at Nachvak Fjord, Northern Labrador.
- Webb, Emily. Cranial Asymmetry in Newfoundland Maritime Archaic and Colonial-Era European Skeletal Populations: An Examination of Developmental Stability and the Impact of Muscular Activity on Cranial Morphological Variation.
- Brewster, Natalie. The Inuit in Southern Labrador: A View from Snack Cove.
- Cave, Beverley. The Petroglyphs of Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia: A Fresh Perspective on Their Physical and Cultural Contexts.
- MacIntyre, April. House and Home: Scottish Domestic Architecture in Nova Scotia and the Rev. Norman McLeod Homestead.
- Miller, Aaron. The Far East in the Northeast: An Analysis of the Chinese Export Porcelain Excavated at Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Pitre, Mindy. Development Anomalies of the Vetebral Column, Ribs and Exoccipitals in the Human Skeleton Remains from Two Cemeteries in England: St. Augustine, The Less, Bristol and the Quaker Burial Ground, Kingston-Upon-Thames.
- Cary, Henry C. Hoffnungsthal: The Archaeology and Architecture of the First Moravian Mission to the Labrador Inuit, 1752.
- Campbell, Jennifer. The Huron of the Kawartha Lakes: Faunal Exploitation Strategies as Indicators of Change during the Pre, Proto and Historic Periods.
- Beaton, Gregory. A Chip off the Old Block : Investigations of a Maritime Archaic Lithic Workshop/Quarry Site in Big Brook (EjBa-2), Northwestern Newfoundland.
- Temple, Blair. Somerset and Dorset Ceramics at Seventeenth-Century Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Anton, Elaine. St. John's Harbour 5 (HeEi-30) and an Examination of Groswater and Early Dorset Relationships in Labrador.
- Wheatley, Kendra. The Party Site (EeBi-30) and Beyond: An Interpretation of Groswater Mobility and Landscape from Port Au Choix, Newfoudland.
- Wolfe, Christopher. Middle Dorset in Southern Labrador- An Examination of Three Small Sites in the Porcupine Strand Region.
- O'Driscoll, Cindy M. The Application of Trace Element Geochemistry to Determine the Provenance of Soapstone Vessels from Dorset Palaeoeskimo Sites in Western Newfoundland.
- MacCarthy, Michelle. Mobility, Migration and Projectile Point Diversity in the Late Paleoindian Period of the Far Northeast.
- Wells, Patricia. An Analysis of Faunal Remains from Two Groswater Palaeoeskimo Sites at Port au Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland: Phillip's Garden West (EeBi-11) and Phillip's Garden East (EeBi-1).
- Hull, Stephen. Tanite uet Tshinauetamin? A Trail to Labrador: Recent Indians and the North Shore Site.
- Eastaugh, Edward. The Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site at Point Riche, Newfoundland: An Intra-Site Analysis.
- Gilbert, William. Russell's Point (CiAj-1): A Little Passage/Beothuk Site at the Bottom of Trinity Bay.
- Teal, Michael A. An Archaeological Investigation of the Gould Site (EeBi-42) in Port au Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland: New Insight into the Recent Indian Cow Head Complex.
- Crompton, Amanda J. A Seventeenth-Century Planter's House at Ferryland, Newfoundland (CgAf-2, Area D).
- Stoddart, Eleanor. Seventeenth-Century Tin-Glazed Earthenware from Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Mills, Steve. Seventeenth-Century Life in Renews Newfoundland: Archaeological Analysis of an English West Country Planter's House.
- Wicks, John. Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Bottle Glass from Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Laybolt, Dawn A. Prehistoric Settlement and Subsistence Patterns at Gaspereau Lake, Kings County, Nova Scotia.
- Nixon, Douglas A. The Seventeenth-Century House at Ferryland (CgAf-02, Area B).
- Rast, Timothy L. Investigating Palaeo-Eskimo and Indian Settlement Patterns Along a Submerging Coast at Burgeo, Newfoundland.
- von Hunnius, Tanya. Nutritional Anaemia: A Multiple Nutrient Hypothesis Concerning Iron, Vitamin C, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 in the Dickson Mounds Mississippian Period Skeletal Collection.
- Murphy, Brent. Researching the Early Holocene of the Maritime Provinces.
- Cridland, Jennifer. Late Prehistoric Indian Subsistence in Northeastern Newfoundland: Faunal Analysis of Little Passage Complex Assemblages from the Beaches and Inspector Island Sites.
- Fogt, Lisa M. The Excavation and Analysis of a Dorset Paleoeskimo Dwelling at Cape Ray, Newfoundland.
- Hiseler, George. Harp Seal (Phoca groenalndica) Canine Dentine Encremental Annuli as Indicators of Age and/or Season of Death.
- Carter, Matthew. The Archaeological Investigation of a Seventeenth-Century Blacksmith Shop at Ferryland, Newfoundland.
- Gaulton, Barry. Seventeenth-Century Stone Construction at Ferryland, Newfoundland (Area C).
- LeBlanc, Sylvie. A Place with a View: Groswater Subsistence-Settlement Patterns in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
- Macey, Jeannette F. Demography and Disease of the Naestved Helligandshus Collection: An A.D. 15th to 19th Century Cemetary Population of the 'House of the Holy Spirit' in South-West Denmark.
- McEachen, Paul J. The Meadowood Early Woodland Manifestation in the Maritimes: A Preliminary Interpretation.
- Erwin, John. An Intrasite Analysis of Philip's Garden: A Middle Dorset Palaeo-Eskimo Site at Port au Choix, Newfoundland.
- Warren, Elizabeth Jan. Coastal Sedentism during the Atlantic Period in Nordhordland, Western Norway? The Middle and Late Mesolithic Components at Kotedalen.
- Kristmanson, Helen. The Ceramic Sequence for Southwestern Nova Scotia: A Refinement of the Petersen/Sanger Model.
- Murray, Maribeth S. Beyond the Laundry List: The Analysis of Faunal Remains from a Dorset Dwelling at Phillip's Garden (EeB1-1), Port au Choix, Newfoundland.
- Burke, Charles A. 19th Century Ceramic Artifacts from a Seasonally Occupied Fishing Station on SaddleIsland, Red Bay, Labrador.
- Kennett, Brenda. Phillip's Garden East: An Examination of the Groswater Palaeoeskimo Phase.
- McAleese, Kevin. The Archaeology of a Late 18th Century Sealing Post in Southern Labrador George Cartwright's 'Stage Cove'
- Rutherford, Douglas E. The Archaic/Ceramic Period Transition in New Brunswick and Maine: An Analysis of Stemmed Biface Morphology.
- McLean, Laurie. The Beothuk Adoption of Iron Technology.
- Krol, Carol. Middle Dorset Settlement - Subsistence Patterns in Western Newfoundland: A view from Broom Point.
- Sheldon, Helen Louise. The Late Prehistory of Nova Scotia as viewed from the Brown Site.
- Simpson, David N. Prehistoric Archaeology of the Port au Port Peninsula Western Newfoundland.
- Pope, Peter E. Ceramics from Seventeenth Century Ferryland, Newfoundland (CgAf-2, Locus B).
- Auger, Reginald. Factory Cove, Trinity Bay: The Dorset Eskimo Occupation of Newfoundland from a Southeastern Perspective.
- Penney, Gerald. The Prehistory of the Southwest Coast of Newfoundland.
- Robbins, Douglas T. Stock Cove, Trinity Bay: The Dorset Eskimo Occupation of Newfoundland from a Southeastern Perspective.
- Marshall, Ingeborg. Beothuk Bark Canoes: An Analysis and Comparative Study.
- Sawicki, Anna. Palaeo-Eskimo Occupations in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland.
- Stopp, Marianne. An Archaeological Examination of the Baumann Site, A Precontact Lalonde Settlement in Simcoe County, Ontario.
- Austin, Shaun. Cape Cove Beach (DhA1-5,6,7), Newfoundland: Prehistoirc Cultures.
- Allan, Patricia. The Oxbow Site: Chronology and Prehistory in Northeastern New Brunswick.
- Kennedy, Brenda. Marriage Patterns in an Archaic Population: A Study of Skeletal Remains from Port au Choix, Newfoundland.
- Conaty, Gerald. The Wentzel Lake Site: A Stratified Prehistoric Archaeological Site in the Caribou Mountains, Northern Alberta.
- D'Entremont, S. A. The Determination of Status at Port au Choix.
- Chute, Janet E. A Comparative Study of the Bark, Bone, Wood and Hide Items Made by the Historic Micmac, Montagnais/Nascapi and Beothuk Indians.
- Hodych, Carolyn E. An Investigation of the Lamellae in Human Acellular Cementum as a Possible Means of Determing Biological Age.
- Madden, Marcie. A Late Archaic Sequence in Southern Labrador.
- Renouf, M.A.P. A Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic Sequence in Southern Labrador.
- Buchner, Anthony. Cultural Dynamics in the Grassland -Boreal - Deciduous Transitional Zone of Southeastern Manitoba: 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000.
- Clark, Brenda. The Development of Caribou Eskimo Culture.
- Davis, Stephen. The Teachers Cove Site: An Archaeological Study of a Prehistoric Site on the New Brunswick Coast.
- Carignan, Paul C. Prehistoric Cultural Traditions at the Beaches Site, DeAk-1, Bonavista Bay.
- LeBlanc, Raymond Joseph. The Wigwam Brook Site and the Histoirc Beothuk Indians.
- Mounier, R. A. Archaeological Investigations in the Maurice River Tidewater Area of New Jersey.
- Schledermann, P. The Thule Tradition in Northern Labrador.
- Brake, Jamie. Heritage Policy Landscapes of Nunatsiavut: A Proposed Approach to the Development of Historic Resource Management Policy and Law in Northern Labrador.
- Rand, Asta. Prehispanic and colonial Maya subsistence and migration: contributions from stable sulfur isotope analysis.
- Jalbert, Catherine. Archaeology in Canada: An Analysis of Demographics and Working Conditions in the Discipline.
- Poirier, Claire. Hunting Buffalo Under the Ground: Encounters in Heritage Management.
- Clausnitzer, Arthur. The Seventeenth-Century English Cod Fisheries of Newfoundland and New England, circa 1600-1713: An Archaeological and Historical Comparison.
- Bower, Megan. Exploring the Potential of Strontium Isotope Analysis to Detect Archaeological Migration Events in Southern Ontario, Canada.
- Fay, Amelia. Understanding Inuit-European Contact along the Labrador Coast: A Case for Continuity.
- Daly, Lisa. Aviation archaeology of World War II Gander: An examination of military and civilian life at the Newfoundland airport.
- Lacroix, Dominic. Mobility, Ceremonialism and Group Identity in Archaic Newfoundland.
- Neilsen, Scott. An archaeological history of Ashuanipi, Labrador.
- Aylward, Christopher. The Beothuk Story: European and First Nations Narratives of the Beothuk People of Newfoundland.
- Miller, Aaron. Avalon and Maryland: A Comparative Historical Archaeology of the Seventeenth-Century New World Provinces of the Lords Baltimore (1621-1644).
- Wells, Patricia. Social Life and Technical Practice: An Analysis of the Osseous Tool Assemblage at the Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site of Phillip's Garden, Newfoundland.
- Crompton, Amanda. The Historical Archaeology of a French Fortification in the Colony of Plaisance: the Vieux Fort Site (ChAl-04), Placentia, Newfoundland.
- MacLeod-Leslie, Heather. Sankofa/Return and Get It: An Archaeological Exploration of Black Loyalist Identity and Culture, Nova Scotia.
- Mounier, R. Alan. The Aboriginal Exploitation of Questa Quartzite in Southern New Jersey.
- Gaulton, Barry. The Archaeology of Gentry Life in Seventeenth-Century Ferryland.