Conflict of Interest
Memorial University of Newfoundland (the University) fosters a climate that encourages its people to be creative and innovative, while seeking to achieve the highest possible quality in delivery of programs, services and the research it conducts, striving for excellence at all times. As a place of learning, the University encourages its faculty, staff and students to be broadly involved in professional interests and activities compatible with the University's mission, values and commitments. Occasionally, the best interests of the University and the personal interests of its Members may conflict, or may be perceived to conflict.
The University holds itself to the highest ethical standard and recognizes that accountability and transparency are essential for its operation. It is the ethical responsibility for everyone who acts on behalf of the University to ensure that decisions and actions that affect the University are taken in the best interests of the University and are not influenced by personal interests. To maintain public and professional trust and confidence, the University must deal with real, perceived or potential conflicts of interest in an open, fair, consistent and practical way.
To set out the University's position on real, perceived or potential conflicts of interest and to provide processes and mechanisms to address these, so that the University and its external constituencies can be confident decisions and actions are not inappropriately influenced by personal interest. The policy is intended to be complementary to other policies and collective agreements governing the conduct of Members.
All Members of the University.
Academic Supervisor - A person who is or has been the academic supervisor of an undergraduate honours thesis/project, or graduate, postdoctoral or research studies.
Conflict of Interest - A conflict of interest exists in any situation where there is a potential divergence between a Member's personal interests and his or her obligations to the University such that an independent observer would reasonably question whether the Member's behavior or decisions are in any way motivated by considerations of personal interest, financial or otherwise. A conflict of interest may be real, perceived or potential.
Real conflict: At least three prerequisites have to be established before a Member can be said to be in a real conflict of interest. They are:
Perceived conflict: A perceived conflict of interest exists when there is a reasonable apprehension, which reasonably well-informed persons could have, that a conflict of interest exists.
Potential conflict: A potential conflict of interest is one that may develop into a real or perceived conflict. The potential for conflict exists as soon as the Member can reasonably foresee that he or she has a private interest that may be sufficient to influence a public duty or responsibility. It may be real or perceived.
A conflict of interest does not necessarily imply wrongdoing as a conflict of interest depends upon the circumstances and not on the character of a Member. In addition, the presence of a real, perceived or potential conflict of interest does not necessarily preclude the involvement of the Member, but it does mean that the conflict shall be disclosed by the Member, and allowed and managed or disallowed, and any decision recorded appropriately.
Family Associate - A person who is related to the Member by blood or adoption, or is or has been related to the Member by marriage or common-law marriage.
Financial Interest and Financial Benefit - The receipt or expectation of anything of monetary value, including pay or salary or other payments for services (e.g., consulting fees, bonuses, speaker's fees, advisory board remuneration, finders or recruitment fees, or honoraria), equity interests (stocks, stock options or the like), security or other ownership interests, and intellectual property rights (e.g., patents, copyrights, royalties or carried interests or options related to such rights).
Member - Any person who teaches, conducts research, studies or works at or under the auspices of the University and includes, without limitation:
Outside Activity - Any activity outside a Member's work with the University that involves the same or similar specialized skill and knowledge that a Member uses in his or her work with the University and includes, but is not limited to, the ownership and operation of a business, consulting and advisory services.
Personal Associate - A person with whom the Member has or has had in the previous five years, a financial, intimate or other close relationship.
Professional Associate - A person with whom the Member has or has had within the previous five years, a close or substantial professional relationship and includes, but is not limited to, a relationship of mentor, co-author, research collaborator or research investigator or employment supervisor of the Member.
Unit Head - This term includes Heads of Departments, Divisions or Schools, Deans, Directors, Executive Directors, the University Librarian, the University Registrar, Associate Vice-Presidents, Vice-Presidents and the President. For the purposes of this policy, the Unit Head for the President shall be the Chair of the Board of Regents.
University - Memorial University of Newfoundland.
(1) Each Member has a duty to assess his/her own interests, involvement and activities and to report any real, perceived, or potential conflicts of interest. In assessing this duty, Members should take care to disclose activity that a reasonably informed observer might conclude to be in conflict with a Member's duties to the University.
(2) Members are referred to the examples of CONFLICT OF INTEREST SITUATIONS below for greater certainty. When a situation arises that creates, or may be perceived to create, a conflict of interest for the Member, he/she must disclose this prior to engaging in any activities. Such disclosures shall be made in writing. Time is of the essence in disclosing. If the Member is uncertain whether he/she is in conflict of interest, a conflict of interest exists, or is likely to exist, he/she should seek clarification from his/her Unit Head pursuant to the PROCEDURE FOR DISCLOSING AND ASSESSING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST. It may be necessary that an activity be placed on hold pending an assessment.
(3) A Member shall not participate in an activity or decision that involves a real, perceived or potential conflict of interest unless such activity or decision has been disclosed to, and approved by, the Conflict of Interest Committee and if such approval has been given, any terms or conditions made by the Committee are fulfilled.
(4) Any Member who is aware of, or has reasonable grounds to believe, that an undisclosed conflict of interest exists for another Member shall pursue the matter by one or more of the following ways:
(i) Raise the matter with the Member involved in the alleged conflict of interest and refer him/her to this Policy;
(ii) Raise the matter with the Unit Head of the Member involved in the alleged conflict of interest if it appears that the Policy has not been followed by the Member, or where raising the issue with the Member is inappropriate in the circumstances; and/or
(iii) Report the matter under the provisions of the Protected Disclosure Policy.
(5) Any referral for advice and direction will be assessed in a timely and fair manner by the University in accordance with thePROCEDURE FOR DISCLOSING AND ASSESSING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.
(6) A conflict of interest may, in certain cases, be permitted when it can be managed in a way that protects and serves the integrity and interests of the University, including its ethical, legal and contractual obligations, and will stand the test of reasonable and independent scrutiny.
(8) Records created as a result of actions under this Policy will be under the management of the Office of the President.
Failure to comply with the provisions of this Policy will be pursued under applicable collective agreements, employment contracts, codes or other University policies and may result in disciplinary action. The University reserves the right to recover any profit or financial benefit obtained by a Member as a result of non-compliance.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST SITUATIONS:
Conflict of interest situations may take many forms. A limited set of examples is provided below. This list is far from exhaustive and the list itself is not to be construed as restrictive of the scope of conflict of interest situations or scenarios.
(i) Interest in a Research, Business, Contract or Transaction
Entering into, involvement in, or influencing of an agreement on behalf of the University including a research, business or other contract, a business arrangement, licensing agreement, purchasing agreement, or any other transaction with a company, organization, firm or individual in which the Member, or a Family Associate or Personal Associate of the Member has or has had within the previous five-years, a personal interest.
(ii) Influencing Purchase of Equipment/Materials or Services
Influencing the purchase of equipment, materials or services on behalf of the University from a company, organization, firm or individual in which the Member or a Family Associate or a Personal Associate of the Member has a personal interest.
(iii) Acceptance of Gifts, Benefits or Financial Favours
Accepting gifts or gift certificates valued in excess of $250 from one source in a fiscal year from individuals or firms with which the University does business or with which it is contemplating doing business.
Members may not accept cash or cash equivalents, in-kind services, excessive discounts, shares, excessive entertainment, or loans on preferential terms.
(iv) Use of Information
Using for personal or professional gain information which a reasonable person would view as privileged or confidential that is acquired as a result of the Member's University-supported activities, or communicating this information to those not authorized to receive it. Such information might include knowledge of any forthcoming developments requiring the selection of a contractor or bulk purchases. Other examples may include unreasonably delaying publication of research results or the premature announcement of research results.
(v) Use of Students, University Personnel, Resources or Assets
Directing University students or personnel to carry out work for the Member or his/her company, organization, or firm in which the Member or a Family Associate or Personal Associate of the Member has a personal interest. University-approved work term/placements are exempt from this provision.
Using University resources or facilities without appropriate approval to benefit a private concern in which the Member or a Family Associate or Personal Associate of the Member has a personal interest.
(vi) Involvement in Personnel Decisions
Participating in the recruitment, appointment, re-appointment, hiring, promotion review, performance evaluation, renewal of contracts, discipline matters, compensation or benefits decisions, committee decisions, leave requests, expense claims or other personnel decisions or recommendations involving or regarding a person where the Member:
Participating in the tenure review or reviewing of grants involving a person where the Member:
(vii) Academic Program Decisions Affecting Students
Participation by a Member in decisions to admit a student to a program or course; to provide instruction or supervision; to award prizes, scholarships, financial assistance or other benefits; to award teaching or research assistantships, where the Member:
(viii) Evaluation of Student's Academic Work
Participating in the evaluation of a student's academic work where the Member:
(ix) Involvement in Compliance Decisions Affecting Students
Participation by a Member in decisions to determine compliance with University policies or codes and/or to determine sanctions for any violation thereof, where the Member:
(x) Advancing of Outside Interests for Personal Gain
Primary examples include: Entering into a research contract with a company in which the Member or a Family Associate or a Personal Associate of the Member has a financial interest; Redirecting the Member's sponsored research program to serve the business, research or development needs of a non-sponsoring company, organization, or private firm in which the Member or a Family Associate or Personal Associate of the Member has a personal interest; Entering into a licensing or business agreement for the development of intellectual property, generated as a result of University research with a company, organization or private firm in which the Member or a Family Associate or Personal Associate of the Member has a personal interest.
(xi) Undertaking of Outside Activity
Undertaking outside activity: (a) that conflicts with the Member's duties or responsibilities to the University or (b) that will or is likely to negatively influence or affect the Member in carrying out the Member's duties or responsibilities to the University.
In the case of the Marine Institute: Undertaking an outside activity by employees of the Marine Institute for activities which otherwise would be undertaken by the Marine Institute or by clients of the Marine Institute.
All Members have the obligation to review the terms of any employment, including any applicable collective agreement or contract of employment, to ascertain any provisions regarding outside activities.
(xii) Political Activity
Members have the right to freedom of expression and association and to become involved in political activities. However, there may be limited circumstances in which a Member's involvement in a political activity constitutes a real, perceived or potential conflict of interest.
(xiii) Conflict of Commitment
Participation in external activities or commitments that are substantial and that negatively impact or may reasonably be seen to negatively impact on a Member's performance of his/her duties and responsibilities to the University. Conflict of commitment includes being simultaneously employed by the University and by an external employer where the external employment obligations negatively impact on one's ability to fulfill all terms and expectations of employment at the University or where the external employment obligations or responsibilities may conflict with the mandate, priorities or operation of the University.
The above list of examples of conflict of interest situations is not complete and Members should be aware that there are other situations for which conflict of interest may exist. In such situations, Members should seek advice pursuant to the PROCEDURE FOR DISCLOSING AND ASSESSING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.
Protected Disclosure Policy