**BIOL4250 - Midterm Questions for 2021, as of
Oct 12, for exam on ****2021
October 28**

**Prepare answers to ALL of
the HOMEWORK questions below. For the exam, I will choose
FOUR: you must answer any THREE in the exam Period. Show
your work. **

[I
*suggest* that you not use calculators]

1.
Prior
to the advent of molecular data in the 1960s, it was assumed
that the large organismal differences between **humans**
relative to **chimps** and **gorillas** were due to a
large amount of genetic change along the human lineage. **Test
this hypothesis **by
**counting the number of SNP changes** between the three
pairwise combinations of *Homo
sapiens*, *Pan troglodytes*, and *Gorilla gorilla*. **Report these
numbers: do the data support or reject the hypothesis?
Explain**.

2.
**William J
Spillman** was an
American agronomist who in 1901 independently observed
experimentally what would later be called Mendelian ratios. **Answer the HOMEWORK question here**
on his crosses.

3.
We showed in
class that with **n = 50**, a ratio of **29:21** is
insufficient to demonstrate a significant deviation from an
expected **25:25** ratio. **With n=50, what is the
minimum deviation from expectation that could be
detected as statistically significant?**

4.
Calculate **H _{exp}** for a locus
with

5.
Repeat the
derivation of the **Hardy-Weinberg Theorem** in
terms of **p = (p' -
p).**

6.
Demonstrate
that **the
curves for positive directional selection** can be
obtained from appropriate values entered in the **GSM**
model in Excel.

7.
**For each of
the four graphs**, **identify** which mode of
selection is acting on allele **B**, where **q = f(B)**.
**Explain** the features of **q** over time that allow
you to recognize the mode of selection.

8.
Observe that
the **fitness
curves for dominant and recessive alleles** have the
same shape, that is, if the green curve is flipped across the
red curve, and flipped again along its length? Explain why.

9.
**For a
semi-dominant phenotype with Additive or Genic selection**, for an
initial **f(A) < 0.01** and **s**** < ****0.5**, use the **GSM
worksheet in Excel** to run the (1) Additive and (2) Genic
selection schemes in the table provided. At what values do the
curves deviate and (or) converge on each other? Why?

10. Professor **Blue**'s midterm will have
three questions, hardest (**A**), hard (**B**), and easy
(**C**). She will ask any two of them. Student **Red** decides
they can study for any two, but not all three. The student
will get **10** points for a prepared answer, but only **3**,
**5**, & **7** for unprepared answers to **A**,
**B**, & **C** respectively. For the two **2x2
games** in *italics* [upper left] or **bold**
[lower right] below, **calculate the optimal mixed
strategies** for **Blue** and **Red**, where matrix
values are payoffs (test scores) to **Red**. **Calculate the Value**
of the game to **Red**. : the matrix implicitly includes

BONUS