AR = Attendance requirement as noted.
CH = Credit hours: unless otherwise noted, a course normally has a credit value of 3 credit hours.
CO = Co-requisite(s): course(s) listed must be taken concurrently with or successfully completed prior to the course being described.
CR = Credit restricted: The course being described and the course(s) listed are closely related but not equivalent. Credit is limited to one of these courses. Normally, these courses cannot be substituted, one for the other, to satisfy program requirements.
EQ = Equivalent: the course being described and the course(s) listed are equal for credit determination. Credit is limited to one of these courses. These courses can be substituted, one for the other, to satisfy program requirements.
LC = Lecture hours per week: lecture hours are 3 per week unless otherwise noted.
LH = Laboratory hours per week.
OR = Other requirements of the course such as tutorials, practical sessions, or seminars.
PR = Prerequisite(s): course(s) listed must be successfully completed prior to commencing the course being described.
UL = Usage limitation(s) as noted.
EASC 1000 Earth Systems
is a survey of the structure, function and interrelations of Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Topics include an exploration of the physical and chemical properties of planetary materials, forces driving and sustaining Earth systems, and biological modifiers (including humankind) on the Earth today.
EASC 1002 Concepts and Methods in Earth Sciences
provides an introduction to a broad range of concepts concerning the development of the geological record and the Earth; practical methods for collection of field based data; topics in map interpretation and geometric analysis, stratigraphy, paleontology, structure, petrology, and geophysics. The course is presented with an emphasis on the development of practical skills needed to pursue a career in Earth Sciences.
EASC 2030 Mineralogy
provides an introduction to crystallography and the structure of minerals; introduction to crystal optics; study of the rock forming minerals and minerals of economic significance. Laboratory work comprises study of the structures and symmetries of minerals, chemistry of rock forming minerals, introduction to transmitted light microscopy of rocks, hand specimen recognition of common rocks and minerals.
EASC 2031 Mineralogy and Petrography
examines the optical and chemical properties of rock-forming minerals, the petrography and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks and applications of relevant phase equilibria to the study of minerals. Laboratory work comprises optical mineralogy and petrography of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
EASC 2100 Subsurface Geoscience for Environmental and Humanitarian Challenges
introduces students to subsurface methods that can be used for environmental and humanitarian applications such as sourcing the green economy, storing excess carbon, monitoring water resources, documenting past events in human history, tracking present-day military activity, improving urban planning, ensuring integrity of power grids, and terra-forming other planets. Challenges will be addressed through an overview of the relevant subsurface methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, ground penetrating radar) and their real-world application.
EASC 2150 The Solar System
describes the basic astronomy of the Solar System, tracing the search to understand motion of the Sun, Moon and planets in the sky; modern observations of planets, moons, comets, asteroids and meteorites and what they tell us about the origin and evolution of the Solar System.
EASC 2311 Geoscience Communication
is an introduction to the fundamentals of preparation of written and oral geoscience reports, emphasizing organization, correct use of terminology, concise description, preparation of abstracts and introductions, integration of numerical data and publication-quality illustrations, and oral presentation skills. Topics for reports will be selected from the subject matter of other 2000 level Earth Sciences courses.
EASC 2401 Structural Geology
provides an introduction to basic concepts; the physics of rock deformation, the classification and descriptive geometry of major and minor structures and their relationship to stress and strain. Laboratory work will concentrate on analysis of structural orientation data, and the analysis of structures in geological maps and cross-sections. Earth Sciences majors are advised to complete field course, EASC 3905, immediately following successful completion of this course.
EASC 2502 Introduction to Geochemistry
provides an overview of both low- and high-temperature geochemistry. Topics include: origin and classification of the elements; chemical differentiation of the solar system and solid Earth; aqueous geochemistry and the stability of minerals; radiogenic and stable isotopes. Geochemical concepts are illustrated using data and processes drawn from Earth systems. The laboratory component emphasizes the development of numerical skills needed in geochemistry.
EASC 2702 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
is a study of the origin and composition of sediments with a focus on depositional processes and resulting sedimentary structures. Study of environments of deposition and the stratigraphic framework of sedimentary successions. Laboratories involve local field trips, petrographic analysis, and the study of hand samples of sedimentary rocks.
EASC 2905 Introduction to Geological Mapping
is based on approximately six days of geological mapping in Precambrian rocks near St. John's, and two days of in-class work preparing a digital map and written report. Emphasis is placed on the recognition and description of sedimentary and igneous rocks in the field, and techniques of geological mapping and the taking of field notes. This course will be given during a special session immediately preceding the fall semester.
EASC 2916 Natural Hazards on a Dynamic Earth
describes the surface of the Earth being in a constant state of change, thereby posing risks and challenges for society. A basic understanding of geological processes in the past and present provides some context for appreciating the risks related to earthquakes, volcanic activity and mass movements, challenges related to water resources, land-use planning and waste disposal, and some background to interpret sources and consequences of climate change. The course will provide a broad perspective on contemporary issues facing society. This course is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective subject. This course complements traditional disciplines such as history, economics, and political science and should be of particular interest to prospective teachers.
EASC 2917 Gems: The Science and Politics
introduces students to precious and semi-precious stones both from the perspective of their nature and origin and from the perspectives of geography and the socio-political issues of mining, recovery, trade and cartels. The properties that confer value upon gems (colour, clarity, cut and carat), the techniques used to enhance, fake and imitate gems and the techniques used to detect fraudulent “gems” will be covered. The course will include discussion of the diamond industry in Canada and consideration of some famous gems. This course is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective subject. This course complements traditional disciplines such as history, economics, and political science and should be of particular interest to teachers.
EASC 2918 Earth's Story
is an overview of Earth's dynamic past of episodes of supercontinent collision and breakup, massive flooding, global warming and freezing, magnetic field reversals and continents travelling over large distances. The evolution of life is tied to this history and has had equally dramatic turns of rich growth and catastrophic extinction. Discussion will be based on Canadian geology and includes an introduction to techniques used to decipher the rock record.
EASC 2919 Introduction to Marine Geology
(same as Ocean Sciences 2200) is a study of the formation and evolution of oceans, including plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridges (birth place of oceans), subduction zones (where oceans are consumed), sedimentary environments such as estuaries, deltas, beaches and barrier islands, continental shelves, slopes and deep abyssal plains and special topics, including anoxic events, evolution of tides, atmosphere-ocean interactions, formation of banded iron formations, snowball Earth, black and white smokers, and how Earth modulates its climate through atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere interactions.
EASC 3030 Mineralogy and Materials Science
provides a review of elementary crystallography, introduction to space groups and crystal structures, bonding, properties of metals, semiconductors and insulators, crystallographic aspects of order-disorder, solid solution and mixing. Crystal growth, chemical zoning and diffusion. Phase changes in the solid state (exsolution, polymorphism and polytypism). Students will be introduced to the techniques used to study solids (X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-microprobe analysis, luminescence, and computer simulation). Laboratory work will emphasize practical skills using these techniques. Examples will be chosen from among minerals, ceramics, semiconductors, metals and glass, making the course suitable for Earth Scientists, Engineers, Chemists and Physicists.
EASC 3054 High-Temperature Geochemistry and Igneous Petrology
is an integrated course dealing with the geochemistry, origin and classification of igneous rocks. Topics include trace element geochemistry; physical properties of magmas, physical and chemical processes in magma chambers (fractional crystallization, differentiation, assimilation and partial melting), phase equilibria and application to magmas, petrology of the mantle, and igneous rocks of specific tectonic settings (oceanic lithosphere, continental margins, continental lithosphere). Laboratories include geochemical calculations and examination of rock samples and thin sections.
EASC 3055 Thermodynamics and Metamorphic Petrology
is an integrated course dealing with the geochemistry, origin and classification of metamorphic rocks. Topics include thermodynamic background and kinetics (transfer of mass and energy in geochemical systems of the Earth's interior, thermodynamic laws, phase equilibria, solid-solid reactions, reaction rates); metamorphic facies, field gradients, isograds and reactions; mineral assemblages and textures of common metamorphic rocks. Laboratories include thermodynamic and phase diagram problems, hand specimen and thin section studies.
EASC 3170 Geophysics for Natural Resource Exploration
is an introduction to geophysical methods used to investigate the subsurface of the Earth, with particular application to: exploration and development of mineral, hydrocarbon, and geothermal resources; carbon sequestration; and burial of nuclear waste. The laboratory component involves hands-on exercises collecting data (generally indoors), analyzing, and interpreting geophysical data using modern software. Pertinent seismic, gravity, magnetic, electric and electromagnetic techniques will be covered.
is an introduction to geophysical methods used to investigate the shallow Earth, with particular application to environmental issues, including groundwater distribution and contaminant tracking, and delineation of buried infrastructure, artifacts, and waste materials. The laboratory component involves outdoor surveys, where students work in small teams using geophysical equipment, followed by analysis of collected data using modern software. Pertinent techniques will be covered, with an emphasis on electrical and electromagnetic methods.
EASC 3179 Mathematical Methods for Geophysics
covers subjects required for quantitative analysis of geophysical phenomena. Vector calculus with emphasis on integral theorems is covered in the context of Maxwell's equations; Derivations and solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations with emphasis on hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic equations in the context of the wave, heat, and potential-field equations, respectively; tensor algebra and analysis in the context of theory of elasticity and electromagnetism; Fourier analysis as a tool for solution of differential equations and signal analysis. The course may also include such topics as the calculus of variations, curvilinear coordinates on differentiable manifolds, differentiation in the sense of distributions.
EASC 3210 Economic Mineral Deposits
is an introduction to the study of mineral deposits and definition of the basic physio-chemical parameters of ore deposit formation. The course involves a systematic review of genetic models for the principal types of metallic mineral deposits, and links these models to a common theme of the relationship between lithosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interactions and metallogeny. Laboratory exercises involve examination of representative suites of samples from different types of metallic mineral deposits and provide an introduction to the use of reflected light microscopy.
EASC 3420 Global Tectonic Processes
examines how horizontal and vertical motions of the Earth’s surface are influenced by heat and mass transfer within its interior. Surface motions are described qualitatively and quantitatively within the framework of plate tectonics, and used to identify major controls on the igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock records. Laboratory exercises emphasize geologic and geophysical applications of the material developed in lectures.
EASC 3600 Environmental Geology
examines the application of basic concepts and fundamental principles of geochemistry in evaluating natural and human-induced change through time on the interaction of the Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere; includes the effects of contaminants on global change. Laboratory time will be used for short field- based studies and for exercises examining the effects of contaminants on global change.
EASC 3610 Hydrogeology
(same as the former EASC 4610) examines geology and its relationship to groundwater occurrence: basic theory, groundwater flow systems, surface-groundwater interactions, field and laboratory techniques, and changes in water quality due to contaminant transport and sorption.
EASC 3700 Geomorphology
(same as Geography 3150) is a study of the relationships between geomorphic processes and landforms. Practical work will involve collection of data and samples in the field and analytical laboratory techniques.
EASC 3702 Lithification, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rock Properties
provides a conceptual and practical overview of the transformation of sediments into sedimentary rocks through compaction, cementation and mineral reactions, and the resultant modifications of rock composition, rock fabrics, and associated porous media characteristics (e.g. porosity). Both descriptive and analytical methods are integrated in laboratories that include carbonate and sandstone petrology (hand samples and thin sections), geological analysis of selected wireline logs, and the analysis of fluid reservoir properties.
EASC 3705 Field Course in Sedimentology, Reservoir Architecture and Sequence Stratigraphy
is a ten day field and lecture based course normally offered in the first two weeks of the Spring semester that aims to teach students to use sedimentological and palaeontological data for palaeoenvironmental analysis. The course will demonstrate the use of sedimentary facies models and facies architectural studies in reservoir geology, particularly when coupled with the principles of sequence stratigraphy. Students will be taught to create sedimentary logs and facies architectural panels.
EASC 3811 Paleontology
outlines the major changes in life forms from Archean times through the Phanerozoic to the present day, including details of invertebrate and vertebrate faunas and major floral groups; mechanisms and effects of mega- and micro-evolution in the fossil record; biology and classification of organisms and summaries of their geological significance in biostratigraphy, paleoecology and rock-building; relationships between major cycles of evolution and extinction to global processes.
EASC 3905 Field Methods in Structural Geology and Stratigraphy
is based on approximately 5 days of geological mapping in Precambrian rocks near St. John's. Emphasis is placed on application of techniques of structural analysis. Evenings will be dedicated to data analysis and preparation of structural maps and sections. Students are advised to complete this course immediately following EASC 2401. This course will be offered during a special session immediately following the examination period in a given semester.
EASC 4053 Petrogenesis of Igneous Rocks
investigates the origin of topical and important groups of igneous rocks based on experimental petrology, phase equilibria and application of geochemical tools. It further investigates the classification of igneous rocks, including the study of volcaniclastic rocks and aspects of physical volcanology. The laboratory component of the course emphasizes practical aspects of igneous petrology including geochemical characterization and use of hand-sample and field criteria.
EASC 4054 Metamorphic Petrology
examines relationships between metamorphism and tectonics, representation and interpretation of metamorphic mineral assemblages using compositional phase diagrams and petrogenetic grids; equilibrium thermodynamics and thermobarometry; determination of P-T-t paths. Laboratories include use of the electron microprobe to collect data for use in calculations of the conditions of formation of metamorphic assemblages, and various types of software applicable to metamorphic petrology.
EASC 4105 Field Course in Applied Geophysics
is a field based course with an emphasis on environmental and mineral exploration applications. It consists of a data collection module normally offered during a special session immediately before the Fall semester, followed by a processing and interpretation module during the first part of the Fall semester. Field techniques used may include ground probing radar, refraction seismology, magnetic surveying, gravimetry, electrical and electro-magnetic methods. For computer based processing, students make use of modern mapping and geophysical software.
EASC 4171 Seismic Methods
examines techniques involved in the acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic data. Introduction to elastic properties of rocks; introduction to processing and interpretation techniques for imaging and characterization of subsurface properties from reservoir to global scale. This course has a laboratory component to provide hands-on experience with data processing and interpretation.
EASC 4173 Advanced Electrical, Electromagnetic and Potential Fields Methods
examines the theory and application of these applied geophysics techniques. Topics include: gravitational and magnetic fields due to distributions of density and magnetization; potential theory, and processing techniques derived from this theory; conservation of charge, Ohm's law and Maxwell's equations for electric and electromagnetic fields in the Earth's subsurface. This course has a laboratory component during which students apply computer modelling and interpretation methods to real-life examples.
EASC 4179 Signal Processing in Geophysics
is an introduction to the theory and basic computational techniques of digital signal processing in geophysics. Topics covered include: sampling, Fourier transformation, design and application of digital filters, deconvolution, spectral analysis, and two dimensional signal processing, with emphasis on geophysical applications. This course includes a lab component where students implement and apply various techniques to geophysical data.
EASC 4211 Economic Geology
provides a detailed look at the methodologies and techniques used in the study of mineral deposits and their applications in case histories. Laboratory exercises involve solving problem sets using the various types of data from selected case studies.
EASC 4302 Advanced Marine Geology
examines the geology and geophysics of ocean basins; discussion of methods of oceanic exploration, the history and development of ocean basins, interrelationships between ocean water, marine organisms, sedimentary and igneous processes.
EASC 4400 Advanced Techniques in Structural Geology
examines modern techniques of structural analysis applied to fold and fault systems including progressive deformation and strain analysis, fold mechanisms, fold morphology and classification, fold sections and profiles, superposed folding, fault geometry and morphology, brittle and ductile shear zones, and construction of balanced cross-sections.
EASC 4405 Field Course on the Geology of Newfoundland
is a field-based course consisting of in-class lectures and student seminars, and a week-long field trip within the island of Newfoundland. The classroom portion of the course may be offered in an accelerated format. The course provides an introduction to the geological history and tectonic development of Newfoundland. The field portion of the course will normally be offered during a special session either preceding or following any given semester.
EASC 4420 Tectonics and Crustal Evolution
is a lecture and seminar course covering secular change and tectonic evolution in Earth history from the Archean to Mesozoic, featuring examples from the North American geological record. The course will draw on and link concepts from a variety of Earth Science disciplines and provide an overview of the geological evolution of North America in a tectonic context.
EASC 4502 Advanced Geochemistry
focuses primarily on the application of trace, radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry to constrain the origin, mass balance and chemical fluxes within the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere. The course permits students to complete assignments in aspects of geochemistry that reflect their career interests.
EASC 4503 Mineral Exploration Geochemistry
is an examination of the application of geochemistry to mineral exploration, covering: the lithogeochemical characteristics of ore deposits, their host rocks, and element dispersion from them; the principles of sampling and analysis in exploration geochemistry; approaches to the statistical analysis, graphical presentation, and interpretation of survey results; and the design of effective geochemical surveys. Particular emphasis will be placed on case studies relevant to exploration in Newfoundland and Labrador. Laboratory/seminar sessions involve working with exemplary data sets, using computer-based software for statistical analysis and software for searching large databases and viewing the spatial relationships of different types of map data relevant to the mineral exploration industry.
EASC 4605 Environmental Geoscience Field School
is a field-based course normally offered during a special session immediately before the Fall semester followed by laboratory analytical work during the Fall semester. The aim of this course is to investigate anthropogenic impacts on the environment using geochemical, hydrological, and microbial methods. Emphasis is placed on site investigation, sample collection and preparation techniques, instrumental analysis, and data analyses.
EASC 4620 Groundwater Modelling
examines the physical and chemical processes controlling groundwater flow and contaminant transport from a numerical modelling viewpoint. Methods for numerical modelling are the main focus. Students gain hands-on experience in using computer software packages to solve practical problems.
EASC 4702 Sedimentary Basins and Hydrocarbon Exploration
(same as the former EASC 4602) provides a review of sedimentary basin types and associated petroleum systems including concepts applicable to petroleum generation, migration and accumulation. Regional-scale stratigraphic and structural concepts/models are presented as a framework for hydrocarbon fluid flow and entrapment. Laboratories include description and analysis of data typical of basin- and regional-scale exploration and appraisal of hydrocarbon resources using a variety of integrated, interdisciplinary techniques (geological, geophysical and geochemical).
EASC 4703 Environmental Change and Quaternary Geography
(same as Archaeology 4150 and Geography 4150) covers methods of reconstructing Quaternary environments; effects of Quaternary environmental change on landforms, with special reference to North America; development and characteristics of glacial and non-glacial climates.
EASC 4704 Reservoir Characterization
(same as the former EASC 4603) provides a review of the sedimentary, stratigraphic and structural setting of hydrocarbon reservoirs and the geological controls on reservoir quality. Reservoir types and methods of study are presented to evaluate their key properties for the development and production of hydrocarbons. Laboratories include detailed subsurface correlation and mapping, log analysis, interpretation of reservoir data (e.g. capillary pressure, porosity, permeability and production data).
EASC 4720 Carbonate Depositional Environments and Diagenesis
examines carbonate environments and their facies models with examples from modern and ancient settings. Diagenetic environments and diagenetic controls on rock properties, particularly porosity, are examined, as well as their application in the reconstruction of the diagenetic history of a sedimentary basin and in the characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The application of chemostratigraphy to correlation is discussed. The laboratory exercises apply hand specimen, thin section and geochemical methods to investigate carbonates from different depositional settings and a wide spectrum of diagenetic environments covered in lectures
EASC 4800 Advanced Paleontology
(same as Biology 4800) is a field, lecture, laboratory and seminar course dealing with selected topics in general and applied paleontology. Topics include measuring evolution and extinction, population paleontology, functional morphology, paleoecology, statistical methods for paleontological studies, and applications in petroleum, mining, and environmental studies.
EASC 4903 Global Change
is a lecture and seminar course that studies the interaction of the atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere; topics covered include the evolution of the biosphere, fluid circulation, global geochemical budget, global environmental changes, and chemical evolution of the hydrosphere.
EASC 4905 Field Course in Geological Mapping and Regional Tectonics
is a two-week field school designed to allow application of techniques introduced in the third year, and to provide an introduction to the Appalachian geology of western and central Newfoundland. Reports must be submitted for grading during the fall semester.
EASC 4912 Planetary Geology
is a classroom- and laboratory-based course that provides students with a basic knowledge of the geology of the Moon, Mars, asteroids and the moons of the satellites of the outer solar system; the petrology and geochemistry of meteorites and their importance to understanding the origin of the planets; impact cratering processes and rock products including those on Earth; and instrumentation for planetary exploration. The course combines lectures and laboratory exercises that examine data sets from planetary missions and specimens of extraterrestrial materials. Students learn how geological processes that have shaped Earth also have operated on other planets, moons and asteroids in our solar system.
EASC 4910-4920 (Excluding 4912) Special Topics in Earth Sciences
are lecture and seminar courses given for undergraduates in their fourth or fifth year who wish to gain more specialized knowledge in a particular field of Earth Sciences than is possible through the standard course offerings. The Department will consider suggestions by students for Special Topics courses, but it must be borne in mind that such a course should normally be approved at least three months before the start of the semester in which it is to be taken.
EASC 4950 Technical Report on Geoscience Employment
requires the preparation of a publication-quality technical report, about 50 pages in length, based on a study undertaken during geoscience employment. The topic and scope of the study must be approved by the Head of Department prior to its commencement. Students will present a seminar or seminars on results of the project, and will be closely advised on proper organization and writing of scientific reports. Some directed reading will be required.
EASC 499A and 499B Dissertation
is an independent study with the subject decided in consultation with Faculty Advisors and approved in advance by the Head of Department. The first semester will involve background reading, field and/or laboratory work, a dissertation outline, and a draft of a first chapter of the thesis. The second semester will be devoted to data synthesis and interpretation, a mandatory seminar presenting study results, and a formal written thesis.