Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Science (2007/2008)
5.9 Physics and Physical Oceanography
5.9.1 Programs in Physics

The following undergraduate programs are available in the Department:

  1. Major in Physics

  2. Honours in Physics

  3. Major in Environmental Physics

  4. Honours in Environmental Physics

  5. Applied Mathematics/Physics Joint Honours

  6. Applied Mathematics/Physics Joint Major

  7. Physics/Biochemistry Joint Honours

  8. Physics/Chemistry Joint Honours

  9. Physics/Computer Science Joint Honours

  10. Physics/Computer Science Joint Major

  11. Physics/Earth Sciences Joint Honours

  12. Geophysics/Physical Oceanography Joint Honours

  13. Physics/Earth Sciences Joint Major

  14. Minor in Physics

Details of these joint programs are given after the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science. Other joint programs may be arranged in consultation with the departments concerned.

Notes:

  1. The attention of students intending to follow any one of the programs listed above is drawn to the UNIVERSITY REGULATIONS - General Academic Regulations (Undergraduate), governing the appropriate degree. Additional Departmental requirements are given below.

  2. Faculty advisors are available to provide advice to students who are registered in, or who are considering registering in, any of the programs. Students are urged to consult with these advisors at their earliest opportunity in order to ensure that they select appropriate courses and programs. Students with credits in Physics courses which are not listed in this calendar should consult with the Department.

  3. The six course stream consisting of Physics 1050, 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, and 2820 or alternatively the seven course stream of Physics 1020, 1050, 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, and 2820 is intended to provide a cohesive overview of Physics for potential Physics majors.

  4. Physics 1050 is open to and recommended for students who have completed Level II Physics, Level III Physics and Level III Advanced Mathematics. Mathematics 1000 must be taken at the same time as, or be completed prior to, taking Physics 1050. However, under certain circumstances, students enrolled in Mathematics 1090, will be allowed to register for Physics 1050 with the permission of the Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography. Students who have completed Mathematics 1090 and Physics 1050, however, are required to complete Mathematics 1000 before registering for Physics 1051.

  5. Physics 1020 is intended for students who do not qualify for Physics 1050, and while it may be taken by students who have no background in Physics it is recommended that students wishing to take Physics 1020 should have completed at least one of Level II and Level III Physics. Students who complete Physics 1020 and Mathematics 1000 are eligible for admission to Physics 1051. Students may receive credit for only one of Physics 1050 and 1020.

  6. Students who have successfully completed Advanced Placement courses in both Physics and Mathematics will normally be eligible for direct entry into Physics 1051, 2053 and 2750, all of which are offered in the Fall semester. Such students are advised to consult the Department.

  7. Where circumstances warrant, any prerequisites listed below may be waived by the Head of the Department.

  8. Supplementary examinations will be allowed in certain Physics courses which have written final examinations. Students should refer to the Faculty of Science Degree regulations for details.

5.9.2 Minor in Physics

A minor in Physics will consist of 24 credit hours in Physics courses which must include Physics 1050 (or 1020), 1051, 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820. Only 6 credit hours at the 1000 level can be used to fulfill the 24 credit hours. For those students whose major is Chemistry or Biochemistry, the 24 credit hours in Physics will not include 2053.

5.9.3 Major in Physics
  1. English 1080 and English 1110 (or equivalent).

  2. Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031).

  3. Mathematics 1000 and 1001.

  4. Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

  5. Physics 1050 (or 1020) and 1051.

  6. Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3400, 3500, 3750 and 3900.

  7. An additional 12 credit hours in physics courses numbered 3000 or higher which shall include at least 6 credit hours selected from the courses numbered Physics 3000, 3150, 3300, 3410, 3550, 3600, 3751.

  8. Physics 3810 or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202.

Mathematics 1001, 2000 and 2050 are prerequisites to many Physics courses and should be completed by the end of second year. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260 is co-requisite to Physics 3220 and should be completed before the winter of the third year. Those who intend to make a career in Physics should note that additional Physics courses are strongly recommended. Computer Science 2602 and Mathematics 2051 are also recommended.

5.9.4 Honours in Physics
  1. English 1080 and English 1110 (or equivalent).

  2. Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031).

  3. Mathematics 1000 and 1001.

  4. Mathematics 2000, 2050 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

  5. Physics 1050 (or 1020) and 1051.

  6. Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3230, 3400, 3410, 3500, 3600, 3750, 3820, 3821, 3900, 3920, 4500, 4850, 490A/B.

  7. Physics 3810 or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202.

  8. An additional 12 credit hours in physics courses numbered 3000 or higher which shall include at least 6 credit hours selected from physics courses numbered 4000 or higher.

  9. Fifteen credit hours in applicable elective courses*

Note:

Certain of the graduate courses may be taken in the final year of the Honours Program with the permission of the Head of the Department.

*Only 6 credit hours at the 1000 level in each of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics can be used to fulfil the 120 credit hours required for the Honours program. The inclusion of Mathematics 1090, the sequence of Physics 1020, 1050 and 1051 or the substitution of Chemistry 1010, 1011 and 1031 for Chemistry 1050 and 1051 will each increase the number of credit hours required for the Honours Physics program by three.

An Honours thesis is to be presented on work undertaken by the candidate under the guidance of a Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography faculty member. The thesis comprises the 6 credit hour course Physics 490A/B. Students should seek departmental advice regarding a thesis project no later than the winter preceding the semester in which the project will be started.

The Honours Physics program in and beyond the third year requires a familiarity with computer programming and numerical analysis. In choosing electives for this program, the Department recommends that students supplement the prescribed program with the following courses Computer Science 2602 and 3731 (or Applied Mathematics 2130 and 3132). Mathematics 2051 and 3000 are also suitable electives. For specific courses and recommendations about electives, consultation with a faculty advisor in the Department is suggested.

The Department recommends that students wishing to complete the Honours Physics program in 120 credit hours follow the schedule given below. This schedule is intended for students who qualify for Physics 1050 and 1051. Other suggested course schedules are available from the Head of the Department.

Recommended Course Schedule - Honours Physics Program

Year

Semester I

Semester II

I

II

  • Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202
  • Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260
  • Physics 2055
  • Physics 2820 or Elective
  • Elective

III

IV

5.9.5 Major in Environmental Physics
  1. English 1080 and English 1110 (or equivalent)

  2. Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031)

  3. Mathematics 1000 and 1001

  4. Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202

  5. Physics 1050 (or 1020) and 1051

  6. Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3820, 3300, 3340, 4340

  7. Physics 3400 or 3500

  8. Earth Sciences 1000, 1002, 2502, 3170, 3172

  9. Geography 2102, 2195, 3120

  10. Biology 2120, 2600

The Major degree offers students a fair degree of latitude in choosing electives, students are encouraged to take electives from Geography and Earth Sciences: of particular merit would be any of Earth Sciences 3600, 3611 or 4105.

5.9.6 Honours in Environmental Physics
  1. English 1080 and English 1110 (or equivalent)

  2. Chemistry 1050 and 1051 (or Chemistry 1010, 1011, and 1031)

  3. Mathematics 1000 and 1001

  4. Mathematics 2000, Mathematics 2050, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202

  5. Physics 1050 (or 1020) and 1051

  6. Physics 2053, 2055, 2750, 2820, 3220, 3820, 3821, 3300, 3340, 4205, 4300, 4340, 490A/B

  7. Physics 3400 or 3500

  8. Earth Sciences 1000, 1002, 2502, 3170 and 3172

  9. Geography 2102, 2195, 3120

  10. Biology 2120, 2600

An honours thesis is to be presented on work undertaken by the candidate under the guidance of a Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography faculty member. The thesis comprises the 6 credit hour course Physics 490A/B. Students should seek departmental advice regarding a thesis project no later than the winter preceding the semester in which the project will be started.

The Department recommends that students wishing to complete the Honours Environmental Physics program in 120 credit hours follow the schedule given below. This schedule is intended for students who qualify for Physics 1050 and 1051. Other suggested course schedules are available from the Head of the Department.

Those courses in which a grade of “B” or better or an average of 75% or higher are required, as specified in Clause 6.a. of the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science, are 45 credit hours in Physics courses, and 15 credit hours in other courses (beyond the 1000 level) selected from the specified program courses in Earth Sciences, Geography and Biology.

Recommended Course Schedule - Honours Environmental Physics Program

Year

Semester I

Semester II

I

II

III

IV

Table of Credit Restrictions for Present Physics Courses with Former Courses

Credit May Be Obtained For Only One Course From Each of The Pairs of Courses Listed in This Table

Present Course

Former Course

Present Course

Former Course

1020

1200

3230

2210

1021

1201

1051

2050

1051

1052

1051

1061

2820

2200

3750

3700

2053

2450

3750

3850

2055

2550

490A/B

4990

2750

2700

1051

2054

3220

3200

1051

2550

Physics 1021 and the former Physics 1201 will be considered equivalent for prerequisite purposes. Physics 1051 and 2820 will be considered equivalent to the former Physics 1054 and 2054 for prerequisite purposes. Physics 1051 and the former Physics 1052 and 2050 will be considered equivalent for prerequisite purposes.

Not all courses are offered every year. Students should check with the Department prior to registration to plan programs.

5.9.7 Course List

In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

1020

Introductory Physics I

(F) & (W)

is a non-calculus based introduction to mechanics.

Prerequisite: Level III Advanced Mathematics or Mathematics 1090. Mathematics 1090 may be taken concurrently. It is recommended that students have completed at least one of level II and level III high school physics courses, however this course may be completed by someone who has no physics background provided some extra effort is made.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.

Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.

Note:

Credit can be obtained for only one of Physics 1020 and 1050.

1021

Introductory Physics II

(F) & (W)

is a non-calculus based introduction to fluids, wave motion, light, optics, electricity and magnetism.

Prerequisites: Physics 1020 or 1050 and Mathematics 1000. Mathematics 1000 may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.

Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.

Note:

Credit can be obtained for only one of Physics 1021, 1051 and 1061.

1050

General Physics I: Mechanics

(F) & (W)

is a calculus based introduction to mechanics. The course will emphasize problem solving.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 1000, which may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.

Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.

Notes:

  1. For more details regarding Physics 1050, see Note 4 under Programs in Physics.

  2. Credit can be obtained for only one of Physics 1020 and 1050.

1051

General Physics II: Oscillations, Waves, Electromagnetism (F) (W) & (S)

is a calculus based introduction to oscillations, wave motion, physical optics and electromagnetism.

Prerequisites: Physics 1050 or 1020 (with a minimum grade of 65%) and Mathematics 1001. Mathematics 1001 may be taken concurrently.

Laboratories: Normally six laboratory sessions per semester, with each session lasting a maximum of three hours.

Tutorials: Optional tutorials will be available, on average one hour per week.

Note:

Credit can be obtained for only one of Physics 1021, 1051, and 1061.

2053

Fluids and Thermal Physics

(F)

examines elasticity, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, kinetic theory and statistical mechanics.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 1001 and Physics 1051 which may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratory: Three hours per week.

2055

Electricity and Magnetism

(W)

examines Gauss' Law, the electrostatic potential, capacitance, magnetic forces and the magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, magnetic materials, ac circuits, superconductivity, the displacement current and Maxwell's equations.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 and Physics 1051. Mathematics 2000 may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratory: Three hours per week.

2151

Stellar Astronomy and Astrophysics

(F) & (W)

covers atomic structure and spectra. The sun: radiation, energetics, magnetic field. Stars: distance, velocity, size, atmospheres, interiors. Variable stars, multiple stars, clusters and stellar associations. Stellar evolution, interstellar matter, structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. Exterior galaxies, quasi-stellar objects, pulsars. Cosmology.

Prerequisites: Six credit hours in Mathematics courses at the first year level.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

2750

Modern Physics

(F)

covers special relativity, quanta of light, atomic structure and spectral lines, quantum structure of atoms and molecules, nuclei and elementary particles.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 1001 and Physics 1051 which may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Note:

Students may receive credit for only one of Physics 2750 and 2056.

2820

Computational Mechanics

(W)

covers newtonian dynamics and celestial mechanics, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical solutions to mechanics problems, data and spectral analysis, Fourier series and normal modes, oscillations and vibrations, linear and non-linear oscillators, nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

Prerequisites: Physics 1051, Mathematics 2000 (Mathematics 2000 may be taken concurrently).

Lectures and Laboratories: Up to five hours per week.

3000

Physics of Device Materials

(F)

Structures of crystalline and amorphous solids. Excitations and transport in metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics; electronic band structures. Physics of multi-material devices including photodiodes, solid state lasers, and field-effect transistors.

Prerequisites: Physics 2055.

3150

Astrophysics I

(W)

is a review of macroscopic and microscopic physics. The sun: luminosity, mass, spectrum, photosphere, corona, interior. Principles of stellar structure; radiative and convective transport of energy. The virial theorem. Thermonuclear fusion; temperature dependence; the solar neutrino problem. Nucleosynthesis; the curve of binding energy; the synthesis of heavy elements. White dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; degenerate electron and neutron gases; Chandrasekhar's Limit. Population I and Population II stars; the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram; relationships among luminosity, mass, and effective temperature for main sequence dwarfs. Evolution of post main sequence stars.

Prerequisites: Physics 2053, 2750 (or 2056), and 2820.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3151

Astrophysics II

covers stellar spectra and classification of stars. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram; equations of stellar structure for a star in equilibrium; temperature and density dependencies of nuclear processes. Formation and classification of binary stars; mass and energy transfer in binary star systems; semidetached binaries; cataclysmic variables, pulsars, etc. Galaxies and galactic structure; active galactic nuclei; cosmological redshift. Cosmology.

Prerequisites: Physics 3150 and 3220.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3220

Classical Mechanics I

(F)

covers kinematics and dynamics of a particle. Moving reference systems. Celestial mechanics. Systems of particles.

Prerequisites: Physics 2820 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260 may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3230

Classical Mechanics II

(W)

covers rigid body motion. Lagrange's equations. Hamilton's equations. Vibrations. Special theory of relativity.

Prerequisites: Physics 3220 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202) and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3300

Introduction to Physical Oceanography

(F)

deals with the physics of processes in the ocean, but provides an integrated view of the whole field of oceanography. The importance of physical processes to other aspects of oceanography is treated.

Prerequisites: Physics 2053 and Mathematics 2000.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3340

Principles of Environmental Physics

will explore the basic physical principles of light, heat, energy and sound in the natural environment. Several key aspects of physics in the environment will be covered including climate and the physical evolution of the planet and the present role of the atmosphere and ocean spectroscopy in the atmosphere and measurement and observation of the atmosphere; principles of energy generation and pollution transport in the atmosphere and ocean.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 and Physics 2053.

3400

Thermodynamics

(F)

covers the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Entropy. Thermodynamics of real substances. Kinetic theory of matter. Introduction to statistical mechanics.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000, Physics 2053 and Physics 2750 or 2056.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3410

Statistical Mechanics

(W)

covers ensembles. Classical and quantum statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanics of phase transitions. Advanced topics in statistical mechanics.

Prerequisites: Physics 3400 and 3750. Physics 3750 may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3500

Electromagnetic Fields I

(F)

examines electrostatic Field: field, potential, Poisson's equation, Laplace's equation, capacitance, dielectrics, polarization, electric displacement, boundary conditions. Magnetic Field: electric current and magnetic field, vector potential, Lorentz force and relativity, changing magnetic field, inductance, magnetic materials, magnetization. Maxwell's equations.

Prerequisites: Physics 2055 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202).

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3550

Electric Circuits

(S)

covers circuit elements. Simple resistive circuits. Techniques of circuit analysis. Topology in circuit analysis. Operational amplifiers. Reactive circuit elements. Natural response and step response of RL, RC and RLC circuits. Circuits driven by sinusoidal sources. Mutual inductance. Series and parallel resonance. Laplace transforms in the analysis of frequency response.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2050, Physics 2055 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260 may be taken concurrently.

Lectures and Laboratory: Not more than six hours per week.

3551

Analogue Electronics

(S)

is a review of network analysis. Feedback. Electron tubes. Semiconductor diodes. Introduction to transistors. Introduction to amplifiers. Small signal models. Small signal analysis of amplifiers. Operational amplifiers. Selected topics in circuit design such as biasing, voltage regulators and power circuits, noise.

Prerequisites: Physics 3550 and Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260.

Lectures and Laboratory: Not more than six hours per week.

This course is recommended for students with an interest in experimental Physics.

3600

Optics and Photonics I

(W)

covers geometrical Optics: thin lenses, mirrors, optical systems. Two-beam and multiple-beam interference phenomena. Fraunhofer Diffraction. Introduction to Maxwell's Theory: reflection, transmission, and polarization. Modulation of light waves. Fibre-optical light guides: intermodal dispersion, index profiles, loss mechanisms, single mode fibres. Optical communication systems: free space and fibre systems, emitters, detectors, amplifers, wavelength-division multiplexing, integrated optics.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 and Physics 2055.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3750

Quantum Physics I

(F)

covers wave-particle duality of nature. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Schrödinger equation. One electron atoms. Quantum statistics.

Prerequisites: Physics 2750 (or 2056), 3220 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202). Physics 3220 and 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202) may be taken concurrently.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3751

Quantum Physics II

(W)

covers multielectron atoms. Molecules. Solids - conductors and semiconductors. Superconductors. Magnetic properties. Nuclear models. Nuclear decay and nuclear reactions. Properties and interactions of elementary particles.

Prerequisite: Physics 3750.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3810

Mathematical Analysis

(F)

- inactive course.

3820

Mathematical Physics II

(F)

examines the functions of a complex variable; residue calculus. Introduction to Cartesian tensor analysis. Matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Diagonalization of tensors. Matrix formulation of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical spin. Vector differential operators in curvilinear coordinate systems. Partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; derivation of the classical equations, separation of variables; Helmholtz equation in spherical polar coordinates.

Prerequisites: Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3260, and Physics 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202).

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3821

Mathematical Physics III

(F)

covers further topics on partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; Sturm-Liouville theory, Fourier series, generalized Fourier series, introduction to the theory of distributions, Dirac delta function, Green's functions, Bessel functions, ' functions, Legendre functions, spherical harmonics.

Prerequisite: Physics 3820.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

3900

Physics Laboratory I

(W)

is a selection of experiments based primarily on material covered in the third year courses.

Prerequisites: At least two of Physics 2053, 2820, 2055, and Physics 2750 (or 2056).

Laboratory: Six hours per week.

3920

Physics Laboratory II

(F)

is a selection of experiments based primarily on Modern Physics at the intermediate level.

Prerequisite: Physics 3900.

Laboratory: Six hours per week.

Note:

Prerequisite requirements for Physics courses numbered 4000 and higher may be waived by the instructor.

4000

Solid State Physics

covers crystal structure and binding, phonons and lattice vibrations, thermal properties of solids. Electrons in solids, energy bands, semi-conductors, superconductivity, dielectric properties. Magnetic properties of solids.

Prerequisites: Physics 3400 and 3750.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4200

Classical Mechanics III

is a review of Lagrange's equations. Hamilton's canonical equations. Variational principles. Nöther's theorem for particles. Special relativity of particles and the electromagnetic field. Special topics at an advanced level.

Prerequisites: Physics 3230 and 3820.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4205

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

(same as Applied Mathematics 4180) covers basic observations, mass conservation, vorticity, stress, hydrostatics, rate of strain, momentum conservation (Navier-Stokes equation), simple viscous and inviscid flows, Reynolds number, boundary layers, Bernoulli's and Kelvin's theorems, potential flows, water waves, thermodynamics.

Prerequisites: Physics 3220 and either Applied Mathematics 4160 or Physics 3821.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4210

Continuum Mechanics

- inactive course.

4220

Introduction to general Relativity

(same as Applied Mathematics 4130) studies both the mathematical structure and physical content of Einstein’s theory of gravity. Topics include the geometric formulation of special relativity, curved spacetimes, metrics, geodesics, causal structure, gravity as spacetime curvature, the weak-field limit, geometry outside a spherical star, Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, Robertson-Walker cosmologies, gravitational waves, an instruction to tensor calculus, Einstein’s equations, and the stress-energy tensor.

Prerequisites: Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202 and one of Physics 3220, Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 4230 or permission of the Head of Department. Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 4230 may be taken concurrently.

4300

Advanced Physical Oceanography

(W)

covers fundamental properties of seawater and techniques of oceanographic measurement. The dynamical equations of oceanography are derived and solutions explored by comparison with oceanic observations. Properties of waves in rotating and non-rotating fluids. Linear and non-linear wave theory are developed.

Prerequisites: Physics 3300 and 3820 or Engineering 7033 or the permission of the Instructor.

4330

Topics in Physical Oceanography

- inactive course.

4340

Modelling in Environmental Physics

covers the basic principles underlying environmental modelling will be developed and techniques for modelling presented and applied. Techniques for numerical modelling will be developed and simple numerical models will be developed for use in terrestrial, atmospheric and oceanic environments. Free and forced systems will be discussed and the transition to chaos and some aspects of chaotic dynamics.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Prerequisites: Physics 3340 and Physics 3820 (or the permission of the instructor).

4500

Electromagnetic Fields II

covers multipole expansions, electrostatic fields as boundary value problems, polarizability of molecules in dielectric media, Clausius-Mossotti relation, gauges. Electromagnetic Waves: Poynting's theorem, reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves, cavity resonators, wave guides. Electromagnetic Radiation: dipoles, antennas, quantum mechanics and electro-magnetic interactions. Selected topics in electrodynamics and applied electromagnetism.

Prerequisites: Physics 3500 and 3820.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4600

Optics and Photonics II

is a review of basic topics in wave optics. Phase sensitive imaging. Electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media. Scattering of electromagnetic waves. The physics of light sources and applications. Non-linear optics and applications.

Prerequisites: Physics 3500, 3600, and Physics 3751 (Physics 3751 may be taken concurrently).

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4700

Atomic and Molecular Physics

- inactive course.

4710

Nuclear Physics

- inactive course.

4820

Mathematical Physics IV

- inactive course.

4850

Quantum Mechanics

(F)

examines postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators and operator algebra. Matrix representations. Spin and magnetic fields. Approximation methods: WKB method, time independent perturbation theory, time dependent perturbation theory, variational methods. Elementary scattering theory.

Prerequisites: Physics 3230, 3750, 3820.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4851

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

(W)

covers general formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement theory and operators. Hilbert spaces. Advanced topics selected from: electron in a strong magnetic field and the Aharonov-Bohm effect; advanced scattering theory; systems of identical particles; Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics; relativistic quantum mechanics; second quantization; symmetry and group theory; density matrix and mixtures.

Prerequisite: Physics 4850 and 3821.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

4900

Senior Laboratory

- inactive course.

490A/B

Honours Physics Thesis

6317

Underwater Acoustics

covers basic theory of sound, sound in the ocean environment, wave equation, ray tracing, sonar system operation, transducers, applications.

Prerequisites: Physics 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3220) and 3220, or the permission of the instructor.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

6318

Ocean Climate Modelling

covers numerical techniques, finite difference, finite element and spectral methods. Introduction to the climate system. Ocean climate models. Box models. Variability on interdecadal, centennial and geological scales. Zonally averaged models. 3-D ocean modelling. Thermohaline circulation. General circulation models. Climate modelling and global warming.

Prerequisites: Physics 3810 (or Applied Mathematics/Pure Mathematics 3202), Physics 3300 and the completion of any 15 credit hours in core courses at the 3000 or 4000 level in the Faculty of Science, or the permission of the instructor.

Lectures: Three hours per week.