The following undergraduate programs are available in the Department:

Details of these joint programs are given after the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science. Other joint programs may be arranged in consultation with the departments concerned.
Notes:

The attention of students intending to follow any one of the programs listed above is drawn to the UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS  General Academic Regulations (Undergraduate), governing the appropriate degree. Additional Departmental requirements are given below.

Faculty advisors are available to provide advice to students who are registered in, or who are considering registering in, any of the programs. Students are urged to consult with these advisors at their earliest opportunity in order to ensure that they select appropriate courses and programs. Students with credits in Physics courses which are not listed in this calendar should consult with the Department.

The six course stream consisting of Physics 1020, 1021, 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, and 2820 or alternatively the seven course stream of Physics 1020, 1050, 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, and 2820 is intended to provide a cohesive overview of Physics for potential Physics majors.

Physics 1050 is open to and recommended for students who have completed Level II Physics, Level III Physics and Level III Advanced Mathematics. Mathematics 1000 must be taken at the same time as, or be completed prior to, taking Physics 1050. However, under certain circumstances, students enrolled in Mathematics 1090, will be allowed to register for Physics 1050 with the permission of the Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography. Students who have completed Mathematics 1090 and Physics 1050, however, are required to complete Mathematics 1000 before registering for Physics 1051.

Physics 1020 is intended for students who do not qualify for Physics 1050, and while it may be taken by students who have no background in Physics it is recommended that students wishing to take Physics 1020 should have completed at least one of Level II and Level III Physics. Students who complete Physics 1020 and Mathematics 1000 are eligible for admission to Physics 1051. Students may receive credit for only one of Physics 1050 and 1020.

Students who have successfully completed Advanced Placement courses in both Physics and Mathematics will normally be eligible for direct entry into Physics 1051, 2053 and 2750, all of which are offered in the Fall semester. Such students are advised to consult the Department.

Where circumstances warrant, any prerequisites listed below may be waived by the Head of the Department.

Supplementary examinations will be allowed in certain Physics courses which have written final examinations. Students should refer to the Faculty of Science Degree regulations for details.

A minor in Physics will consist of 24 credit hours in Physics courses which must include Physics 1050 (or 1020), 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820. Only 6 credit hours at the 1000 level can be used to fulfill the 24 credit hours. For those students whose major is Chemistry or Biochemistry, the 24 credit hours in Physics will not include 2053.

Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031).

Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3400, 3500, 3750 and 3900.

An additional 12 credit hours in physics courses numbered 3000 or higher which shall include at least 6 credit hours selected from the courses numbered Physics 3000, 3150, 3300, 3410, 3550, 3600, 3751.
Mathematics 1001, 2000 and 2050 are prerequisites to many Physics courses and should be completed by the end of second year. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260 is corequisite to Physics 3220 and should be completed before the winter of the third year. Those who intend to make a career in Physics should note that additional Physics courses are strongly recommended. Mathematics 2051 and Computer Science 1510 or 2602 are also recommended.

Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031).

Computer Science 1510.

Mathematics 2000, 2050 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3230, 3400, 3410, 3500, 3600, 3750, 3820, 3821, 3900, 3920, 4500, 4850, 490A/B.

An additional 12 credit hours in physics courses numbered 3000 or higher which shall include at least 6 credit hours selected from physics courses numbered 4000 or higher.

Fifteen credit hours in applicable elective courses*
Note:
Certain of the graduate courses may be taken in the final year of the Honours Program with the permission of the Head of the Department.
*Only 6 credit hours at the 1000 level in each of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics can be used to fulfil the 120 credit hours required for the Honours program. The inclusion of Mathematics 1090, the sequence of Physics 1020, 1021, and 1051 or the substitution of Chemistry 1010, 1011 and 1031 for Chemistry 1050 and 1051 will each increase the number of credit hours required for the Honours Physics program by three.
An Honours thesis is to be presented on work undertaken by the candidate under the guidance of a Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography faculty member. The thesis comprises the 6 credit hour course Physics 490A/B. Students should seek departmental advice regarding a thesis project no later than the winter preceding the semester in which the project will be started.
The Honours Physics program in and beyond the third year requires a familiarity with computer programming and numerical analysis. In choosing electives for this program, the Department recommends that students supplement the prescribed program with the following courses Computer Science 2602 and 3731 (or Applied Mathematics 2130 and 3132). Mathematics 2051 and 3000 are also suitable electives. For specific courses and recommendations about electives, consultation with a faculty advisor in the Department is suggested.
The Department recommends that students wishing to complete the Honours Physics program in 120 credit hours follow the schedule given below. This schedule is intended for students who qualify for Physics 1050 and 1051. Other suggested course schedules are available from the Head of the Department.
Year 
Semester I 
Semester II 
I 

II 

III 

IV 

Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202

Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3820, 3300, 3340, 4340
The Major degree offers students a fair degree of latitude in choosing electives, students are encouraged to take electives from Geography and Earth Sciences: of particular merit would be any of Earth Sciences 3600, 3611 or 4105.

Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202

Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3820, 3821, 3300, 3340, 4205, 4300, 4340, 490A/B
An honours thesis is to be presented on work undertaken by the candidate under the guidance of a Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography faculty member. The thesis comprises the 6 credit hour course Physics 490A/B. Students should seek departmental advice regarding a thesis project no later than the winter preceding the semester in which the project will be started.
The Department recommends that students wishing to complete the Honours Environmental Physics program in 120 credit hours follow the schedule given below. This schedule is intended for students who qualify for Physics 1050 and 1051. Other suggested course schedules are available from the Head of the Department.
Those courses in which a grade of “B” or better or an average of 75% or higher are required, as specified in Clause 6.a. of the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science, are 45 credit hours in Physics courses, and 15 credit hours in other courses (beyond the 1000 level) selected from the specified program courses in Earth Sciences, Geography and Biology.
Year 
Semester I 
Semester II 
I 

II 

III 

IV 
Present Course 
Former Course 
Present Course 
Former Course 
1200 
2210 

1201 
2050 

1052 
1061 

2200 
3700 

2450 
3850 

2550 
490A/B 
4990 

2700 
2054 

3200 
2550 
Physics 1021 and the former Physics 1201 will be considered equivalent for prerequisite purposes. Physics 1051 and 2820 will be considered equivalent to the former Physics 1054 and 2054 for prerequisite purposes. Physics 1051 and the former Physics 1052 and 2050 will be considered equivalent for prerequisite purposes.
Not all courses are offered every year. Students should check with the Department prior to registration to plan programs.
In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.
Physics courses are designated by PHYS.
1020
Introductory Physics I
(F) & (W)
is a noncalculus based introduction to mechanics.
Prerequisite: Level III Advanced Mathematics or Mathematics 1090. Mathematics 1090 may be taken concurrently. It is recommended that students have completed at least one of level II and level III high school physics courses, however this course may be completed by someone who has no physics background provided some extra effort is made.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.
Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.
Note:
Credit can be obtained for only one of PHYS 1020 and 1050.
1021
Introductory Physics II
(F) & (W)
is a noncalculus based introduction to fluids, wave motion, light, optics, electricity and magnetism.
Prerequisites: PHYS 1020 or 1050 and Mathematics 1000. Mathematics 1000 may be taken concurrently.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.
Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.
1050
General Physics I: Mechanics
(F) & (W)
is a calculus based introduction to mechanics. The course will emphasize problem solving.
Prerequisite: Mathematics 1000, which may be taken concurrently.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.
Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.
Notes:

For more details regarding PHYS 1050, see Note 4 under Physics and Physical Oceanography.

Credit can be obtained for only one of PHYS 1020 and 1050.
1051
General Physics II: Oscillations, Waves, Electromagnetism (F) (W) & (S)
is a calculus based introduction to oscillations, wave motion, physical optics and electromagnetism.
Prerequisites: PHYS 1050, or 1021, or 1020 (with a minimum grade of 65%) and Mathematics 1001. Mathematics 1001 may be taken concurrently.
Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.
Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.
2053
Fluids and Thermal Physics
(F)
2055
Electricity and Magnetism
(W)
examines Gauss' Law, the electrostatic potential, capacitance, magnetic forces and the magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, magnetic materials, ac circuits, superconductivity, the displacement current and Maxwell's equations.
Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 1051. Mathematics 2000 may be taken concurrently.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Laboratory: Three hours per week.
2151
Stellar Astronomy and Astrophysics
(F) & (W)
covers atomic structure and spectra. The sun: radiation, energetics, magnetic field. Stars: distance, velocity, size, atmospheres, interiors. Variable stars, multiple stars, clusters and stellar associations. Stellar evolution, interstellar matter, structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. Exterior galaxies, quasistellar objects, pulsars. Cosmology.
Prerequisites: Six credit hours in Mathematics courses at the first year level.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
2750
Modern Physics
(F)
covers special relativity, quanta of light, atomic structure and spectral lines, quantum structure of atoms and molecules, nuclei and elementary particles.
Prerequisites: Mathematics 1001 and PHYS 1051 which may be taken concurrently.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Note:
Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 2750 and 2056.
2820
Computational Mechanics
(W)
covers newtonian dynamics and celestial mechanics, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical solutions to mechanics problems, data and spectral analysis, Fourier series and normal modes, oscillations and vibrations, linear and nonlinear oscillators, nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Prerequisites: PHYS 1051, Mathematics 2000 (Mathematics 2000 may be taken concurrently).
Lectures and Laboratories: Up to five hours per week.
3000
Physics of Device Materials
(F)
Structures of crystalline and amorphous solids. Excitations and transport in metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics; electronic band structures. Physics of multimaterial devices including photodiodes, solid state lasers, and fieldeffect transistors.
Prerequisites: PHYS 2055 or registration in Academic Term 3 of the Electrical Engineering Program.
3150
Astrophysics I
(W)
is a review of macroscopic and microscopic physics. The sun: luminosity, mass, spectrum, photosphere, corona, interior. Principles of stellar structure; radiative and convective transport of energy. The virial theorem. Thermonuclear fusion; temperature dependence; the solar neutrino problem. Nucleosynthesis; the curve of binding energy; the synthesis of heavy elements. White dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; degenerate electron and neutron gases; Chandrasekhar's Limit. Population I and Population II stars; the HertzsprungRussell diagram; relationships among luminosity, mass, and effective temperature for main sequence dwarfs. Evolution of post main sequence stars.
Prerequisites: PHYS 2053, 2750 (or 2056), and 2820.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3151
Astrophysics II
covers stellar spectra and classification of stars. HertzsprungRussell diagram; equations of stellar structure for a star in equilibrium; temperature and density dependencies of nuclear processes. Formation and classification of binary stars; mass and energy transfer in binary star systems; semidetached binaries; cataclysmic variables, pulsars, etc. Galaxies and galactic structure; active galactic nuclei; cosmological redshift. Cosmology.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3150 and 3220.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3220
Classical Mechanics I
(F)
3230
Classical Mechanics II
(W)
3300
Introduction to Physical Oceanography
(F)
3340
Principles of Environmental Physics
will explore the basic physical principles of light, heat, energy and sound in the natural environment. Several key aspects of physics in the environment will be covered including climate and the physical evolution of the planet and the present role of the atmosphere and ocean spectroscopy in the atmosphere and measurement and observation of the atmosphere; principles of energy generation and pollution transport in the atmosphere and ocean.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3400
Thermodynamics
(F)
3410
Statistical Mechanics
(W)
3500
Electromagnetic Fields I
(F)
examines electrostatic Field: field, potential, Poisson's equation, Laplace's equation, capacitance, dielectrics, polarization, electric displacement, boundary conditions. Magnetic Field: electric current and magnetic field, vector potential, Lorentz force and relativity, changing magnetic field, inductance, magnetic materials, magnetization. Maxwell's equations.
Prerequisites: PHYS 2055 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202).
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3550
Electric Circuits
(S)
covers circuit elements. Simple resistive circuits. Techniques of circuit analysis. Topology in circuit analysis. Operational amplifiers. Reactive circuit elements. Natural response and step response of RL, RC and RLC circuits. Circuits driven by sinusoidal sources. Mutual inductance. Series and parallel resonance. Laplace transforms in the analysis of frequency response.
Prerequisites: Mathematics 2050, PHYS 2055 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260 may be taken concurrently.
Lectures and Laboratory: Not more than six hours per week.
Note:
Credit may not be obtained for both PHYS 3550 and Engineering 3821.
3551
Analogue Electronics
(S)
is a review of network analysis. Feedback. Electron tubes. Semiconductor diodes. Introduction to transistors. Introduction to amplifiers. Small signal models. Small signal analysis of amplifiers. Operational amplifiers. Selected topics in circuit design such as biasing, voltage regulators and power circuits, noise.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3550 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.
Lectures and Laboratory: Not more than six hours per week.
This course is recommended for students with an interest in experimental Physics.
3600
Optics and Photonics I
(W)
covers geometrical Optics: thin lenses, mirrors, optical systems. Twobeam and multiplebeam interference phenomena. Fraunhofer Diffraction. Introduction to Maxwell's Theory: reflection, transmission, and polarization. Modulation of light waves. Fibreoptical light guides: intermodal dispersion, index profiles, loss mechanisms, single mode fibres. Optical communication systems: free space and fibre systems, emitters, detectors, amplifers, wavelengthdivision multiplexing, integrated optics.
Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 2055.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3750
Quantum Physics I
(F)
covers waveparticle duality of nature. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Schrödinger equation. One electron atoms. Quantum statistics.
Prerequisites: PHYS 2750 (or 2056), 3220 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202). PHYS 3220 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202) may be taken concurrently.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3751
Quantum Physics II
(W)
covers multielectron atoms. Molecules. Solids  conductors and semiconductors. Superconductors. Magnetic properties. Nuclear models. Nuclear decay and nuclear reactions. Properties and interactions of elementary particles.
Prerequisite: PHYS 3750.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3800
Computational Physics
is a projectbased course intended to train students to become functional in computational methods, by writing and compiling computer code (C/Fortran) in a Unix environment to solve problems drawn from different areas of physics. Students will complete several projects selected from different areas of physics. Projects will introduce the students to a particular class of numerical methods. Lectures and tutorials will cover the theory that underlies the computational methods and background for code development and the application of the required numerical methods.
Lectures and Tutorials: Up to five hours per week.
Prerequisites: Computer Science 1510, PHYS 2820, Mathematics 3202, Mathematics 3260.
Corequisites: Any two 2000level Physics course plus at least one other 3000level Physics course.
3810
Mathematical Analysis
(F)
 inactive course.
3820
Mathematical Physics II
(F)
examines the functions of a complex variable; residue calculus. Introduction to Cartesian tensor analysis. Matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Diagonalization of tensors. Matrix formulation of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical spin. Vector differential operators in curvilinear coordinate systems. Partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; derivation of the classical equations, separation of variables; Helmholtz equation in spherical polar coordinates.
Prerequisites: Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, and PHYS 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202).
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3821
Mathematical Physics III
(F)
covers further topics on partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; SturmLiouville theory, Fourier series, generalized Fourier series, introduction to the theory of distributions, Dirac delta function, Green's functions, Bessel functions, ' functions, Legendre functions, spherical harmonics.
Prerequisite: PHYS 3820.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
3900
Physics Laboratory I
(W)
3920
Physics Laboratory II
(F)
is a selection of experiments based primarily on Modern Physics at the intermediate level.
Prerequisite: PHYS 3900.
Laboratory: Six hours per week.
Note:
Prerequisite requirements for Physics courses numbered 4000 and higher may be waived by the instructor.
4000
Solid State Physics
4200
Classical Mechanics III
 inactive course.
4205
Introduction to Fluid Dynamics
(same as Applied Mathematics 4180) covers basic observations, mass conservation, vorticity, stress, hydrostatics, rate of strain, momentum conservation (NavierStokes equation), simple viscous and inviscid flows, Reynolds number, boundary layers, Bernoulli's and Kelvin's theorems, potential flows, water waves, thermodynamics.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3220 and either Applied Mathematics 4160 or PHYS 3821.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
4210
Continuum Mechanics
 inactive course.
4220
Introduction to general Relativity
(same as Applied Mathematics 4130) studies both the mathematical structure and physical content of Einstein’s theory of gravity. Topics include the geometric formulation of special relativity, curved spacetimes, metrics, geodesics, causal structure, gravity as spacetime curvature, the weakfield limit, geometry outside a spherical star, Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, RobertsonWalker cosmologies, gravitational waves, an instruction to tensor calculus, Einstein’s equations, and the stressenergy tensor.
Prerequisites: Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202 and one of PHYS 3220, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 4230 or permission of the Head of Department. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 4230 may be taken concurrently.
4300
Advanced Physical Oceanography
(W)
covers fundamental properties of seawater and techniques of oceanographic measurement. The dynamical equations of oceanography are derived and solutions explored by comparison with oceanic observations. Properties of waves in rotating and nonrotating fluids. Linear and nonlinear wave theory are developed.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3300 and 3820 or registration in Academic term 6 of the Ocean and Naval Architectural Engineering program, or the permission of the instructor.
4330
Topics in Physical Oceanography
 inactive course.
4340
Modelling in Environmental Physics
covers the basic principles underlying environmental modelling will be developed and techniques for modelling presented and applied. Techniques for numerical modelling will be developed and simple numerical models will be developed for use in terrestrial, atmospheric and oceanic environments. Free and forced systems will be discussed and the transition to chaos and some aspects of chaotic dynamics.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3340 and PHYS 3820 (or the permission of the instructor).
4500
Electromagnetic Fields II
covers multipole expansions, electrostatic fields as boundary value problems, polarizability of molecules in dielectric media, ClausiusMossotti relation, gauges. Electromagnetic Waves: Poynting's theorem, reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves, cavity resonators, wave guides. Electromagnetic Radiation: dipoles, antennas, quantum mechanics and electromagnetic interactions. Selected topics in electrodynamics and applied electromagnetism.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3500 and 3820.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
4600
Optics and Photonics II
is a review of basic topics in wave optics. Phase sensitive imaging. Electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media. Scattering of electromagnetic waves. The physics of light sources and applications. Nonlinear optics and applications.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3500, 3600, and PHYS 3751 (PHYS 3751 may be taken concurrently).
Lectures: Three hours per week.
4700
Atomic and Molecular Physics
 inactive course.
4710
Nuclear Physics
 inactive course.
4820
Mathematical Physics IV
 inactive course.
4850
Quantum Mechanics
(F)
examines postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators and operator algebra. Matrix representations. Spin and magnetic fields. Approximation methods: WKB method, time independent perturbation theory, time dependent perturbation theory, variational methods. Elementary scattering theory.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3230, 3750, 3820.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
4851
Advanced Quantum Mechanics
(W)
covers general formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement theory and operators. Hilbert spaces. Advanced topics selected from: electron in a strong magnetic field and the AharonovBohm effect; advanced scattering theory; systems of identical particles; Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics; relativistic quantum mechanics; second quantization; symmetry and group theory; density matrix and mixtures.
Prerequisite: PHYS 4850 and 3821.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
4900
Senior Laboratory
 inactive course.
490A/B
Honours Physics Thesis
is required of the Honours program.
6317
Underwater Acoustics
covers basic theory of sound, sound in the ocean environment, wave equation, ray tracing, sonar system operation, transducers, applications.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3220) and 3220, or the permission of the instructor.
Lectures: Three hours per week.
6318
Ocean Climate Modelling
covers numerical techniques, finite difference, finite element and spectral methods. Introduction to the climate system. Ocean climate models. Box models. Variability on interdecadal, centennial and geological scales. Zonally averaged models. 3D ocean modelling. Thermohaline circulation. General circulation models. Climate modelling and global warming.
Prerequisites: PHYS 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202), PHYS 3300 and the completion of any 15 credit hours in core courses at the 3000 or 4000 level in the Faculty of Science, or the permission of the instructor.
Lectures: Three hours per week.