Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Arts (2007/2008)
6.2 Anthropology and Archaeology

All students who major in Anthropology and Archaeology will be assisted by a faculty advisor who will help them in planning their academic programs. For this purpose, it is essential that students register with the Department at an early stage of their studies.

6.2.1 General Degree
  1. First Courses

    Archaeology 1030 and Anthropology 1031 or an equivalent course or courses are required of all students wishing to concentrate in anthropology or archaeology.

    The following courses, cross-listed with the Department of Sociology and identified by the designation “S/A”, are also taught at the introductory level: 2200, 2210, 2220, 2230, 2240, 2260, 2270, 2280 and 2350. These courses can be taken as first courses or may be taken following a departmental introductory course.

  2. Major Options

    The Department of Anthropology and Archaeology offers undergraduate programs concentrating in a) Social/Cultural Anthropology; b) Archaeology/Physical Anthropology; and c) Interdisciplinary Studies in Sociology and Anthropology.

    The student majoring in Anthropology or Archaeology must meet the requirements listed under General Degree Regulations, Regulations for the General Degree of Bachelor of Arts. Under these regulations, a minimum of 36 credit hours in Anthropology and/or Archaeology are required. Specific regulations for each option follow:

    1. Social/Cultural Anthropology. Students wishing to concentrate in this option must take Archaeology 1030 and Anthropology 1031; 6 credit hours in Anthropology courses at the 2000-level chosen from 2410, 2411, 2412, 2413; 6 credit hours from Social/Cultural Anthropology offerings at the 4000-level, of which one must be 4410 or 4412; the remaining 18 credit hours are to be chosen from any of the Anthropology or Sociology/Anthropology (S/A) 3000- or 4000-level offerings. Students should note that the completion of Anthropology 1031 and one 2000-level Anthropology course is a prerequisite for all Anthropology 3000-level courses, and that two Anthropology courses at the 2000-level or above are prerequisites for all Anthropology 4000-level courses.

    2. Archaeology/Physical Anthropology. Students wishing to concentrate in this option must take Archaeology 1030 and Anthropology 1031, Archaeology 2430 and 2480; 12 credit hours in Archaeology courses at the 3000-level; 9 credit hours in Archaeology courses at the 4000-level which must include Archaeology 4182 and 4411 ; 6 additional credit hours in Archaeology courses at the 3000 or 4000 level. Students are encouraged to take appropriate course offerings in Anthropology. Students should note that Archaeology 2430 is a prerequisite for all 3000 and 4000 level courses in Physical Anthropology and that Archaeology 2480 is a prerequisite for all 3000 and 4000 level courses in Archaeology.

    3. Interdisciplinary (S/A) option. Students wishing to concentrate in this option must take at least 24 credit hours in S/A courses, plus a minimum of 12 credit hours in courses selected from the offerings of the Anthropology and Archaeology Department or the Sociology Department or both. Specific requirements are detailed under the Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.

  3. Minor Options

    A minor in Anthropology or Archaeology or Sociology/Anthropology may be achieved by completing any one of three sets of courses:

    1. Social and Cultural Anthropology: 1030, 1031; 6 credit hours in courses at the 2000 level chosen from 2410, 2411, 2412, 2413; and 12 credit hours chosen from Anthropology and Archaeology offerings at the 3000 level or above, including at least 3 credit hours in a course at the 4000 level.

    2. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology: 1030, 1031; 2430 and 2480; 3 credit hours in an Archaeology/Physical Anthropology course at the 4000 level; and 12 credit hours in other Anthropology and Archaeology courses, at least 9 credit hours of which shall be from among Archaeology/Physical Anthropology offerings.

    3. Sociology/Anthropology ("S/A''): see the regulations listed under the Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.

    Note:

    Students completing a major or minor in Anthropology, Archaeology or Sociology cannot elect to major or minor in the S/A program. In addition, students completing a major or minor in one program in the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology cannot elect to complete a second major or minor in this department.

6.2.2 Honours Degree
  1. Admission: As per existing regulations.

  2. Students intending an Honours program are required to complete 60 credit hours following the requirements in Major Options above, but in addition must include 4995-Honours Essay, or 4996-Comprehensive Examination. Students must also meet requirements of General Regulations for Honours Degrees, and Regulations for the Honours Degree of Bachelor of Arts.

6.2.3 Regulations for Joint Honours, Anthropology or Archaeology and Another Major Subject
  1. Candidates must fulfil the requirements of the General Regulations for Honours Degrees.

  2. Candidates must complete:

    1. Archaeology 1030 and Anthropology 1031;

    2. Six credit hours in courses chosen from Anthropology 2410, 2411, 2412, 2413, Archaeology 2430 and 2480;

    3. Fifteen credit hours in Anthropology or Archaeology courses at the 3000 level, chosen in consultation with a supervisor;

    4. Fifteen credit hours in Anthropology or Archaeology courses at the 4000 level, with a grade of “B” or better. These must include 4410 and one of 4000, 4411 and 4412.

6.2.4 Course List - Anthropology

In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

Students should note that credit may not be obtained for an Archaeology course if, prior to 2007, the student received credit for that course when it was designated as an Anthropology course.

Note:

S/A course descriptions may be found in this Calendar under the Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

1031

Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology

is a general introduction to Anthropology emphasizing different forms of society and culture. Cultures within and outside the Western tradition will be examined, ranging from small-scale to more complex pre- industrial societies. Credit may not be obtained for both Anthropology 1031 and the former Anthropology 1000 or 2000.

2210

Communication and Culture

(S/A)

2220

Labrador Society and Culture

(S/A)

2230

Newfoundland Society and Culture

(S/A)

2240

Canadian Society and Culture

(S/A)

2260

War and Aggression

(S/A)

2300

Newfoundland Folklore

(same as Folklore 2300)

2350

Religious Institutions

(S/A)

(see Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program) Cross-listed with Religious Studies 2350

2410

Classics in Social and Cultural Anthropology

is an examination of selected milestone monographs, ground- breaking studies for subdisciplinary specialties, and major syntheses. This course qualifies as a Research/Writing course.

2411

Anthropologists in the Field

is based on the fact that anthropologists base many of their ideas on experiences they have while living in other cultures. This course examines the human relationships through which anthropologists explore cultures and how in turn these relationships affect the anthropologists and the development of their discipline.

2412

Threatened Peoples

is an examination of key social and cultural factors involved in the global extinction of small- scale societies; the intrusive influences that jeopardize small-scale societies, such as disease; economic and military incursion; the role of international non- governmental agencies in aid of threatened peoples; and the role of the anthropologist in this human crisis.

2413

Modern World Cultures

is an examination of significant studies of 20th century populations and their implications for understanding the human condition.

2414

Regional Studies: North American Indians and Inuit

is a survey course dealing with the various tribal and band societies of North America, with special emphasis on the northern portion. The student will be introduced to the cultural history and language distribution of the area along with an examination of the major regional divisions. Several societies will be studied in more detail as case studies in the ethnographic analysis of specific cultural situations. The course will also deal with the effect on these cultures, through the historic period, of European trade, conquest, and settlement, again with special emphasis on the Canadian region.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 2414 and the former 3281.

2500

Folk Literature

(same as Folklore 2500)

3050

Ecology and Culture

- inactive course.

3052

Anthropology and Directed Social Change

- inactive course.

3053

Anthropology of Religion

- inactive course.

3054

Play and Culture

is an examination of the phenomenon of play in a variety of human cultures, and in such forms of activity as religion, politics, festival, speech, performance, and artistic creation. Principal themes are the functional role of play in social relations, and the meaningful role of play in social thought.

3058

Urban Anthropology

is an examination of anthropological studies of urban populations and population segments, such as ethnic groups and categories, occupations, neighborhoods, etc.

3060

The Idea of Culture

- inactive course.

3061

Culture and Social Inequality

examines the role of culture in mediating different forms of social inequality, exploring the idea that culture is not only a way of life but also a way of managing power between unequals, from individuals to social classes. Readings in the course concentrate on cultural techniques of social control.

3062

Anthropology in Social Policy-making

- inactive course.

3063

Ethnicity and Culture

- inactive course.

3064

Anthropology and the Study of Social Problems

- inactive course.

3082

Bandits, Rebels, and Revolutions

examines types of social conflict specific to different kinds of class-based society, including social banditry, primitive rebellions, and peasant revolutions. More generally, social conflict is used to explore the variety of ways that pre-industrial societies have been made part of the modern world economy.

3083

Cultural Crises and the Environment

is an examination of social and cultural aspects of dilemmas in the use of renewable and non-renewable resources such as animals, arable land, forests, fisheries, air, water, fossil fuel, and nuclear energy. Special attention to Third World and marginal populations.

3100

Dominance and Power

(S/A)

3210

Persistence and Change in Rural Society

(S/A)

3240

Regional Studies: Contemporary Native Peoples of Canada

(S/A)

3241

Regional Studies: The Atlantic

(S/A)

3242

European Societies

(S/A)

- inactive course.

3249

Peoples of the Pacific

(S/A)

- inactive course.

3254-3257

Regional Studies

(S/A)

3260

Social and Economic Development

(S/A)

3280

Regional Studies: The Arctic

is a courses on studies of cultural, ecologic, economic and social systems in the northern circumpolar regions.

3305

The Anthropology of Gender

aims to provide students with a comprehensive introduction to the major research questions that have been addressed by anthropologists concerned with the study of gender. A variety of empirical examples are used to demonstrate the variation in what it means to be 'female' or 'male' across disparate time periods and cultural contexts.

3314

Gender and Society

(S/A)

3317

Oil and Society

(S/A)

- inactive course.

3318

Culture and Aging

(S/A)

is an introduction to the study of aging from a social and cultural perspective. Distinctions between the biological and social elements of the aging process will be examined. The overview of social and cultural gerontology includes social, economic and political influences on later life, as well as the culture-based needs and aspirations of the aged.

3320

Terrorism and Society

(S/A)

3330-3339

Interdisciplinary Specialties

(S/A)

3384-3389

Regional Studies in Anthropology

3402-3409

Anthropological Specialties

will have a topic of current interest and importance announced by the Department for each term.

Prerequisites: Six credit hours in Anthropology.

3584

Historical Anthropology

(same as History 3535) will explore selected issues in historical anthropology, with special reference to the Mediterranean and North Atlantic worlds. Students will read specific case studies in order to explore the theoretical issues raised by the attempt to understand historically-documented past cultures. In order to give practical examples of methodology classes will analyse primary source material. Students will be introduced to the textual analysis of myth and legal records, to the interpretation of images and to the analysis of patterns in material culture. The course will consider specific current interpretive issues, particularly the rise of individualism, the consumer revolution and the cultural construction of gender.

3590

Hunter-Gatherer Studies

(same as Archaeology 3590) examines past and present hunting and gathering societies from various areas of the world, both from an ethnographic and an archaeological perspective.

Prerequisites: 1030 and 1031.

3600

The Use of Theory in Sociology and Anthropology

(S/A)

3610

Society and the Life Cycle

(S/A)

3630

New Media Methods in Social Research

(S/A)

3700

Social and Cultural Change

(S/A)

- inactive course.

4000

Society and Culture

(S/A)

4030

Taboo and Law

- inactive course.

4070

Aboriginal Self-Governance

(S/A)

- inactive course.

4071

Social and Cultural Aspects of Health and Illness

(S/A)

4072

Social and Cultural Aspects of Death

(S/A)

4073

Studies in Underclass Life

(S/A)

is a critical inquiry into the social sources of human misery and suffering that characterize life in the underclass

4074

Ritual and Ceremony

(S/A)

- inactive course.

4077

Advanced Studies in Terror and Society

(S/A)

- inactive course.

4081

Advanced Seminar in the Anthropology of Gender

- inactive course.

4089

Language and Social Change

(S/A)

4091

Oil and Development

(S/A)

- inactive course.

4092

Gender and Social Theory

(S/A)

4110

Culture and Personality

(S/A)

4140-4149

Advanced Interdisciplinary Specialties

(S/A)

4200-4209

Special Areas in Anthropology

is a series of individual or small group tutorials and reading courses on topics of special or current interest.

Prerequisite: Departmental permission.

4280

Advanced Newfoundland Ethnography

- inactive course.

4300

Fieldwork and the Interpretation of Culture

- inactive course.

4301

The Intensive Study of One Culture

- inactive course.

4302

Biography and Culture

- inactive course.

4370

Culture and Traditions of Ireland

(same as Folklore 4370)

4410

History of Social and Cultural Anthropology

is a detailed examination of critical issues in the history of anthropology and its various subdisciplines from ancient times to the formation of schools of thought in the late 19th and 20th centuries.

Prerequisite: At least fourth-year standing in an Arts degree program, including 24 credit hours in Anthropology courses.

4412

Modern Cultural Theory

is an evaluation of current approaches to culture through psychological, social-structural, critical, and symbolic Anthropology. Emphasis on major works, schools, and personages.

4422

The Craft of Writing Anthropological Narrative

- inactive course.

4440

Music and Culture

(same as Folklore 4440 and Music 4440)

4450

Land Tenure and Culture

- inactive course.

4451

Ethnography of Gambling

- inactive course.

4452

The Fisheries Revolution

- inactive course.

4991

Comprehensive Examination

(S/A)

4995

Honours Essay

4996

Comprehensive Examination

- inactive course.

6.2.5 Course List - Archaeology/Physical Anthropology

1030

Introduction to Archaeology and Physical Anthropology

is a broad overview of Archaeology and Physical Anthropology introducing the concepts of human biological and cultural evolution and the methods and techniques by which these are investigated. The course is designed to provide the basis for further study in the disciplines.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Archaeology 1030 and the former Anthropology 1000 or 2000.

2430

Physical Anthropology: The Human Animal

investigates the human animal as we exist now and as we developed through time. Students will discover how the study of fossil remains, living and extinct primates, and the applications of the principles of genetics, adaptation and variation of human evolution help to provide an understanding of how biology and culture have interacted to produce modern humans.

Prerequisite: 1030.

2480

Archaeology: Discovering our Past

is an introduction to archaeological techniques, methodology and theory. Lectures cover the development of the discipline, techniques of survey and excavation, methods of analysis and the interpretation of prehistory.

Prerequisite: 1030.

2481

Ancient Civilizations of the Americas

is a survey course introducing the archaeology and ethnohistory of various pre-contact civilizations of North, Central and South America. Archeological Evidence will be used to explore the rise of civilizations in the Americas and particular civilizations will be examined and compared based on ideology, economy and administration.

Prerequisite/Co-requisite: 1030

2490

Human Origins

- inactive course.

2491

Popular Archaeology

is a course on how human history is reconstructed from archaeological remains. Methods and techniques of archaeology are illustrated through discussion of archaeological research currently in progress, both in Newfoundland and Labrador and elsewhere in the world.

Note:

This course may not be used for credit toward a major or minor concentration in Archaeology/Physical Anthropology.

2492

Forensic Anthropology

is an examination of procedures and techniques used by physical anthropologists and archaeologists to obtain data pertinent to investigations by law enforcement and medical authorities: evidence concerning the identification of human remains and the cause, time and manner of death.

3020

What is Human?

discusses how humans have long considered themselves unique. Through readings, discussions and presentations this seminar will explore exactly how distinctive humans are in their physical, behavioural, and intellectual traits and whether there is, in fact, something which sets us apart from all other creatures.

3040

The Human Skeleton

reflects genetic, environmental and cultural influence. This course, emphasizing identification of individual bones in the skeleton, techniques for obtaining size and shape differences in individual bones and the entire skeleton, estimation of group numbers and death rates, and diagnosis of disease and other abnormal conditions, provides a means of assessing all of these influences on past human populations.

3290

Newfoundland and Labrador Prehistory

is a seminar and reading course on the culture history of Newfoundland and Labrador from about 9,000 years ago until the time of European settlement. Particular attention will be paid to the interactions among the several ethnic and cultural groups upon whose history this course focusses.

3291

Maritime Provinces Prehistory

is cultural developments in the area which today includes the Maritime Provinces and northern Maine, from the entry of humans into the region until the time of European contact. Emphasis is placed on cultural adaptations to a changing regional environment and the evidence for intercultural contact.

3500

Prehistory of Africa, Asia and Europe I

examines the early stages of cultural evolution in the Old World. Topics include: earliest human origins in Africa; the dispersal of humans throughout the Old World; the appearance of modern- type humans during the last ice age.

3505

Prehistory of Africa, Asia and Europe II

is a survey of the more recent stages of human cultural evolution in the Old World. Topics include: complex behaviour of modern-type hunter- gatherers of the last ice age; the domestication of plants and animals in early farming communities.

Prerequisites: 2480 and 3500.

3510

Prehistory of the New World

is a survey of cultural development in the Americas from the entry of humans until the time of European contact. Topics include: the earliest human migrations and the dispersal of human groups throughout the New World; the development of complex hunting-gathering societies; the origins of agriculture and sedentism.

3515

Prehistory of Mesoamerica

(same as History 3515) discusses the Spanish explorers arriving in Mesoamerica i.e., Mexico and Guatemala of today, and how they discovered rich and complex civilizations that had developed independently of European or Asian influence. This course traces the development of Mesoamerican civilizations from their known origins to the point at which growth was terminated by Spanish intervention.

3520

The Early Ethnohistory of North America's Native People

(same as History 3520) examines the North American native response to early European contact and initial settlement. Particular attention will be paid to cultural change resulting from the adoption of European goods, participation in the fur trade, the introduction of European disease, and the adaptation to a permanent European presence.

3525

The Later Ethnohistory of North America's Native People

(same as History 3525) examines Indian and Inuit cultural history of the 18th and 19th centuries, including the fur trade, resistance and accommodation to European expansion, the emergence of revitalization movements, demographic changes, and population shifts. Special emphasis will be placed on the ethnohistory of the native peoples of what is now Canada and northern United States.

3561

Ethnoarchaeology

- inactive course.

3580

Bronze Age Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean

- inactive course.

3582

Historical Archaeology

(same as History 3530) will introduce students to historical archaeology, with special reference to the North Atlantic, 1000 to 1900 AD. The archaeology of specific historic sites, including Newfoundland sites, will be examined in order to raise theoretical issues and to give practical examples of methodology. Students will be introduced to the methodological challenges of palaeography, analysis of historic maps, survey, excavation and analysis of complex sites, underwater archaeology, documentary archaeology, material culture and subsistence studies, interpretation, conservation and cultural resource management. The course will consider theoretical approaches including historical anthropology, ethnohistory, world systems and consumer studies.

3584

Historical Anthropology

(same as History 3535) will explore selected issues in historical anthropology, with special reference to the Mediterranean and North Atlantic worlds. Students will read specific case studies in order to explore the theoretical issues raised by the attempt to understand historically-documented past cultures. In order to give practical examples of methodology classes will analyse primary source material. Students will be introduced to the textual analysis of myth and legal records, to the interpretation of images and to the analysis of patterns in material culture. The course will consider specific current interpretive issues, particularly the rise of individualism, the consumer revolution and the cultural construction of gender.

3585-3586

Practicum in Archaeology

offers students practical introductions to archaeological fieldwork (3585) and laboratory techniques (3586). These courses provide instruction and experience in site mapping, sampling strategies, the recovery and conservation of archaeological materials (i.e., artifacts and ecofacts) and the cleaning, cataloguing and cultural interpretation of artifacts and features. The students will also receive an introduction to archaeological research concerning prehistoric and/or historic cultures of a selected region.

3587

Archaeological Conservation: Method and Theory

is an introduction to principles and techniques for the preservation of archaeological materials, with an emphasis on conservation in the field.

Prerequisite: 2480 or equivalent.

3588

Arctic Prehistory

will have lectures and discussion cover cultural developments in the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and Alaska from the time of initial human occupation to the historic period, with particular emphasis on the eastern Canadian Arctic. Culture history is presented in the context of theoretical and methodological issues and emphasis is placed on culture adaptations to changing environments.

3589

Art, Architecture and Medieval Life

(same as Medieval Studies 3001, History 3020, Folklore 3001) is an examination of the development of medieval art and architecture and of the ways in which they mirror various aspects of life in the Middle Ages. This course will include a discussion of art and architecture in the countryside, in the town, in the castle, in the cathedral and in the cloister.

Note:

It is recommended, but not obligatory, that students should have successfully completed one of the following courses: Archaeology 2480, Folklore 1000 or 2000, History 2320/Medieval Studies 2001, History 2330/Medieval Studies 2002, Medieval Studies 2000.

3590

Hunter-Gatherer Studies

(same as Anthropology 3590) examines past and present hunting and gathering societies from various areas of the world, both from an ethnographic and an archaeological perspective.

Prerequisites: 1030 and 1031.

3591

Collections Management

(same as Folklore 3591) will introduce students to the problems of collections storage with respect to environment, materials and artifact access. Students will become familiar with the materials encountered in archaeological and ethnographic collections. The storage of specific historic and prehistoric collections from Newfoundland and Labrador will be examined with the purpose of providing practical examples of methodology.

3680-3689

Studies in Archaeology and Prehistory

will include the consideration of current developments in methods, techniques and theory as applied to selected areas of the world.

Prerequisite: 2480 or equivalent.

3710

Museums and Historic Sites

(same as Folklore 3700) is an introduction to museums and historic sites, their work, and their role in societies past and present. Various types of museums and historic sites will be discussed using local, national and international examples, looking at their collections and exhibitions policies. Practical issues will also be discussed; these include museum exhibit display techniques, public programming, virtual museums, and the museum profession.

3800

Fieldwork in Vernacular Architecture: Drawings and Photography

- inactive course.

3850

Material Culture

(see Folklore 3850)

3860

Vernacular Architecture

(see Folklore 3860 and History 3860)

4015

Cultural Resource Management

(same as Folklore 4015 and Geography 4015) is a study of cultural resource management: the definition and recognition of cultural resources, the application of policy in managing cultural resources, and the identification and consideration of contemporary issues in cultural resource management.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of seminar per week.

4041

Palaeopathology

looks at disease, diet, genetics, accidents and maternal health factors as contributors to variations in the human skeleton. In this course these factors are diagnosed from bones, and aspects of the culture, health, economy and environment of the skeletal individuals are examined.

Prerequisites: 2430 and 3040.

4042

Recent Developments in the Study of Human Evolution

- inactive course.

4050-4059

Special Projects in Physical Anthropology

includes directed reading, seminars and lab analysis of various skeletal collections. Topics to be covered may include primate behaviour, forensic anthropology, and various aspects of human evolution.

4150

Environmental Change and Quaternary Geography

(same as Geography 4150) examines methods of reconstructing Quaternary environments, effects of Quaternary environmental changes on landform, with special reference to North America, development and characteristics of glacial and non-glacial climates.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 3110, 3150 or permission of Head of Department.

4151

Paleoethnobotany

is a combined directed readings/ laboratory course on palaeoethnobotany. Paleoethnobotany concerns the recovery and analysis of archaeological plant remains as a basis for understanding human and plant interactions in the archaeological record. This course focuses on recent palaeobotanical research in northeastern North America.

Prerequisites: 2480 and the permission of the instructor.

4160-4169

Special Projects in Archaeology

are courses which may be offered from time to time as demand arises. They may involve readings, seminars and actual analysis of archaeological collections on, for example: The Neolithic of Western Asia; The Rise of Civilization in Western Asia; Scandinavian Prehistory; Palaeoethnobotany; and Technology and Material Culture.

Prerequisite: 2480.

4170

Settlement and Subsistence Studies in Archaeology

- inactive course.

4182

History of Archaeology

is an intensive study of the emergence and maturation of archaeology as a discipline within the social sciences, particularly in Western Europe and North America, during the 19th and 20th centuries.

4190-4199

Selected Topics in Archaeology and Prehistory

is a seminar course focussing on recent theoretical and methodological developments in archaeological research.

Prerequisite: 2480 or equivalent.

4411

Theory and Method in Archaeology and Prehistory

is a seminar course focussing on recent theoretical and methodological developments in archaeological research.

Prerequisite: 2480 and 4182.

4500

Special Topic in Historical Archaeology

is a consideration of current developments in methods, techniques, and theory in Historical Archaeology.

Prerequisite: 2480 or permission of instructor

4995

Honours Essay

4996

Comprehensive Examination

- inactive course.