Kayode Balogun - January 30

Lipid metabolism and the risk of cardiovascular disease: Implication of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is ranked as the number one cause of death worldwide. The causes of CVD are defined by the interplay between genetics and environmental factors; this contributes to the complexity of the pathophysiology of CVD. In spite of the advancement in medical science and drug discovery, the prevalence of CVD is still on the rise. The most important environmental factor in the pathogenesis of CVD is nutrition, especially the role of dietary fats. There are numerous reports supporting the cardioprotective effects of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); however, there are also controversial reports. This could be due to the dose or sex specific effects of n-3 PUFA. We investigated the effects of high dietary n-3 PUFA on the risk factors of CVD such as dyslipidaemia and obesity, and factors such as sex, age, and dose, which could potentially affect the health benefits of n-3 PUFA using C57BL/6 mice. We also investigated the mechanism by which n-3 PUFA could prevent neuropsychiatric disorders through neurotrophin signalling; and the propensity of n-3 PUFA to facilitate a therapeutic connection between neuropsychiatric disorders and CVD through a common pathway. Our findings show that males are more responsive to the lipid lowering and anti-obesity effects of high n-3 PUFA diet compared to females; and a higher dose of n-3 PUFA is required. Thus, our findings emphasize that sex and dose should be incorporated in the dietary recommendation of n-3 PUFA for the prevention of CVD.

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