Russ Adams

B.A. Concordia, Ph.D. McMaster


Office: SN3086D
Phone: (709) 864-2513
Affiliations: Developmental, Behavioural Neuroscience, Sensation and Perception

Poster Presentation

Assessment of Visual Acuity in Preschool Children: A Direct Comparison of the Patti Pics and Lea Symbols Tests.


Mercer, M.E., Drodge, S.C., Courage, M..L & Adams R.J. (2014) A Pseudoisochromatic Test of Color Vision for Human Infants. Vision Research, 100, 72-77.

Mercer M.E., Drover, J.R., Penney K.J., Courage M.L. & Adams R.J. (2013). Comparison of Patti Pics and Lea Symbols Optotypes in Children and Adults. Optometry and Vision Science, 90 (3), 236-41.

Vernescu, RM, Adams, R.J, & Courage M.L. (2012). Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show an amblyopia-like pattern of vIsion deficit. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54, 557-562.

Wang, J., Hatt, SR, O'Connor, AR Drover, JR, Adams, RJ, Birch, EE, & Holmes JM. (2010). Final version of the Distance Randot Stereotest: normative data, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 14, 142-6

Drover, JR, Kean PG, Courage ML & Adams, RJ (2008). Prevalence of amblyopia and other vision disorders in young Newfoundland and Labrador children. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology , 43, 89-94.

Birch EE, Williams C, Drover J , Fu VLN, Cheng C, Northstone K, Courage ML, Adams, RJ. (2008). Randot preschool stereoacuity test: normative data and validity. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12, 23-26.

Adams RJ, Drodge, S, Murphy A, & Courage (2007). A pseudoisochromatic test to detect protanopic/deuteranopic and tritanopic color vision deficiencies in young children. Vision Research.

Drover, JR, Kean, P, Dove, CL, Courage, ML & Adams, RJ. (2007). Screening eye and vision disorders in young children: An analysis of the validity of screening test combinations. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Drover, JR, Courage, ML, Dalton, SM, Adams, RJ (2006). Accuracy of the contrast sensitivity card test for infants: Retest Variability and prediction of spatial resolution. Optometry & Vision Science, 83, 228-232.

Adams, RJ, Setliff , AE, Andrews, WL, Aziz, K, Courage ML & Friel, J (2006). Iron supplementation and visual and neurobehavioral functioning in breast-fed human infants: Do the effects persist beyond infancy. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl), 47, 3157).

Drover, JR , Kean, P, Courage, ML & Adams, RJ (2005). A comprehensive regional screening program for detecting amblyopia and other functional eye/vision diseases in young preschool children. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46, 1924 .

Adams, RJ, White, ES, Drover, JR, Earle, AE. Courage, ML (2005) A new psychophysical test for the rapid measurement of spatial contrast sensitivity in infants and young children. Journal of Vision (Suppl), 6.

Adams, R.J, Hall, H.H. & Courage M.L. (2005). Long-term visual pathology in infants with significant perinatal complications. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 47, 598-602.

Adams, RJ, Drover JR, Courage, ML, White, ES, & Earle EA. (2005). Advances in the production of a clinically–oriented psychophysical test of spatial contrast sensitivity for young pediatric patients. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46, 5649.

Adams, R.J., Mercer, M.E. & Courage, M.L. (2004). Ontogenetic development of visual acuity over the first three postnatal years. Ophthalmic Genetics, 25, 199-203.

Adams, RJ, Drodge, SM, Drover, JR, Dalton, S, Courage, ML (2004). Refractive error and the early development of visual acuity. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl), 45, 4315).

Courage, ML, Drodge, SM, Mercer, ME & Adams RJ. (2004). Variability of autorefractor measurement in infants, children and adults: The Welch Allyn SureSight. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl), 45, 4314.

Adams RJ & Courage ML. (2004). Do optical immaturities account for the early limitations on human spatial vision? Journal of Vision (Suppl), 4, 774.

Friel, J.K, Aziz, K., Andrews, W.L., Harding, S.V., Courage, M.L., & Adams, R.J. (2003). A double-masked randomized control trial of iron supplementation in early infancy in healthy term breastfed infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 582-586.

Adams, R.J. & Courage, M.L. (2003). Can the visual acuity of infants be predicted from a measurement of contrast sensitivity. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, 40, 35-38.

Adams, R.J. & Courage M.L. (2002). Using a single test to measure human contrast sensitivity form early childhood to maturity. Vision Research, 42, 1205-10.

Adams, R.J., Dalton, S.M, Murphy, A.M., Hall, H.L., & Courage, M.L. (2002). Testing young infants with the Welch Allyn SureSight noncycloplegic autorefractor. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 22, 546-51.

Adams. R.J. & Courage, M.L. (2002). A psychophysical test of the early maturation of infants’ mid-and long-wavelength sensitive retinal cones. Infant Behaviour and Development, 25, 24-54.

Drover, J.R., Earle, A.E., Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (2002). Improving the effectiveness of the infant contrast sensitivity card procedure. Optometry & Vision Science, 79, 52-59.

Hall, H., Courage, M., & Adams, R.J. (2000). The predictive utility of the Teller acuity cards for assessing visual outcome in children with preterm birth & associated perinatal risks. Vision Research, 40, 2067-76

Adams, R.J. Courage M.L. & Drover, J.R. (2000). Retest variability of human infant contrast sensitivity; how many tests are sufficient? Optometry & Vision Science, 77, 90-95.

Adams, R. J., Courage, M. L., & Glynn, M. (1998). A modified card procedure for measuring human infant color vision. Optometry and Vision Science, 75, 623-625.

Adams, R. J., & Courage, M. L. (1998). Human newborn color vision: Measurement with chromatic stimuli varying in excitation purity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 68, 22-34.

Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. & Hall E. J. (1997). Contrast sensitivity in infants and children with Down Syndrome. Vision Research, 37, 1545-1555.

Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (1997). Visual acuity outcome in extremely low-birthweight (< 1000 g) infants. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 4-12.

Courage, M.L., Piercey, G., & Adams, R.J. (1997). Development of human contrast sensitivity from birth to 9 years. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 38(4).

Adams, R.J., Courage, M.L., & Glynn, M. (1997). An improved color-card technique for measuring young infants’ chromatic vision. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 38(4).

Adams, R.J. & Courage, M.L. (1996). Monocular contrast sensitivity in 3- to 36-month-old human infants. Optometry & Vision Science, 73, 546-51.

Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (1996). Infant peripheral vision: The development of monocular visual acuity in the first three months of postnatal life. Vision Research, 36, 1207-1215

Adams, R.J. (1995). Further exploration of human neonatal chromatic-achromatic discrimination. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 344-360.

Adams, R.J. & Courage, M.L. (1995). Development of chromatic discrimination in early infancy. Behavioral Brain Research, 67, 99-101.

Adams, R.J., Courage, M.L. & Mercer, M.E. (1994). Systematic measurement of human neonatal color vision. Vision Research, 34, 1691-1701.

Courage, M.L., Adams, R.J., Reyno, S., & Kwa, P.G. (1994). Visual acuity in infants and children with Down syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 36, 586-93.

Adams, R.J. & Courage, M.L. (1993). Contrast sensitivity in 24- and 36-month-olds as assessed with the CS card procedure. Optometry and Vision Science, 69, 97-101.

Adams, R.J., Mercer, M., Courage, M.L. & van Hof-van Duin, J. (1992) A new test to assess human infants' contrast sensitivity. Optometry and Vision Science, 69, 440-46.

Adams, R.J. (1992) Obstetrical medication and the human newborn II. The influence of meperidine (Demerol) on visual behaviour. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 247-51.

Adams, R.J., Courage, M.L. & Mercer, M.E. (1991) Deficiencies in human neonates color vision: Photoreceptoral and neural explanations. Behavioural Brain Research, 43, 109-114.

Mercer, M.E., Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (1991) Contrast/color card procedure: A new test of young infants' color vision. Optometry and Vision Science, 68, 522-32.

Adams, R.J., Maurer, D. & Cashin, H.A. (1990). The influence of stimulus size on newborns' discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli. Vision Research, 30, 2023-2030.

Adams, R.J. & Courage, M.L. (1990). Assessment of visual acuity in children with severe neurological impairments. Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus, 27, 185-189.

Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (1990). Visual acuity assessment from birth to three yeaers using the acuity card procedure: Cross-sectional and longitudinal samples. Optometry and Vision Science, 67, 713-718.

Courage, M.L. & Adams, R.J. (1990). The early development of visual acuity in the binocular and monocular peripheral fields. Infant Behavior and Development, 13, 123-128.

Adams, R.J. (1989). Obstetrical medication and the human newborn: The influence of alphaprodine HCl on visual behavior. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 31, 650-656

Adams, R.J. (1989). Newborns' discrimination among mid_ and long_wavelength stimuli. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47, 130-141.

Mercer, M.E. & Adams, R.J. (1989). Wavelength effects on critical flicker frequency in human infants. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 1083-87.

Adams, R.J. (1987). Visual acuity from birth to five months as measured by habituation: A comparison to forced-choice preferential looking. Infant Behavior & Development, 10, 239-244.

Adams, R.J. (1987). An evaluation of color preference in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143-150.

Maurer, D. & Adams, R.J. (1987). Emergence of the ability to discriminate a blue from gray at one month of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 44, 147-156.

Adams, R.J., Maurer, D. & Davis, M. (1986). Newborns' discrimination of chromatic from achromatic stimuli. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 267-281.

Adams, R.J. & Lambos, W.A. (1986). Developmental changes in response preparation to visual stimuli. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 62, 519-522.

Adams, R.J. & Maurer, D. (1984). Detection of contrast by the newborn and the 2_month_old infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 415-422.