Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Arts (2006/2007)
6.14 Geography

The following undergraduate programs are available in the Department:

  1. Major in Geography (B.A. or B.Sc.)

  2. Honours in Geography (B.A. or B.Sc.)

  3. Minor in Geography

  4. Joint Programs

  5. Focus in Geography

  6. Diploma in Geographic Information Sciences

6.14.1 Major in Geography (B.A. or B.Sc.)
  1. Students may complete a Major in Geography as part of either a B.A. or B.Sc. program. See the General Regulations for the B.A. and B.Sc. degrees as appropriate.

  2. All students who major in Geography shall consult with their assigned faculty advisor, or the Head of the Department, who will help them in planning their academic program. For this purpose, it is essential that students declare their major at an early stage of their studies.

  3. The Major in Geography consists of 45 credit hours in Geography courses including:

    1. 1050, or 1000 & 1001, or 1010 & 1011;

    2. 2001, 2102, 2195, 2226, 2302, 2425;

    3. 3222, 3226;

    4. Nine credit hours from courses at the 3000-level;

    5. At least 9 credit hours chosen from courses at the 4000-level;

    6. Further credit hours in courses at the 3000-level or above, to fulfil the required 45 credit hours in Geography courses.

  4. B.Sc. candidates must complete 15 credit hours in science courses outside Geography at the 2000-level or above.

6.14.2 Honours in Geography (B.A. or B.Sc.)
  1. Students intending to take an Honours degree in Geography must apply for entry to the Honours program through the Office of the Registrar.

  2. Students accepted in the Honours program must:

    1. Comply with the General Regulations for the Honours Degree of B.A. or B.Sc. as appropriate.

    2. Arrange their program in consultation with the Head of the Department.

  3. For the Honours Degree, a candidate will be required to have completed at least 60 credit hours in courses in Geography, including:

    1. Forty-five credit hours in courses as listed under Major in Geography.

    2. Geography 3230, 4990 and 4999.

    3. Six additional credit hours at the 4000-level.

6.14.3 Minor in Geography

The Minor in Geography consists of 24 credit hours in Geography courses, including:

  1. 1050, 2001, 2102, 2195, 2302, 2425; and

  2. six credit hours in electives taken from Geography courses at the 3000- or 4000- level. or

  3. 1000 and 1001, or 1010 and 1011;

  4. 2001, 2102, 2195, 2302, 2425; and

  5. three credit hours in electives taken from Geography courses at the 3000- or 4000- level.

6.14.4 Joint Programs

Regulations for the Joint Honours in Computer Science and Geography, Joint Honours in Geography/Earth Sciences, and Joint Major in Computer Science and Geography are found under the heading "Joint Programs" in the entry for the Faculty of Science.

Students who wish to take a Joint Major or a Joint Honours in Geography and another subject must arrange their program in consultation with the heads of the Departments concerned, and comply with the General Regulations of the appropriate Faculty.

6.14.5 Focus in Geography - Bachelor of Education (Primary/Elementary)

This program is only applicable to the Bachelor of Education Primary/Elementary degree program, and consists of 18 credit hours in Geography including:

  1. 1050, 2001, 2102, 2195, 2302, and 2425, or

  2. 1000 and 1001, or 1010 and 1011; and

  3. 12 credit hours in courses chosen from 2001, 2102, 2195, 2302, and 2425.

6.14.6 Diploma in Geographic Information Sciences

Information regarding the Diploma Program in Geographic Information Sciences may be found under the heading Diploma Programs Offered in the Faculty of Arts.

6.14.7 General Prerequisites and Credit Restrictions
  1. Mathematics 1000, or equivalent, is a prerequisite for Geography 3110, 3120, 3140, 3150, 3250, 3260;

  2. It is strongly recommended that all 2000-level core courses be completed before registration in 3000-level courses. All 2000-level core courses must normally be completed prior to registration in a 4000-level course.

  3. It is strongly recommended that Geography 3222 and 3226 be completed before registration in 4000-level courses.

  4. Credit may not be obtained for 1050 and any one of 1000, 1001, 1010, or 1011.

6.14.8 Course Descriptions

In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, the course descriptions for courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

Note:

Specific prerequisites for courses may be waived only with permission of the instructor and the Head of Department.

1050

Introduction to the Principles and Practice of Geography

focuses on five areas in geography which continue through courses in other years of the geography program: physical, cultural, economic, resources, and geographic information sciences. The lectures are linked to assignments, which provide both experience in the application of geographical skills and develop insight into the presence of geography at both the local and global scales.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 1050 and any of 1000, 1001, the former 1010, or the former 1011.

2001

Cultural Geography

is an introduction to the study of culture in geography, emphasizing both the history of the field from classic studies of landscapes to contemporary scholarship and themes of recent importance. These include the relationship between nature and culture: imperialism and colonialism; place, identity, and power; and global cultures of commodities, media, and tourism.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001.

2102

Physical Geography: The Global Perspective

is a study of form, process, and change in natural systems at and near the surface of Earth, viewed as human environment. Emphasis is on global and regional scales in the systematic study of climate, water, landforms and vegetation.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 2102 and the former 2100 or 2101.

2105

Canada's Natural Environments and Landscapes

examines the characteristics and development of the natural environments and landscapes of each of the major regions of Canada. The diversity of natural environments is illustrated through discussion of the climatic, hydrological, biogeographical, and geomorphic processes responsible for shaping the land. The impact of both gradual and rapid (catastrophic) changes on local, national, and global scales will be emphasized.

Notes:

  1. This course is complementary to Geography 3405; students are encouraged to take both.

  2. Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2105 and the former 3100.

2195

Introduction to Geographic Information Sciences

is an introduction to the fields of cartography, remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS). Emphasis on the understanding and appreciation of maps and map-like images.

Prerequisites: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001.

2226

Field Methods I

is designed to introduce students to the practice of geography in the field. Field techniques will focus on the observation, identification, and collection of primary data. This course provides a basis for further study in advanced geography courses.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or permission of the instructor.

Note:

This course is a one credit hour course.

2290

Historical Geography of Newfoundland

is an examination of the spatial development of settlement in Newfoundland from the period of early European contacts to the present century. Themes include the impact of Europeans on native occupance, the regional background of European migrations, the regional growth of population and the spread of settlement as manifested on the cultural landscape. This course also serves as an option in the Newfoundland Studies Minor program.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2290 and the former 3290.

2302

Issues in Economic Geography

covers basic issues and ideas in economic geography. The development of a regional economy will be related to underlying economic, cultural and physical factors.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001.

2405

Lands and Seas of the Northern North Atlantic

is a comparative study of the marginal lands and seas of the Northern North Atlantic (parts of Eastern Canada including Newfoundland and Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, parts of Scandinavia and the British Isles) with emphasis on the history and ecology of population, settlement and resource use.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2405 and the former 3400.

2425

Natural Resources

is an introduction to the concepts of natural resources, environment and conservation: the nature and distribution of natural resources; methods of use, allocation and development of natural resources and the role of various physical, social, economic, political and technological factors influencing decision-making about resources.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2425 and 3325.

2460

Regional Geography of the United States

is a holistic regional geography of the United States, including the terrain, geology, climate, vegetation, and fauna; the historical, political, cultural, and socio-economic geography of all parts of the USA; the interaction between physical and human geographic factors in cities, states, and regions; and the geographic factors shaping the modern United States.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2460 and the former 3460.

2490

The Newfoundland Space Economy

- inactive course.

2495

Regional Geography of Labrador

is a holistic study of the Geography of Labrador, including the terrain, geology, Quaternary history, climate, vegetation, and fauna; the cultural geography of Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, Métis, and Settler people and communities; economic activities in Labrador, and the interaction of the Labrador economy within Newfoundland, Canada, and globally; the management of physical and human resources; and the geographic techniques used to investigate and understand Labrador's unique Geography.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 2495 and the former 3495.

3000

Population Geography

is the geography of population distributions with special emphasis given to the population dynamics expressed in fertility, mortality and migration; techniques for analysis of vital statistics; world population problems; contrasting population policies of various countries.

Prerequisite: Geography 2001.

3010

The Evolution of Urban Form

(formerly 2010)

examines the origin and evolution of the city in Western civilization, paying particular attention to the social, political, and economic processes which have been instrumental in transforming its physical fabric.

3110

Physical Geography of the Watershed

- inactive course.

3120

Climatology

is an analysis of the energy and moisture budgets and circulation of the atmosphere at the macro- scale, together with an examination of resulting climate characteristics for selected world regions.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2102; Mathematics 1000.

3140

Biogeography

is the application of ecological concepts to the study of the spatial variations in the distribution of plants and vegetation. Laboratory work emphasizes terrestrial flora of Newfoundland.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2102; Mathematics 1000.

3150

Geomorphology

is a study of the relationships between geomorphic processes and landforms. Practical work will involve collection of data and samples in the field and analytical laboratory techniques.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2102 or Earth Sciences 2905; Mathematics 1000.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 3150 and the former Earth Sciences 3700.

3202

Introduction to Cartography

is an introduction to the field of cartography and its different components, including: projections, generalization, cartographic design, data classification, topographic and thematic mapping. Laboratory exercises will utilize Geographic Information Systems software.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2195 or permission of instructor.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 3202 and the former Geography 2200.

3210

History of Map Making

- inactive course.

3215

Cartography Practicum

- inactive course.

3222

Research Design and Quantitative Methods in Geography

is an introduction to principles of research design, and to the use of quantitative techniques. This course provides students with a basic understanding of data collection, entry, and analysis and presentation skills most commonly used by geographers.

Practical, computer-based exercises are an essential part of the course.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Geography 1050, or the former 1011, or 1001 and at least 9 credit hours from Geography 2001, 2102, 2195, 2302, 2425.

Note:

It is strongly recommended that this course be completed before registration in a 4000-level geography course. Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 3222 and the former Geography 2220, and Statistics 2500 or 2510.

3226

Field Methods II

is designed to provide students with field experience at a more advanced level, building on Geography 2226. In this course, the students will experience the field research process from the initial observation of a site through research and analysis to completion of a written report.

Prerequisite: Geography 2226.

Note:

This is a two credit hour course.

3230

Field Course

will normally be taken by Geography Majors just prior to the Fall Semester of their third year. The course will be held off campus and is designed to provide experience in instrument and field techniques in physical, economic and cultural Geography.

3250

Introduction to Remote Sensing

is an introduction to digital image analysis. Will include many aspects of pre-processing and processing of airborne and satellite imagery.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2195; Mathematics 1000.

3260

Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

introduces the principles of GIS as they relate to spatial data input, structures, management, integration, analysis and output. Laboratory exercises permit students to use GIS software and explore how it can be applied to a wide variety of disciplines and real world issues.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 2195; Mathematics 1000.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 3260 and the former Geography 4251.

3303

Location Theory

is the theoretical basis of the study of economic geography. Theories of movement of people, goods and ideas, as well as theories of land-use, facility location and the development of agglomerations are examined.

Prerequisite: Geography 2302.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for 3303 and the former 2300, 2301, 2303.

3320

Fisheries Geography

- inactive course.

3321

Geography of Fishing Activity

- inactive course.

3340

Techniques of Regional Analysis

- inactive course.

3350

Geographical Aspects of Regional Planning and Development

- inactive course.

3405

Canada

(formerly 2400) is a regional geography of Canada, with emphasis on social, economic and political characteristics. The course is a core course in the Canadian Studies Major program. This course is complementary to Geography 2105; students are encouraged to take both.

Prerequisites: Geography 2001, 2102 and 2302; or 6 credit hours in courses for the Major in Canadian Studies; or permission of the instructor and the Head of the Department.

3410

Regional Geography of Europe

- inactive course.

3415

Regional Geography of the British Isles

- inactive course.

3420

Regional Geography of the Former U.S.S.R.

- inactive course.

3425

Geographical Analysis of Resources

is the geographic study of contemporary North American issues in resources and their management. Emphasis will be placed on air and water quality issues, lands and forest resources, energy resources, and coastal zone resources. A number of substantive areas in resource analysis will be considered, including resource appraisal, landscape evaluation, and environmental impact assessment.

Prerequisite: Geography 2425 or equivalent.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 3425 and the former 4400.

3450

Regional Geography of South and Central America

- inactive course.

3480

Regional Geography of Asia

- inactive course.

3490

Regional Geography of Newfoundland

- inactive course.

3500

Regional Geography of the Arctic

- inactive course.

3510

Geography of the Seas

- inactive course.

3610

Cultural Landscape

is an investigation of a principal subject of study in cultural geography; the human imprint on the land. The course will include a detailed consideration of the origin of landscape studies in geography; newer approaches emphasizing visual and representational aspects of landscapes; and several diverse case studies, historical and contemporary, concerned with struggles over their definition.

Prerequisite: Geography 2001.

3620

Migration and Colonization

is a study of population movements associated with colonization and frontier development.

Prerequisite: Geography 2001.

3701

Urban Geography

is an examination of the evolution, structure and dynamics of cities and urban systems.

Prerequisite: Geography 2302.

3710-3729

Special Topics in Geography

(available only as part of the Harlow Campus Semester)

3800

Political Geography

is a geographic study of political ideas and processes. The course will consist of a historical discussion of the origins and trajectory of geopolitics, from the beginning of the 20th century to contemporary uses. Key themes in political geography, including strategy and statecraft, decolonization and nationalism, global technologies, and environmental security will be discussed.

Prerequisite: Geography 2001.

3900-3909

Special Topics in Geography

will have topics to be studied announced by the Department.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and the Head of the Department.

3990-3999

Special Topics in Geography

will have topics to be studied announced by the Department.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and the Head of the Department.

4000

Research Seminar in Population Studies

- inactive course.

4005

Rural Settlement in an Urban World

- inactive course.

4010

Cultural Geography

is concepts and methods in the study of cultural geography.

Prerequisites: Geography 2001 and at least one of 2290, 3000, 3010, 3610, 3620, 3800.

4015

Cultural Resource Management

(same as Anthropology 4015 and Folklore 4015) is a study of cultural resource management: the definition and recognition of cultural resources, the application of policy in managing cultural resources, and the identification and consideration of contemporary issues in cultural resource management.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of seminar per week.

4120

Applied Climatology

(formerly 3121)

- inactive course.

4130

Local and Micro-Climatology

- inactive course.

4141

Glacial Environments

is an examination of the landforms, processes and sediments of past and present glacial environments. Course work will stress broad applications to environmental science.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory/field work per week.

Prerequisite: Six credit hours in physical geography courses at the 3000-level; or permission of Head of Department.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both 4141 and the former Earth Sciences 4701.

4150

Environmental Change and Quaternary Geography

(same as Anthropology (A/P) 4150) covers methods of reconstructing Quaternary environments; effects of Quaternary environmental change on landforms, with special reference to North America; development and characteristics of glacial and non-glacial climates.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Six credit hours in physical geography or in A/P courses at the 3000-level; or permission of Head of Department.

4170

Advanced Biogeography

- inactive course.

4180

Seminar in Advanced Physical Geography

will provide senior students with the opportunity to immerse themselves in selected aspects of physical geography by the preparation of papers, their presentation and discussion.

Prerequisites: Nine credit hours in physical geography courses at the 3000-level and/or 4000-level.

4202

Advanced Cartography

will provide students with advanced knowledge in computer-based cartography required to produce final geographic datasets and maps. Laboratory exercises will utilize Geographic Information Systems software.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 3202 or permission of instructor.

4220

Advanced Quantitative Methods

- inactive course.

4241

Research Seminar in Cartography

- inactive course.

4250

Environmental Image Analysis

is remote sensing techniques applied to various environmental problems. Techniques include selection of the system for data acquisition (airborne or satellite imagery), planning of a ground truth survey, and of data processing. Applications to high and low density urban areas, agricultural, forestry, coastal zone, oceanic, and environmental monitoring.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Geography 3250.

4261

Advanced Methods in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

explores the nature and use of advanced GIS algorithms, discrete and continuous data structures, computational methods and analysis of error for the purpose of analyzing and modeling spatial patterns and processes. Laboratory exercises permit students to use GIS software to explore as well as develop problem solving and modeling skills for a wide variety of real world applications.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisites: Geography 3260; Mathematics 2050; Computer Science 1710; (or equivalent, with permission of instructor and the Head of Department).

4262

Advanced Applications in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

- inactive course.

4290

Geographic Information Sciences Practicum

is practical experience with the geographic information sciences fields of cartography, remote sensing or geographical information systems. Students will serve as interns in governmental, institutional or private agencies, or in non-profit organizations.

Six hours per week or a total of 72 hours of research or laboratory work.

Prerequisites/Corequisites: Geography 4202, 4250, 4261, and to be enrolled in the Diploma in Geographic Information Sciences.

4291

Special Topics in Geographic Information Sciences

is current research issues in cartography, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

Prerequisites: At least two of 4202, 4250, and 4261, or permission of instructor and the Head of the Department.

4300

Fisheries Seminar I

- inactive course.

4301

Fisheries Seminar II

- inactive course.

4320

Regional Development Seminar

is preparation of papers on various aspects of development, their presentation and discussion.

Prerequisite: Geography 3303.

4390

Transportation Geography

- inactive course.

4405

Outdoor Recreational Resources and Planning

is an introduction to the major themes and techniques in the study of outdoor recreation. A theoretical framework will provide a base for the evaluation of the complex issues involved in managing a physical resource for recreational purposes. North American examples will be emphasised.

Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.

Prerequisite: Geography 2425 or 3325.

Note:

Credit may not be obtained for both Geography 4405 and Geography 4909.

4410

Research Seminar in Resources

offers the opportunity to undertake advanced work in a number of resource sectors such as energy, fisheries, forests, lands, air and water. The emphasis will be on learning through experience. Students will be expected to initiate and complete suitable research projects in close consultation with faculty involved.

Prerequisites: Geography 2425 or 3325.

4600

Historical Geography

is a study of concepts and methods in historical geography. The field concerned with geographies of the past and their relation to the present. Themes will include the history of geography as a discipline, particularly its relevance to imperialism and state power; changing relationships between humans and the natural environment; and histories of the spaces of social life and human identity.

Prerequisites: Geography 2001 and at least one of 2290, 3000, 3010, 3610, 3620, 3800.

4640

Historical Geography of Canada

(formerly 3240) explains the geographical dimensions of Canada, past and present, in terms of spatial origins and processes of geographical change in the population, economy and landscape of the country. Themes will include: changing perceptions of the environment; the historical demography of immigration and initial settlement; the reconstruction of past regional geographies; the sequent occupance of particular regions; the human alteration of the natural landscape.

Prerequisites: Geography 2001 and at least one of 2290, 3000, 3010, 3610, 3620, 3800; or 12 credit hours in core courses for the Major in Canadian Studies.

4650

Conservation in Biology and Geography

(same as Biology 4650) is an examination of how biological and geographical principles can be applied to conserving biological diversity in the natural world under conditions of exploitation and habitat loss. Special emphasis will be given to relevant provincial examples.

Three hours of lecture per week and 3 hours of seminar/discussion group per week.

Prerequisites: 30 credit hours in either Biology or Geography and permission of the course co-ordinator.

4690

Research Seminar in the Historical Geography of Newfoundland

- inactive course.

4700

Seminar in Advanced Urban Geography

will provide senior students with the opportunity to immerse themselves in the analysis of a small number of problems related to contemporary urban structure and growth.

Prerequisite: Geography 3701.

4900-4918

Special Topics in Geography

will have topics to be offered announced by the Department of Geography.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and the Head of the Department of Geography.

4919

Integrative Practicum in Geographic Information Sciences

is an applied or research project integrating aspects of cartography, geographical information systems and remote sensing. Students will have access to the GISciences Research Laboratory to complete their project. This is the capstone course for the students registered in the Geographic Information Sciences diploma program. It will involve the knowledge and experiences acquired over the years in the program.

Six hours per week or a total of 72 hours of individual research or laboratory work.

Prerequisites/Corequisites: Geography 4202, 4250, 4261, and to be enrolled in the Diploma in Geographic Information Sciences.

4990

Nature of Geography

is an examination of the major philosophical issues in the nature of geography and recent changes in geographical method. Particular emphasis will be placed on the implications of the quantitative, systems, behavioural and ecological approaches in geography, the use of models, the place of theory and the study of process in geography.

This course is primarily intended for Honours students.

4999

Dissertation Honours Degree