Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Science (2008/2009)
6.2 Biology

The following undergraduate programs are available in the Department:

  1. Major or Honours in Biology

  2. Joint Honours in Biology and Earth Sciences (Geology)

  3. Joint Honours in Biology and Psychology

  4. Joint Honours in Biology and Psychology (Behavioural Neuroscience)

  5. Joint Honours in Biology and Statistics

  6. Joint Honours in Cell Biology and Biochemistry

  7. Minor in Biology

Details of joint programs are given after the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science.

6.2.1 Entrance Requirements

Entry to the Biology Majors Program is competitive and based on academic standing.

To be considered for admission to the program students must have completed Biology 1001/1002 with an average of at least 65%. In addition, applicants will normally have completed the following courses (or their equivalents) and must have a minimum overall average of 60% in these courses.

  1. English 1080, 1110 or equivalent

  2. Mathematics 1090 and Mathematics 1000 (or Mathematics 1000 only)

  3. Chemistry 1010/1011 or Chemistry 1050/1051 or Physics 1020/1021 or Physics 1050/1051

  4. If Mathematics 1000 taken, any one other first year course.

Chemistry 1010/1011 (or 1050/1051) should be taken in the first year, as it is a prerequisite for other required courses in the Biology program, and delaying chemistry until second year may make it difficult to complete the program in the normal eight semesters.

6.2.2 Minor in Biology

A minor in Biology will consist of 24 credit hours in Biology courses: 1001 and 1002 (or equivalent) plus any 18 credit hours chosen from the list of Biology courses except 2040, 2041 and 2120. The choice of courses must be made in consultation with the Head of Biology or delegate and it is recommended (but not required) that students take at least two Biology courses at the 3000 level or above

6.2.3 General Degree - Major in Biology

Each Biology Major is assigned a faculty advisor who should be consulted on academic problems, including course selection. All students majoring in Biology are required to complete a minimum of 45 credit hours in courses from the Biology Department offering. Those 45 credit hours must include Biology 1001/1002 or their equivalents, the 15 credit hours in core courses listed below, and 24 credit hours in biology elective at the 2000, 3000 or 4000 level.

Biology Core (15 credit hours): Biology 2060, 2250, 2600, 2900, plus one of Biology 3401, 3402, 4245 and 4404.

All majors must also successfully complete the following courses or their equivalents:

  1. English 1080 and 1110 (or equivalent)

  2. Physics 1020/1021 (or 1050/1051)

  3. Mathematics 1000

  4. Chemistry 1010/1011 (or 1050/1051), 2440

  5. Statistics 2550

  6. Biochemistry 2101 and 3106

  7. Extra Science courses as necessary to fulfil the requirement for 78 credit hours in Science as stipulated in Clause 3. a. of the Regulations for the General Degree of Bachelor of Science.

It is recommended, but not required, that a Computer Science course be included and the Biology Department strongly recommends Computer Science 2650.

Note:

To minimize timetabling problems, students on the St. John's campus are advised to take Biology 2250 and 2600 in their third semester (Fall), and 2060 and 2900 in their fourth semester (Winter).

6.2.4 Honours Degrees

The attention of students wishing to take Honours is called to those sections of the Calendar dealing with Regulations for the Degree of Bachelor of Science (Honours).

Sixty-nine credit hours in courses, including the 6 first year credit hours and the 15 required core credit hours outlined in the regulations for the General Degree, and the Honours Dissertation (Biology 499A/499B), shall be taken from the Department of Biology offering. Students may elect to complete an Honours Program in Biology or in one of the joint Honours Programs listed under the heading "Programs in Biology". Programs of students taking Honours shall be drawn up in consultation with the student's supervisor, and must be approved by the Head of the Department (or his/her delegate) in accordance with Regulation 1. b. of the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science.

Note:

Some Graduate Courses may be taken in the final year of the Honours Program with the permission of the Head of the Department and the course instructor.

A dissertation (6 credit hours) is to be presented on some original piece of work undertaken by the candidate, under the guidance of a faculty member of the department, as appointed by the Head of Department. For students electing to take one of the Joint Honours Programs, the dissertation shall be on a topic representative of the selected program. The Department of Biology considers the dissertation to be an important part of the Honours Program.

The dissertation will be based on a 6 credit hours course (Biology 499A/499B). It will involve directed reading relevant to the dissertation topic, preparation of a dissertation outline, supervised research, data synthesis and interpretation, and preparation and defence of the dissertation.

Two typed copies of the dissertation, complete with figures and tables, are to be submitted not less than two weeks before the end of lectures in the semester in which the candidate is registered for Biology 499B. These copies must be submitted to the Head of Department, and must have met the prior approval of the candidate's Honours supervisor.

Before the last day for examinations in the semester, the candidate will be examined orally on the contents of the dissertation. The examining committee shall consist of the Head of the Department, or delegate, the candidate's supervisor, and an examiner appointed by the Head of the Department in consultation with the candidate's supervisor.

6.2.5 Honours in Biology

Students seeking the Honours Degree in Biology must satisfactorily complete Biology 1001/1002 (or equivalents) and the 15 credit hours of core Biology courses. The remaining 48 credit hours in Biology courses, which must include the dissertation (499A/499B), may be taken as electives from the Biology offering, on the advice of the supervisor. Additional courses from other departments required for the Honours Degree in Biology include those given for the Major in Biology Program as outlined above.

An Honours degree in Biology may comprise a broadly based selection of courses according to the students interests, or it may be more narrowly focussed. An Honours student may focus on any area of Biology where an appropriate supervisor can be found. All Honours students should choose courses in consultation with their supervisors, but it is particularly important that students wishing to focus within the Honours degree should discuss course selection with an Honours supervisor within their area of interest.

As a guide to course selection a number of foci are set out below with some appropriate courses. Note that students are not limited to these areas but may focus their programs wherever they wish provided that (I) an appropriate supervisor is available, (ii) consultation with that supervisor takes place, and (iii) the resources of the Department, as determined by the Head of Department, are appropriate and adequate. Area of focus will not be indicated on the students' transcript.

Focus in Marine Biology

Students wishing to focus on marine biology in their Biology Honours program must fulfil all the requirements for an Honours degree in Biology as set out above. The following courses are recommended for this area of interest: Biology 2010, 2122, 2210, 3050, 3295, 3620, 3709, 3710, 3711, 3712, 4012, 4360, 4505, 4510, 4600, 4601, 4605, 4701, 4750, 4810. (Note: this list is only advisory; these are not required courses).

Focus in Cell/Molecular Biology

Students wishing to focus on cell biology/molecular biology in their Biology Honours program must fulfil all the requirements for an Honours degree in Biology as set out above. The following courses are recommended for this area of interest: Biology 3050, either 3401 or 3402, 3500, 3530, 3540, 3620, 4000, 4040, 4241, 4245, 4402, 4404, 4605. (Note: this list is only advisory; these are not required courses).

Focus in Ecology - Evolution

Students wishing to focus on ecology and/or evolution in their Biology Honours program must fulfil all the requirements for an Honours degree in Biology as set out above. The following courses are recommended for this area of interest: Biology 3041, 3050, 3295, 3610, 3620, 3709, 3710, 3711, 3712, 3714, 4040, 4150, 4306, 4360, 4504, 4605; either 4810 or 4820. (Note: this list is only advisory; these are not required courses).

6.2.6 Course Descriptions

In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

Students may obtain credit for only 6 1000-level credit hours in Biology. Normally, these courses will be Biology 1001-1002, which are prerequisite to all higher courses in Biology, except where noted below.

According to the nature of particular courses, the specified number of laboratory hours may consist of some combination of laboratory work, seminars or directed independent study relevant to the practical aspects of the subject matter.

Biology courses are designated by BIOL.

1001-1002

Principles of Biology

is an introduction to the science of Biology, including a discussion of the unity, diversity and evolution of living organisms.

Three hours of lecture and a three-hour laboratory per week.

Note:

BIOL 1001 is a prerequisite for BIOL 1002.

2010

Biology of Plants

is a study of the structure, function and reproductive biology of plants, with emphasis on the vascular plants,

and on their relationship to environment and human activities.

Three hours of lecture and a three-hour laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002; Chemistry 1010 or 1050 (or 1000).

2040

Modern Biology and Human Society I

examines various aspects of the human body, and the implications of modern biological research for human beings. Topics include cancer; diet and nutrition and associated diseases; circulatory disease, immunity, human genetics, biorhythms, new diseases, genetic engineering and reproductive engineering.

Three hours of lectures/seminars per week.

Note:

BIOL 2040 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Biology. There are no prerequisites for this course.

2041

Modern Biology and Human Society II

examines the origins and consequences of the environmental crisis of the 20th century. Topics include the population explosion, energy, material cycles, air and water and land pollution, global food supplies, the fisheries, wildlands, renewable and non-renewable resources, environmental ethics.

Three hours of lecture/seminar per week.

Note:

BIOL 2041 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Biology. There are no prerequisites for this course.

2060

Principles of Cell Biology

is a modern view of the biology of eukaryotic cells, organelles and molecules and their interactions in the functioning of living organisms.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1002 and 2250; Chemistry 2440 or 2400

Prerequisites or co-requisites: Physics 1021 or 1051; Biochemistry 2101

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2060 and the former BIOL 3060.

2120

Biology for Students of Earth Sciences

is an introduction of the principles of Biology for students in Earth Sciences. Topics will include principles of classification, levels of biological organization, fundamental characteristics of living organisms and basic concepts in ecology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Earth Science major; Earth Sciences 1001 or 1002 or permission of the Head of Department.

Notes:

  1. Entry to this course is restricted to Earth Sciences majors, or by permission of the Head of Department.

  2. This course may not be used for credit by Biology Majors or Minors.

  3. Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2120 and either of BIOL 1001 or 1002.

2122

Biology of Invertebrates

is a study of the invertebrates with emphasis on structure and function, adaptations and life histories. The laboratories will present a broad survey of the major invertebrate groups.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2122 and the former BIOL 3122.

2210

Biology of Vertebrates

is a study of the vertebrates, with emphasis on structure and function, adaptations and life histories.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2210 and the former BIOL 3210.

2250

Principles of Genetics

is an introduction to Mendelian and molecular genetics. Phenotype and genotype, behaviour of alleles in genetic crosses, chromosome theory of inheritance, genetic linkage, molecular biology of DNA, RNA and protein, molecular basis of mutation, recombinant DNA, applications of genetic biotechnology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002; Chemistry 1010 and 1011 (or 1050/1051).

Prerequisites or co-requisites: Chemistry 2440 or 2400.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2250 and the former BIOL 3250.

2600

Principles of Ecology

is a conceptual course introducing the principles of ecology, including theoretical, functional and empirical approaches.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2600 and the former BIOL 3600.

2900

Principles of Evolution and Systematics

is an introduction to the processes and patterns of evolution, and the principles of classification. Natural selection and other microevolutionary processes, variation and adaptation, species and speciation, phylogenetic systematics, reconstruction of phylogeny, macro-evolutionary patterns in the fossil record and their interpretation.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1002 and 2250.

Prerequisite or co-requisite: Statistics 2550 (or equivalent)

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 2900 and the former BIOL 3900.

3041

Boreal Flora

covers the identification of the terrestrial vascular plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Various aspects of floral biology, and the use of dichotomous keys will also be covered.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002.

Note:

Credit can be obtained for only one of BIOL 3041 or ENVS 3110.

3050

Introduction to Microbiology

is a course in which the basic principles underlying microbial life are studied. Aspects include structure, function, bioenergetics and growth with an emphasis on prokaryotes. Also studied are viruses, microbial diseases, introductory principles of immunology and the control of microorganisms. The laboratory sessions provide training in culture and determinative techniques using microorganisms.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002; Chemistry 2440 or 2400 and Chemistry 2401. Chemistry 2401 may be used as a co-requisite.

3052

Food Microbiology

- inactive course.

3053

Microbiology for Nurses

examines the fundamentals of microbiology with an emphasis on medical microbiology. The course will include topics such as: host responses to infections, human diseases caused by microorganisms, and the control and exploitation of microorganisms. Entrance is restricted to Nursing students in the Collaborative B.N. program.

Lecture: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Two hours per week.

Note:

BIOL 3053 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Biology, nor is it acceptable for any of the joint programs between Biology and other disciplines.

3160

Insect Morphology and Physiology

- inactive course.

3202

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

examines the phylogenetic development and comparative anatomy of the vertebrates.

Three hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for this course and either of the former BIOL 3200 or the former BIOL 3201.

3295

Population and Evolutionary Ecology

is an introduction to the theory and principles of evolutionary ecology and population dynamics.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2600; at least one of BIOL 2010, 2122 or 2210.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3295 and the former BIOL 4290.

3300

Introductory Entomology

is a study of the classification and ecology of insects within an evolutionary framework. Topics will include molecular biological and classical morphological issues surrounding insect taxonomy, evolutionary based higher systematics, and the ecological roles of insects in a variety of ecosystems.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2600.

Note:

Credit may be obtained for only one of BIOL 3300, 4150, and the former BIOL 4140. It is recommended that students enrolling in BIOL 3300 have already completed BIOL 2900.

3401

Comparative Animal Physiology

is a comparative study of the basic physiological processes, with special attention paid to those strategies invoked by animals which enable them to adapt to environmental changes.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and 2210.

Prerequisite or co-requisite: Biochemistry 3106.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3401 and the former BIOL 4401.

3402

Principles of Plant Physiology

is a consideration of the principles of plant physiology, including water relations, nutrition, metabolism, growth and development.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2010 and 2060.

Prerequisite or co-requisite: Biochemistry 3106.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3402 and the former BIOL 4403.

3500

Histology

is a study of microstructure and ultrastructure of tissues and organ systems in vertebrates, particularly mammals, with emphasis on correlating structure and function.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and 2210.

3530

Developmental Biology

is a study of developmental systems in protistans, plants and animals with a focus on the underlying principles and molecular mechanisms involved in cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and growth.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and either 2250 or Biochemistry 2100.

3540

Histotechnique

- inactive course.

3610

Boreal Ecology

is a study of the principal features of terrestrial ecosystems, with emphasis on the boreal region.

This course may be offered in a usual 13 week semester or as a two-week field course.

Either: three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Or: a two week field course that embodies equivalent instructional time.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2010, 2250, 2600 and 2900; Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

Note:

Credit can be obtained for only one of BIOL 3610 or ENVS 3131.

3620

Aquatic Microbial Ecology

is a study of the nature, distribution and activities of microorganisms in the freshwater and marine environments. Field and laboratory work illustrate some of the investigative techniques used in this area of study.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2600 and 3050; Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3620 and the former BIOL 3603.

3709

Field Course in Marine Principles and Techniques

begins with a two-week field school immediately prior to the beginning of the Fall Semester. In the Fall Semester there are follow-up lectures, readings and submission of reports. The course is designed to introduce the principal marine environments, organisms and techniques. It is strongly recommended that this course be taken before either BIOL 3710, 3711 or 4810. May be taken only with the permission of the Head of Department.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2600; Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

3710

The Aquatic Environment

examines the abiotic properties of marine and freshwater systems, including basin formation, chemical properties, circulation and dynamics, sampling techniques and the special characteristics of estuarine systems. Emphasis will be on large bodies of water, but stream hydrology will also be discussed.

This course may be offered in a usual 13 week semester or as a two-week field course.

Either: three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Or: a two-week field course that embodies equivalent instructional time.

Prerequisites: Physics 1021 or 1051; Chemistry 1011 or 1051; BIOL 2600 as prerequisite or co-requisite.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3710 and the former BIOL 3700.

3711

The Ecology of Open Waters

is a comparative survey of the major biological groups in open water aquatic habitats, both freshwater and marine, with community structure, trophic interactions and energy flow as central themes. Strategies for measuring population levels and production and for constructing both conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems and their components are emphasized.

This course may be offered in a usual 13 week semester or as a two-week field course.

Either: three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Or: a two-week field course that embodies equivalent instructional time.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2122, 2600 and 3710.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 3711 and the former BIOL 3701.

3712

Benthic Biology

- inactive course.

3714

Estuarine Fish Ecology Field Course

examines community structure, function and distribution of northern coastal fishes in fjords and estuarine environments. Emphasis on sampling, field techniques, taxonomy, quantitative characterization, adaptations and habitat relationships. A comparative approach will contrast fish communities from other areas. To be held as a two week field course.

Prerequisite/co-requisite: BIOL 2600.

3750

Animal Behaviour I

is an introduction to the mechanisms and development of the behaviour of animals. Topics include: the history of ethology and comparative psychology, methods of animal behaviour study, behaviour of animals in relation to physiology, sensory function, learning, communication, orientation, and other areas in biology and psychology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 1001 and 1002; Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

Note:

Credit may be obtained for only one of BIOL 3750 or Psychology 3750 and Psychology 4770.

3811

Paleontology

(W)

(same as Earth Sciences 3811) is taught and administered by the Department of Earth Sciences.

Prerequisites: EITHER Earth Sciences 1002 and BIOL 2120 (or BIOL 1001 and 1002), OR BIOL 2122 and 2210.

Note:

Credit may be obtained for only one of BIOL 3811, the former BIOL 3800, and the former Earth Sciences 3801.

4000

Bacterial Systematics

is a study of bacterial classification, nomenclature and identification. Subjects include classical and numerical taxonomy, aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques, phage typing, serotyping and the significance of genetic relatedness. The laboratory work presents the techniques of determinative bacteriology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250 and 3050.

4012

Phycology

studies the biology of the algae. A study of the structure, reproduction and evolution of the major divisions of the algae. Aspects of algal physiology and ecology relating to how algae are adapted to life in freshwater, marine and symbiotic environments, together with economic aspects of phycology, will also be covered. The laboratories will emphasize the recognition and identification of representative species of the major algal divisions with a bias towards local species. There will be field trips to collect material in local marine and freshwater environments.

This course may be offered in a usual 13 week semester or as a two-week field course.

Either: three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Or: a two-week field course that embodies equivalent instructional time.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and 2600.

4014

Biology and Ecology of Boreal and Arctic Seaweeds

is a field course examination of seaweed biology and ecology with special study of living specimens in estuarine, fjordic and exposed coastal sites, demonstrating their physiological and ecological adaptations to cold-water habitats. This course is offered at the Bonne Bay Marine Station during the Summer Semester with two weeks of instruction followed by a week to complete course requirements.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2600 or equivalent.

4040

Mycology

is a study of the physiology, morphogenesis, nature of plant and animal parasitism, ecology and taxonomy of terrestrial and freshwater fungi.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and 3050.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 4040 and the former BIOL 3020.

4122

Advanced Topics in Marine Invertebrates

provides an in-depth examination of physiological, ecological and behavioural adaptations in marine invertebrates. Lectures will be combine with discussions of relevant papers from the primary literature on topics of current interest, which may relate to functional morphology, ecology, evolution and natural history. Students will also gain practical research experience through the study of live and preserved animals.

Three hours of lectures and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2122, 2600 and 2900.

4141

Nematology

is a study of plant parasitic, insect parasitic and free-living marine, freshwater and terrestrial nematodes, with emphasis on taxonomy, biology, economic importance, control methodologies and environmental applications.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2010, 2122 and 2600.

4150

Insect Systematics and Ecology

- inactive course.

4180

General Parasitology

is an examination of parasitism as a way of life, with emphasis on classification, structural adaptation, life cycles and ecology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2122, 2210 and 2600.

4182

Fisheries and Wildlife Parasitology

is a study of the important parasites of fish and other wildlife and their impact on both individuals and populations.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: BIOL 4180.

4200

Immunology

is a study of vertebrate and invertebrate immune systems including antigens and antibodies and their reactions.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060 and BIOL 3050.

4241

Advanced Genetics

has advanced topics in modern genetic analysis, including regulation of gene expression, developmental genetics, molecular basis of inherited disease, genomics, immuni-genetics, behavioural genetics, and molecular evolution.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250; Biochemistry 2101.

4245

Biophysics

is an examination of the physical properties involved in defining diffusion, membrane properties, electrochemical potentials and the processes of bioenergetics within cells and organelles. Selected topics in biomechanics and the functioning of whole organisms with respect to size, shape, support, orientation, transport and motility.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060; Biochemistry 2101.

4250

Evolutionary Genetics

has advanced topics in the study of micro and macro-evolutionary phenomena. Genetic variation in natural populations; theory of genetic drift, mutation, migration, inbreeding, and natural selection; neutral theory of molecular evolution, patterns of nucleotide substitution, heritability and quantitative genetics.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250 and 2900.

4251

Genomics

will have lecture, seminar, and laboratory components. Topics covered will include Technical Foundations of Genomics, Global Gene Expression Profiling, Bioinformatics, Comparative Genomics, Microbial Genomics, Genomics and Medicine, Genomics and Agriculture, Environmental Genomics, and Ethical Issues of Genomics. Each topic will involve a lecture component, in which theory and methods will be taught using the textbook and journal articles. Some lecture and lab times will be devoted to seminars on methods and papers related to lecture or laboratory components of the course. In the lab component, students will have the opportunity to use state-of-the-art genomic techniques to address a research question.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory/seminar per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060, 2250

4270

History of Biology

is a consideration of the development of biological concepts as interactions between observations, philosophical systems and cultural environment. This course will normally require students to make verbal presentations to the class, participate in discussions and submit written papers. May be taken only with the permission of the Instructor.

Three hours of lecture plus one three-hour seminar per week.

Prerequisites: A minimum of 90 credit hours overall including a minimum of nine credit hours from any of BIOL 2010, 2122, 2210, 2600 and including a minimum of six credit hours in Biology at the 3000 level or above, plus the permission of the Instructor.

4306

Applied Biology

is an examination of how biological and other sciences are applied to the problems of management and utilization of organisms at both the individual and systems level to meet human needs.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060, 2250, 2600, 2900 and one of BIOL 2010, 2122 or 2210.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for BIOL 4306 and either of the former BIOL 4303 or the former BIOL 4304.

4360

Community and Ecosystem Ecology

is a study of the basic principles, patterns and processes of ecological communities and ecosystems.

Three hours of lecture plus a seminar/discussion group each week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250, 2600 and 2900 and one of BIOL 2010, 2122 or 2210; Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

4402

Electron Microscopy in Life Sciences

- inactive course.

4404

Microbial Physiology

is a study of the structure and growth of microorganisms. Themes covered in this course include the structure, function and regulation of the microbial cellular machinery, the hierarchical regulation of cellular activities, and communication between cells. Quantitative experimental methodology relating to microbial physiology is studied in the laboratory.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250 and 3050; Biochemistry 3106.

4405

Landscape Ecology

is an introduction to the theory and principles of landscape pattern and processes, including issues related to scale, networks, landform and vegetation patterns, species distributions, and natural and human-caused aspects of landscape change. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2600 and 18 credit hours in Biology or permission from the course instructor.

Prerequisite or Co-requisite: Statistics 2550 or equivalent.

4505

Systematics and Biogeography

is a study of the geographical distributions of plants and animals with particular reference to temporal and spatial variability and to theories advanced to explain historical and recent distribution patterns.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2250, 2600, 2900 and one of BIOL 2010, 2122 or 2210.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both BIOL 4505 and Geography 4170.

4510

Distribution Patterns in the Sea

- inactive course.

4550

Principles of Endocrinology

comprises an introduction to basic concepts concerned with how chemical messages are transmitted and received between cells to coordinate body functions. Hormonal control of adaptation, reproduction, metabolism, growth, digestion, and electrolyte homeostasis will be discussed. Although the endocrinology of invertebrates and lower vertebrates will be mentioned as appropriate, the main emphasis will be on mammalian and human endocrinology at the level of the whole organism.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2122 and 3401; Biochemistry 3106.

4600

Ichthyology

is the study of fishes: taxonomy, life histories, evolution, behaviour and zoogeography.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2210 and 2600.

4601

Functional Biology of Fish

is an introduction to anatomical, physiological and cellular aspects of selected processes in the life cycle of fishes.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060, 2210, and 3401.

4605

Quantitative Methods in Biology

(same as Statistics 4581 and the former Statistics 4605) is quantitative reasoning using verbal, graphical and statistical models of scaled quantities (units and dimensions). Exploratory and confirmatory analysis of field and laboratory data. Hypothesis testing, including randomization tests. Topics include the general linear model (t-tests, ancova etc), correlation, autocorrelation, geographic statistics, estimates of population size and multivariate methods.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Statistics 2550.

4620

Ornithology

examines structure, classification, evolution, ecology and behaviour of birds, with particular reference to those of economic importance. Identification of the birds of Eastern Canada.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2210 and 2600.

4630

Mammalogy

examines evolution, systematics, life histories and distribution of mammals, with particular emphasis on eastern North American forms.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2210 and 2600.

4650

Conservation in Biology and Geography

(same as Geography 4650) is an examination of how biological and geographical principles can be applied to conserving biological diversity in the natural world under conditions of exploitation and habitat loss. Special emphasis will be given to relevant provincial examples.

Three hours of lecture per week and 3 hours of seminar/discussion group per week.

Prerequisites: 30 credit hours in either Biology or Geography.

4701

Animal Behaviour II

is an examination of the behaviour of animals with particular emphasis on evolution and ecology. Topics include behavioural genetics and evolution, reproductive strategies, social behaviour, habitat selection, territoriality, foraging behaviour, and other topics in biology and psychology.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: BIOL 3750 or Psychology 4770.

4710

Experimental Marine Ecology of Newfoundland Waters

is a two-week field course examines the ecology of cold ocean environments, focussing on energy flux through marine pelagic and benthic flora and fauna of Newfoundland waters, and how the dynamics of this environment influence linkages among organisms in different habitats. The course will be field intensive with some lecture component and a strong hands-on field component. Students will identify local organisms and study how and why they vary in time and space. This course will be offered during two weeks of the Spring semester.

Prerequisite/co-requisite: BIOL 2600.

4750

Fisheries Ecology

Is the application of ecological principles to the problem of managing exploited fish populations. Laboratory exercises will be based on a simulation approach to fisheries problems using computer and animal models.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2600.

4800

Advanced Palaeontology

(same as Earth Sciences 4800) is taught and administered by the Department of Earth Sciences.

Prerequisites: Earth Science/BIOL 3811, and one of Statistics 2510, Statistics 2550 or Mathematics 2000

4810

Research Field Course in Marine Biology

will consist of an intensive two-week field school designed to acquaint students with marine field research, experimental design, methodology and data analysis. Emphasis will be placed on individual projects. Projects must be designed and approved prior to the commencement of the course and will involve a written report. May be taken only with permission of the Head of Department. At the discretion of the Head of Department, another recognized field course may be substituted for BIOL 4810.

Prerequisites: BIOL 3710 and any two of BIOL 2010, 2122 or 2210. It is strongly recommended that students take BIOL 3709 before 4810.

4820

Field Course in Terrestrial Biology

will begin with a three-week field school immediately prior to the beginning of the Fall Semester. It is designed to acquaint students with terrestrial organisms and environments, and emphasis will be placed on survey and sampling techniques. In the Fall Semester the material and data collected in the field will be used in lecture and laboratory periods dealing with identification, analytical methods, and report compilation.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2010, 2122, 2210, 2600 and permission of the Head of the Department.

Recommended: BIOL 4605.

4822

Internship in Biology

is an external applied laboratory where a student works with professionals on a problem or problems in biological research. Co-operating agencies may include Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Agriculture Canada, the Provincial Departments of Fisheries and Forestry, and others. The student will have a supervisor within the Department and one in the co-operating agency, and will be expected to write a scientific account detailing the particulars of the work experience. The arrangements for the position must be agreed upon, and a project proposal approved, by the Head of the Department or delegate prior to registration for the course. Enrolment will be dependent upon the availability of suitable positions, and will be limited to students in the Honours Program. This course can be done in any semester, and carries 3 credit hours.

4900

Research Methods in Genetic Biotechnology

will include DNA extraction, DNA amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), DNA cloning, DNA sequence analysis and Bioinformatics. Additional modules in gene expression and re-sequencing chip technologies may be included. This will be offered on campus as a three week course. Entry to the course will be by permission of the Head of the Department or delegate and preference will be given to senior students.

Prerequisites: BIOL 2060, BIOL 2250 or Biochemistry 2100.

4910-4920

Special Topics in Biology

will be given for senior undergraduates and will be in a two-week format which will involve equivalent instruction time as a course on campus. These courses will cover a range of topics in specialized fields in Biology and may be offered at the Bonne Bay Field Station, at the Harlow campus or elsewhere as appropriate. They may be taught by visiting specialists when available.

499A and 499B

Honours Dissertation

is available only to students in the Honours Program. Requirements for the Dissertation are outlined under Honours Degrees.