Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotes.

Anything inside them is assumed to be exactly what was said or written. Anything else inserted inside for clarification or explanation should be framed in square brackets. (See the Brackets section)

  • He said, "We are working to improve it [the curriculum] over the summer."

Periods and commas should be contained inside the quotation marks.

  • "This campus has a welcoming atmosphere," said Professor Weeks.

Single quotation marks indicate a quote or saying within a direct quotation.

  • "I don’t want the phrase ‘Those who can, do, and those who can’t, teach,’ to be seen to apply to the Faculty of Fine Arts," said the new dean.


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