Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Science (2007/2008)
5.5 Earth Sciences
5.5.1 Programs in Earth Sciences

The following undergraduate programs are available:

120 credit hour programs

  1. Honours or General degrees in Earth Sciences

  2. Joint Honours in Earth Sciences/Physics

  3. Joint Honours in Geography/Earth Sciences

  4. Joint Honours in Geophysics/Physical Oceanography

  5. Joint Major in Earth Sciences/Physics

135 credit hour programs

  1. Joint Honours in Biology and Earth Sciences

  2. Joint Honours in Earth Sciences/Chemistry

24 credit hour program

  1. Minor in Earth Sciences

Although Honours programs can be completed in 120 credit hours, students who do not select the prescribed common block of required courses will normally need more than 120 credit hours to satisfy degree requirements.

Details of joint programs are given after the Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Science.

5.5.2 Undergraduate Handbook

Additional information about the undergraduate program, individual courses and suggested timetables can be found in the Department of Earth Sciences Undergraduate Handbook which is available on the web at www.mun.ca/earthsciences.

5.5.3 Entrance Requirements

In order to be formally admitted to major programs in Earth Sciences, students must have successfully completed 3 first-year credit hours in each of the following departments: English, Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Chemistry and Physics; these courses must be selected from the list of required courses for degree programs in Earth Sciences. Students are encouraged to declare their major in their first year of study at the university.

Most of the 2000 level Earth Sciences courses that are required for major and minor programs in Earth Sciences have Physics and Chemistry prerequisites, and students are advised to complete these prerequisites in their first year of study.

Students will not normally be permitted entry to 3000 level (or above) Earth Sciences courses without having completed all 1000-level courses listed in the Common Block of Required Courses specified in Clause 1. in the Major Programs in Earth Sciences.

5.5.4 Minor in Earth Sciences

A Minor in Earth Sciences will consist of the following:

  1. Earth Sciences 1000, 1002, 2030, 2031, 2401 or 2702.

  2. Nine credit hours chosen from Earth Sciences courses at the 2000 level or higher with at least 3 credit hours from courses at the 3000 level or higher. Credit hours from Earth Sciences 2150, 2311, 2914, 2915, 2916, 4310 and 4950 cannot be used to fulfil this requirement.

Several of the courses at 3000 level or higher have Earth Sciences 2502 and 2905 as co- or prerequisites.

5.5.5 Major Programs in Earth Sciences

Programs in Earth Sciences consist of a common block of required courses (below), and additional courses that depend on the degree being sought.

Common Block of Required Courses:

All majors in Earth Sciences must complete those courses specified in Clauses 1. through 4. Students should examine prerequisites of 3000 level courses in order to decide which course to select under Clauses 3. and 4.

  1. English 1080 and 1110 (or equivalent), Mathematics 1000 and 1001, Earth Sciences 1000 and 1002, one of Chemistry 1010 or 1050 (or equivalent) and one of Chemistry 1011 or 1051 (or equivalent), Physics 1050 and 1051 or Physics 1020* and 1021*.

    *Students who intend or are required to complete higher level Physics courses must complete Physics 1051 as well, since it is a prerequisite for higher level Physics courses. Students should review the Department of Physics calendar entry for these courses. Students will receive credit for only two first year Physics courses if they take Physics 1020, 1021 and 1051.

  2. Earth Sciences 2030, 2031, 2401, 2502, 2702, 2905.

  3. Mathematics 2000 or Statistics 2510.

  4. Biology 2120 (or Biology 1001 and 1002), or Physics 2055.

Students must ensure that the prerequisites for Earth Sciences courses are fulfilled. Great difficulties in timetabling may be encountered if the required first-year courses are not completed before the beginning of second year.

5.5.6 Honours B.Sc. Degree in Earth Sciences

Geoscientific careers vary widely in required background. The Honours B.Sc. program is designed with considerable choice in order that students may personalize their programs based on career goals. Note that the flexibility afforded by this program is not without limits. Some courses have prerequisites, and it is ultimately the student's responsibility to ensure that these prerequisites are satisfied. Students should consult faculty members and the departmental Student Handbook for guidance in selecting courses appropriate to particular career paths.

In addition to the Common Block of Required Courses listed under Major Programs in Earth Sciences, the following requirements must be completed to qualify for the Honours B.Sc. degree in Earth Sciences:

  1. Earth Sciences 499A and 499B.

  2. At least 31 additional credit hours from Earth Sciences courses at 3000 and/or 4000 levels with a minimum of 12 credit hours from courses at the 4000 level. Credit hours from Earth Sciences 2150, 2914, 2915, 2916, 4310 and 4950 cannot be used to fulfil this requirement.

  3. Six credit hours from the Faculty of Science courses numbered 2000 or higher. Credit hours from Earth Sciences courses, Biology 3811 and the former Physics 2050 are excluded.

  4. Additional credit hours selected to conform with regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor Science so as to achieve a total of 120 credit hours. Students are encouraged to complete a minor in another department.

5.5.7 General B.Sc. Degree in Earth Sciences

In addition to the Common Block of Required Courses listed under Major Programs in Earth Sciences, the following requirements must be completed to qualify for the General B.Sc. degree in Earth Sciences:

  1. Twenty-one additional credit hours from Earth Sciences courses at 3000 and/or 4000 levels with a minimum of 9 credit hours from courses at 4000 level. Credit hours from Earth Sciences 2150, 2914, 2915, 2916, 4310, 4950 and 499A/B cannot be used to fulfill this requirement.

  2. Six credit hours from Science Faculty courses numbered 2000 or higher. Credit hours from Earth Sciences courses, Biology 3811 and the former Physics 2050 are excluded.

  3. Additional credit hours selected to conform with regulations for the General Degree of Bachelor Science so as to achieve a total of 120 credit hours. Students are encouraged to complete a minor in another department.

Students are advised that this is the minimum requirement for the General B.Sc. in Earth Sciences. Many provinces, including Newfoundland and Labrador, have legislation requiring registration of professional geoscientists. A basic requirement for registration is, in most cases, the course equivalent of an Honours B.Sc. degree. Students intending to make a career in Earth Sciences should consider taking the Honours Degree program of courses, regardless of whether honours standing is maintained.

Table of Credit Restrictions for Present Earth Sciences Courses with Former Courses

Present

Former Equivalents

Present

Former Equivalents

Earth Science 1000

Earth Science 1010, Geology 1000, Geology 1010

Earth Science 3400

Earth Science 3120, Geology 3120

Earth Science 1001

Earth Science 1011, Geology 1001, Geology 1011

Earth Science 3611

Earth Science 4611

Earth Science 2030

Earth Science 203A, Geology 203A

Earth Science 3701

Earth Science 3070, Geology 3070

Earth Science 2031

Earth Science 203B, Geology 203B

Earth Science 3811

Earth Science 3801, Earth Science 2801, Geology 2801

Earth Science 2150

Physics 2150

Earth Science 4053

Geology 4053

Earth Science 2310

Earth Science 2300, Earth Science 2900, Geology 2900

Earth Science 4054

Earth Science 4052, Geology 4052

Earth Science 2400

Earth Science 2161, Earth Science 2070, Physics 2070

Earth Science 4160

Physics 4160

Earth Science 2401

Earth Science 3400, Earth Science 3120, Geology 3120

Earth Science 4171

Physics 4171

Earth Science 2502

Earth Science 2501, Earth Science 3200, Geology 3200

Earth Science 4179

Earth Science 4970, Physics 4970

Earth Science 2702

Earth Science 3701, Earth Science 3070, Geology 3070

Earth Science 4211

Geology 4211

Earth Science 2905

Earth Science 2310, Earth Science 2300, Earth Science 2900, Geology 2900

Earth Science 4302

Earth Science 4501, Geology 4501

Earth Science 2914

Earth Science 2414, Geology 2414

Earth Science 4310

Geology 4310

Earth Science 2915

Earth Science 2415, Geology 2415

Earth Science 4312

Earth Science 4311, Earth Science 4111

Earth Science 3053

Earth Science 3050, Earth Science 3052, Geology 3050

Earth Science 4901

Earth Science 4320, Earth Science 400A, Geology 400A

Earth Science 3054

Earth Science 2503 and Earth Science 3053

Earth Science 4400

Earth Science 4120, Geology 4120

Earth Science 3055

Earth Science 2503 and Earth Science 3053

Earth Science 4502

Earth Science 4201, Geology 4201

Earth Science 3161

Earth Science 3160, Physics 3160

Earth Science 4601

Geology 4601

Earth Science 3170

Physics 3170

Earth Science 4700

Geology 4700

Earth Science 3172

Earth Science 3171, Physics 3171

Earth Science 4800

Earth Science 4110, Geology 4110

Earth Science 3210

Geology 3210

Earth Science 499A/B

Earth Science 4991, Geology 4991

General notes for all Earth Sciences programs and courses

Notes:

  1. Students wishing to pursue study within the programs offered by Earth Sciences are strongly advised to keep in close contact with the Department to discuss course programs before registration in order to maintain proper sequencing.

  2. Students wishing to take some Earth Sciences courses without intending to major in Earth Sciences should consult with the Head of Department (or delegate) to determine the courses most suitable to their needs and capabilities. Earth Sciences 2914, 2915, 2916 and 2150 are especially suitable for such students and have no Earth Sciences prerequisites.

  3. Most courses comprise six hours of instruction per week, usually three hours of lectures or seminars and a three-hour laboratory period; however, at an advanced level other methods of instruction may be adopted.

  4. Consult the notes of field courses 2905, 3905 and 4905 for additional information. These courses require payment of a participation fee to cover costs for logistics and equipment. Registration for these courses will be by application only and may be competitive.

  5. The prerequisites for courses 4302, 4902 and 4903 refer to core courses in the Faculty of Science. For the purposes of these prerequisite statements, core courses are defined as those courses that are specified by each department as mandatory to fulfil the course requirements for their General or Honours programs.

  6. Certain of the 4000 level courses may not be offered every year.

  7. At most 6 credit hours in courses at the 1000-level can be used towards the course requirements in Earth Sciences for the Major, Minor, Joint Major, Honours or Joint Honours.

5.5.8 Course List

The first digit of each course number designates the level (year) of the course. The second digit indicates the area of Earth Sciences into which the course best fits, as follows:

  • Second Digit
  • 0 - mineralogy and petrology
  • 1 - geophysics
  • 2 - economic geology
  • 3 - stratigraphy and marine geology
  • 4 - structural geology and tectonics
  • 5 - geochemistry
  • 6 - technical fields and petroleum geology
  • 7 - sedimentation, geomorphology
  • 8 - paleontology
  • 9 - general and dissertation

In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

5.5.8.1 First Year

1000

Earth Systems

is a survey of the structure, function and interrelations of Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Topics include an exploration of the physical and chemical properties of planetary materials, forces driving and sustaining Earth systems, and biological modifiers (including humankind) on the Earth today.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Three hours per week.

1001

Evolution of Earth Systems

- inactive course.

1002

Concepts and Methods in Earth Sciences

provides an introduction to a broad range of concepts concerning the development of the geological record and the Earth; practical methods for collection of field based data; topics in map interpretation and geometric analysis, stratigraphy, paleontology, structure and petrology. The course is presented with an emphasis on the development of practical skills needed to pursue a career in Earth Sciences.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Three hours per week.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1000.

5.5.8.2 Second Year

2030

Mineralogy

(F)

provides an introduction to crystallography and the structure of minerals; introduction to crystal optics; study of the rock forming minerals and minerals of economic significance. Laboratory work comprises study of the structures and symmetries of minerals, chemistry of rock forming minerals, introduction to transmitted light microscopy of rocks, hand specimen recognition of common rocks and minerals.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1000, Chemistry 1011 (or 1051 or equivalent), Physics 1051 (or 1021 or 1054), and its Mathematics prerequisite is strongly recommended.

Co-requisite: Earth Sciences 2502.

Note:

See credit restriction under Earth Sciences 2031.

2031

Mineralogy and Petrography

(W)

examines the optical and chemical properties of rock-forming minerals, the petrography and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks and applications of relevant phase equilibria to the study of minerals. Laboratory work comprises optical mineralogy and petrography of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2030 and 2502.

Note:

Credit cannot be obtained for both Earth Sciences 203A/B and one or both of Earth Sciences 2030 and 2031.

2150

The Solar System

(F) & (W)

describes the basic astronomy of the Solar System, tracing the search to understand motion of the Sun, Moon and planets in the sky; modern observations of planets, moons, comets, asteroids and meteorites and what they tell us about the origin and evolution of the Solar System.

Note:

Earth Sciences 2150 is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective. Earth Sciences 2150 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Earth Sciences.

2311

Geoscience Communication

(W)

- inactive course.

2400

Plate Tectonics

(W)

- inactive course.

2401

Structural Geology

(W)

provides an introduction to basic concepts; the physics of rock deformation, the classification and descriptive geometry of major and minor structures and their relationship to stress and strain. Laboratory work will concentrate on analysis of structural orientation data, and the analysis of structures in geological maps and cross-sections.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2905 or permission of the Head of the Department (or Delegate) for students following a minor in Earth Sciences.

Notes:

  1. Earth Sciences majors are advised to complete field course, Earth Sciences 3905, immediately following completion of this course.

  2. Credit may not be obtained for both Earth Sciences 2401, and the former Geology 3120 or Earth Sciences 3120 or Earth Sciences 3400.

2502

Introduction to Geochemistry

(F)

provides an overview of both low- and high-temperature geochemistry. Topics include: origin and classification of the elements; chemical differentiation of the solar system and solid Earth; aqueous geochemistry and the stability of minerals; radiogenic and stable isotopes. Geochemical concepts are illustrated using data and processes drawn from Earth systems. The laboratory component emphasizes the development of numerical skills needed in geochemistry.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1000, Chemistry 1011 (or 1051 or equivalent).

Co-requisite: Mathematics 1001.

2702

Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

(F)

is a study of the origin and composition of sediments with a focus on depositional processes and resulting sedimentary structures. Study of environments of deposition and the stratigraphic framework of sedimentary successions. Laboratories involve local field trips and the study of hand samples of sedimentary rocks.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1002.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Earth Sciences 2702 and the former Geology 3070 or Earth Sciences 3070 or Earth Sciences 3701.

2905

Introduction to Geological Mapping

(F)

is a two credit hour course based on approximately 6 days of geological mapping in Precambrian rocks near St. John's, and 2 days of in-class work preparing a digital map and written report. Emphasis is placed on the recognition and description of sedimentary and igneous rocks in the field, and techniques of geological mapping and the taking of field notes.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1002.

Notes:

  1. This course will be given during a special session immediately preceding the fall semester. Entry is by application to the Head of the Department (or delegate) only.

  2. Credit may not be obtained for both Earth Sciences 2905 and the former Earth Sciences 2310 or Earth Sciences 2300.

  3. Attendance for all of the field school days is required. Failure to attend may result in a failing grade or withdrawal from the course.

2914

The Earth's Energy Resources: Past, Present and Future

(F)

(same as former Geology 2414 and Earth Sciences 2414) provides a scientific analysis of the Earth's energy resources. The history of human exploitation of them; consequences for quality of life, and political and economic power; scenarios for the future.

Note:

Earth Sciences 2914 is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective subject. This course complements traditional disciplines such as history, economics, and political science and should be of particular interest to teachers. Earth Sciences 2914 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Earth Sciences.

2915

The Earth's Material Resources: Past, Present and Future

(W)

(same as former Geology 2415 and Earth Sciences 2415) provides a scientific analysis of the Earth's material resources (metals, non-metals, water). The history of human exploitation of them; consequences for quality of life, and political and economic power; scenarios for the future.

Note:

Earth Sciences 2915 is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective subject. This course complements traditional disciplines such as history, economics, and political science and should be of particular interest to teachers. Earth Sciences 2915 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Earth Sciences.

2916

Natural Hazards on a Dynamic Earth

(W)

describes the surface of the Earth being in a constant state of change, thereby posing risks and challenges for society. An understanding of geological processes in the past and present provides context for evaluating risks related to earthquakes, volcanic activity and mass movements, challenges related to water resources, land-use planning and waste disposal, and the background to interpret sources and consequences of climate change. The course will provide a broad perspective on contemporary issues facing society.

Note:

Earth Sciences 2916 is designed for students taking Earth Sciences as an elective subject. This course complements traditional disciplines such as history, economics, and political science and should be of particular interest to teachers. Earth Sciences 2916 is not acceptable as one of the required courses for the Minor, Major or Honours programs in Earth Sciences.

5.5.8.3 Third Year

3030

Mineralogy and Materials Science

provides a review of elementary crystallography, introduction to space groups and crystal structures, bonding, properties of metals, semiconductors and insulators, crystallographic aspects of order-disorder, solid solution and mixing. Crystal growth, chemical zoning and diffusion. Phase changes in the solid state (exsolution, polymorphism and polytypism). Students will be introduced to the techniques used to study solids (X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-microprobe analysis, luminescence, and computer simulation). Laboratory work will emphasize practical skills using these techniques. Examples will be chosen from among minerals, ceramics, semiconductors, metals and glass, making the course suitable for Earth Scientists, Engineers, Chemists and Physicists.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2030 or equivalent; permission of instructor.

3054

High-Temperature Geochemistry and Igneous Petrology

(F)

is an integrated course dealing with the geochemistry, origin and classification of igneous rocks. Topics include trace element geochemistry; physical properties of magmas, physical and chemical processes in magma chambers (fractional crystallization, differentiation, assimilation and partial melting), phase equilibria and application to magmas, petrology of the mantle, and igneous rocks of specific tectonic settings (oceanic lithosphere, continental margins, continental lithosphere). Laboratories include geochemical calculations and examination of rock samples and thin sections.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2031 and 2502.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 3054 and the combination of 3053 and the former 2503.

3055

Thermodynamics and Metamorphic Petrology

(W)

is an integrated course dealing with the geochemistry, origin and classification of metamorphic rocks. Topics include thermodynamic background and kinetics (transfer of mass and energy in geochemical systems of the Earth's interior, thermodynamic laws, phase equilibria, solid-solid reactions, reaction rates); metamorphic facies, field gradients, isograds and reactions; mineral assemblages and textures of common metamorphic rocks. Laboratories include thermodynamic and phase diagram problems, hand specimen and thin section studies.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2031 and 2502, Mathematics 1001.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 3055 and the combination of 3053 and the former 2503.

3170

Exploration Geophysics I

(W)

examines fundamentals of seismic energy transmission in the Earth; basic methods in seismic exploration - data acquisition, processing and interpretation for refraction and reflection surveys; fundamentals of gravity and magnetic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; introduction to gravity and magnetic modelling. This course has a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 or Statistics 2510.

Prerequisite or Co-requisite: Earth Sciences 2905.

3172

Exploration Geophysics II

(F)

is an introduction to electrical and electromagnetic methods in geophysics applied in mineral exploration, petroleum well logging and environmental studies, and examples of application of various techniques; use of data processing and modelling techniques in interpretation; introduction to radiometric methods used in mineral and petroleum exploration. This course has a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000 or Statistics 2510.

Prerequisite or Co-requisite: Earth Sciences 2905.

3179

Geophysical Analysis

covers Vector Calculus; curvilinear coordinates; line, surface and volume integration; integral theorems; the derivation and application of geophysically important partial differential equations - Laplace's equation to the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, the diffusion equation to the Earth's heat flow, and the wave equation to electromagnetic and seismological phenomena; geophysical uses of Legendre functions; Fourier analysis in geophysics. This course has a laboratory component to familiarize the student with practical applications of the tools discussed.

Lectures: Three hours per week.

Laboratories: Three hours per week.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 2000, Physics 2055 and 2820.

3210

Economic Mineral Deposits

(W)

is an introduction to the study of mineral deposits and definition of the basic physio-chemical parameters of ore deposit formation. The course involves a systematic review of genetic models for the principal types of metallic mineral deposits, and links these models to a common theme of the relationship between lithosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interactions and metallogeny. Laboratory exercises involve examination of representative suites of samples from different types of metallic mineral deposits and provide an introduction to the use of reflected light microscopy.

Prerequisites: EITHER Earth Sciences 2031, 2502 and 2905; OR Earth Sciences 2031 and Chemistry 3211; OR Engineering 3610 and Engineering 3205.

3600

Environmental Geology

(F)

examines the application of basic concepts and fundamental principles of geochemistry in evaluating natural and human-induced change through time on the interaction of the Earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere; includes the effects of contaminants on global change. Laboratory time will be used for short field- based studies and for exercises examining the effects of contaminants on global change.

Prerequisites: EITHER Earth Sciences 2502; OR Earth Sciences 1000, Chemistry 2210 and Chemistry 2300.

3611

Engineering Geology

(W)

examines basic concepts in soil, rock and fracture mechanics; classification of soil, rock and rock masses; special topics include the engineering and environmental aspects and issues of: slope development and underground excavations in soils and rocks; the development of hydroelectric and irrigation projects; the nuclear fuel cycle; resource developments in sensitive terrains. This course includes a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Mathematics 1001 or permission of instructor.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for Earth Sciences 3611 and the former Earth Sciences 4611.

3702

Lithification, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rock Properties

provides a conceptual and practical overview of the transformation of sediments into sedimentary rocks through compaction, cementation and mineral reactions, and the resultant modifications of rock composition, rock fabrics, and associated porous media characteristics (e.g. porosity). Both descriptive and analytical methods are integrated in laboratories that include carbonate and sandstone petrology (hand samples and thin sections), geological analysis of selected wireline logs, and the analysis of fluid reservoir properties.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2031, 2702 and 2905.

3811

Paleontology

(W)

outlines the major changes in life forms from Archean times through the Phanerozoic to the present day, including details of invertebrate and vertebrate faunas and major floral groups; mechanisms and effects of mega- and micro-evolution in the fossil record; biology and classification of organisms and summaries of their geological significance in biostratigraphy, paleoecology and rock-building; relationships between major cycles of evolution and extinction to global processes. This course has a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: EITHER Biology 2120 (or Biology 1001 and 1002) and Earth Sciences 1002; OR Biology 2122 and 2210.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for Earth Sciences 3811 and Biology 3811, or either the former Earth Sciences 3801 or Biology 3800.

3905

Field Methods in Structural Geology and Stratigraphy

(W)

is a one credit hour course based on approximately 5 days of geological mapping in Precambrian rocks near St. John's. Emphasis is placed on application of techniques of structural analysis. Evenings will be dedicated to data analysis and preparation of structural maps and sections.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401 and 2905.

Notes:

  1. This course will be given during a special session immediately following the Winter semester examination period. Students are advised to complete this course immediately following Earth Sciences 2401. Entry is by application to the Head of the Department (or delegate) only.

  2. Attendance for all of the field school days is required. Failure to attend may result in a failing grade or withdrawal from the course.

5.5.8.4 Fourth Year

Note:

Not all Fourth Year courses may be offered every year.

4053

Petrogenesis of Igneous Rocks

investigates the origin of topical and important groups of igneous rocks based on experimental petrology, phase equilibria and application of geochemical tools. It further investigates the classification of igneous rocks, including the study of volcaniclastic rocks and aspects of physical volcanology. The laboratory component of the course emphasizes practical aspects of igneous petrology including geochemical characterization and use of hand-sample and field criteria.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 3054.

4054

Metamorphic Petrology

examines relationships between metamorphism and tectonics, representation and interpretation of metamorphic mineral assemblages using compositional phase diagrams and petrogenetic grids; equilibrium thermodynamics and thermobarometry; determination of P-T-t paths. Laboratories include use of the electron microprobe to collect data for use in calculations of the conditions of formation of metamorphic assemblages, and various types of software applicable to metamorphic petrology.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401 and 3055.

4105

High Resolution Geophysics

is a senior level field based course in high resolution geophysics with an emphasis on environmental applications. Topics to be covered include Ground Probing Radar, methods in refraction seismic, high resolution magnetic surveys, microgravimetry surveys, electrical and electro-magnetic methods. This course has a laboratory component in which students conduct a series of surveys over a specific site and process and interpret the collected data.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 3170, 3172 and 3179.

4171

Exploration Geophysics III

examines techniques involved in the acquisition, processing and interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data. Introduction to elastic properties of rocks. Introduction to advanced processing and interpretation techniques as applied to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics. This course has a laboratory component designed to provide hands-on experience with data processing and interpretation.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 3170 and 4179.

4173

Exploration Geophysics IV

examines advanced techniques in electrical and electromagnetic exploration methods including advanced IP, airborne EM surveys, EM and IP modelling, and inversion techniques; advanced methods in gravity and magnetic field exploration techniques including 2 ½-D and 3-D modelling and inversion, map processing techniques, and excess mass determination. This course has a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 3170 or 3172; and Earth Sciences 4179.

4179

Digital Signal Processing

is an introduction to the theory and basic computational techniques of digital signal processing in geophysics. Topics covered include: sampling, Fourier transformation, design and application of digital filters, deconvolution, spectral analysis, two dimensional signal processing, with emphasis on geophysical applications.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 3179.

4211

Economic Geology

provides a detailed look at the methodologies and techniques used in the study of mineral deposits and their applications in case histories. Laboratory exercises involve solving problem sets using the various types of data from selected case studies.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 3054 or 3055; and Earth Sciences 3210.

4302

Advanced Marine Geology

examines the geology and geophysics of ocean basins; discussion of methods of oceanic exploration, the history and development of ocean basins, interrelationships between ocean water, marine organisms, sedimentary and igneous processes.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1001 or 1002 and completion of any 15 credit hours in core courses at the 3000 and/or 4000 levels (see General Note 5) in Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physics, or Geography.

4310

Earth Science Concepts, Materials and Techniques for Archaeologists

- inactive course.

4400

Advanced Techniques in Structural Geology

examines modern techniques of structural analysis applied to fold and fault systems including progressive deformation and strain analysis, fold mechanisms, fold morphology and classification, fold sections and profiles, superposed folding, fault geometry and morphology, brittle and ductile shear zones, and construction of balanced cross-sections. This course includes a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401 and 3905 and a minimum of 6 credit hours in Earth Sciences at the 3000 level.

4502

Advanced Geochemistry

focuses primarily on the application of trace, radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry to constrain the origin, mass balance and chemical fluxes within the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere. The course permits students to complete assignments in aspects of geochemistry that reflect their career interests.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2031 and 2502 and a minimum of 6 credit hours in Earth Sciences at the 3000 level.

4503

Mineral Exploration Geochemistry

is an examination of the application of geochemistry to mineral exploration, covering: the lithogeochemical characteristics of ore deposits, their host rocks, and element dispersion from them; the principles of sampling and analysis in exploration geochemistry; approaches to the statistical analysis, graphical presentation, and interpretation of survey results; and the design of effective geochemical surveys. Particular emphasis will be placed on case studies relevant to exploration in Newfoundland and Labrador. Laboratory/seminar sessions involve working with exemplary data sets, using computer-based software for statistical analysis and software for searching large databases and viewing the spatial relationships of different types of map data relevant to the mineral exploration industry.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 3210.

4601

Petroleum Origin and Occurrence

is the study of the controls on the origin, migration, accumulation and production of petroleum resources, geological and geophysical methods of exploration, and the characterization of reservoir properties. Introduction to basic concepts of the geological interpretation of well logs. This course includes a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2702; and Earth Sciences 3170 or 3172.

4602

Sedimentary Basins and Hydrocarbon Exploration

provides a review of sedimentary basin types and associated petroleum systems including concepts applicable to petroleum generation, migration and accumulation. Regional-scale stratigraphic and structural concepts/models are presented as a framework for hydrocarbon fluid flow and entrapment. Laboratories include description and analysis of data typical of basin- and regional-scale exploration and appraisal of hydrocarbon resources using a variety of integrated, interdisciplinary techniques (geological, geophysical and geochemical).

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401, 2702 and 3170.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for Earth Sciences 4601 and Earth Sciences 4602.

4603

Reservoir Characterization

provides a review of the sedimentary, stratigraphic and structural setting of hydrocarbon reservoirs and the geological controls on reservoir quality. Reservoir types and methods of study are presented to evaluate their key properties for the development and production of hydrocarbons. Laboratories include detailed subsurface correlation and mapping, log analysis, interpretation of reservoir data (e.g. capillary pressure, porosity, permeability and production data).

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401, 2702, 3170 and 3702.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for Earth Sciences 4601 and Earth Sciences 4603.

4610

Hydrogeology

examines geology and its relationship to groundwater occurrence and exploitation: basic theory, groundwater flow systems, surface-groundwater interactions and changes in water quality, field and laboratory techniques, hydrogeological aspects of waste disposal and resource development. This course includes a laboratory component.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2502 or permission of instructor.

4700

Facies Models and Sequence Stratigraphy

provides a detailed examination of recent siliciclastic sedimentary environments, their associated facies models, and application of this knowledge to understanding the origin and character of sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs. Laboratories consist of several full-day field exercises in Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon Peninsula, and core studies of reservoir facies in the Mesozoic Jeanne d'Arc Basin of the Grand Banks.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 2702 and a minimum of 6 credit hours in Earth Sciences at the 3000 level.

Note:

Because of the several full-day field trips (usually on Thursday) and to avoid timetable conflicts, students are strongly advised not to take courses outside the department that have contact hours on the same day at the laboratories in this course.

4800

Advanced Paleontology

(same as Biology 4800) is a field, lecture, laboratory and seminar course dealing with selected topics in general and applied paleontology. Topics include measuring evolution and extinction, population paleontology, functional morphology, paleoecology, statistical methods for paleontological studies, and applications in petroleum, mining, and environmental studies.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 3811, and Statistics 2510 or Mathematics 2000.

4901

Tectonic Regimes

(F)

is a lecture and seminar course describing the tectonic regimes of the lithosphere, with emphasis on the interactions of structure, sedimentology, igneous- metamorphic petrology and paleogeography; topics covered include stress and deformation of the lithosphere, and the evolution of passive, conservative and active margins; regional examples will stress North American geology.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401 and 2702; and Earth Sciences 3054 or 3055.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for Earth Sciences 4901 and the former Earth Sciences 4320.

4902

Early Evolution of the Earth

(F)

- inactive course.

4903

Global Change

(W)

is a lecture and seminar course that studies the interaction of the atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere; topics covered include the evolution of the biosphere, fluid circulation, global geochemical budget, global environmental changes, and chemical evolution of the hydrosphere.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1001 or 1002, Biology 2120 or Biology 1001 and 1002 and completion of any 15 credit hours in core courses at the 3000 and/or 4000 levels (see General Note 5) in Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, or Physics; or permission of the instructor.

4905

Field Course in Geological Mapping and Regional Tectonics

(F)

is a two-week field school designed to allow application of techniques introduced in the third year, and to provide an introduction to the Appalachian geology of western and central Newfoundland. Reports must be submitted for grading during the fall semester. The course may be taken by others with the permission of the Head of the Department.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 2401, 2702, 3055 and 3905.

4910-4920

Special Topics in Earth Sciences

are lecture and seminar courses given for undergraduates in their fourth or fifth year who wish to gain more specialized knowledge in a particular field of Earth Sciences than is possible through the standard course offerings. The Department will consider suggestions by students for Special Topics courses, but it must be borne in mind that such a course should normally be approved at least three months before the start of the semester in which it is to be taken.

Prerequisites: Permission of the Head of Department.

4950

Technical Report on Geoscience Employment

requires the preparation of a publication-quality technical report, about 50 pages in length, based on a study undertaken during geoscience employment. The topic and scope of the study must be approved by the Head of Department prior to its commencement. The same study cannot be used as the basis of a dissertation completed for course ES499A/B. Students will present a seminar or seminars on results of the project, and will be closely advised on proper organization and writing of scientific reports. Some directed reading will be required. This course can only be used as an "additional course" under point 3. of the regulations for General degrees, and under point 4. of the regulations for Honours degrees.

Prerequisites: Completion of 9 credit hours in Earth Sciences at 3000 level, and permission of the Head of Department.

499A and 499B

Dissertation

is a 6 credit hour linked course based on independent study of an approved problem in the Earth Sciences. The subject of study will be decided in consultation with Faculty Advisors and must be approved in advance by the Head of Department. The dissertation cannot be based on the same study used to obtain credit for Earth Sciences 4950. The dissertation is obligatory for Honours students, but may be taken as Science credits by General students with permission of the Head. The first semester will normally involve directed reading, supervised field and/or laboratory work, and preparation of a dissertation outline and draft of a first chapter of the thesis. The second semester will be devoted to data synthesis and interpretation, to a seminar presenting the thesis results, and to preparation of a formal written report accompanied by appropriate illustrations, to be submitted for grading one week before the end of classes.