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Guidelines for Referencing and Style

The following is an edited excerpt from the Style Guide of the Journal of Economic Literature.

Tables and Figures: Tables should be set vertically on the page. Number figures and tables consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Do not number them according to the section in which they appear. Please do not insert figures and tables in the text. Instead, insert them in the space immediately after the paragraph in which the figure or table is first referenced.

Reference citations: Include the first name of each author when first mentioned, either in text or in footnotes. Each subsequent reference to an author should include only the last name, unless two or more authors have the same last name. If you cite an article that is neither published nor accepted for publication, please make every effort to find an internet link to it, and include the web site address in the reference list, giving the full "http//" link. If you cite an unpublished article of which you are the author, you must make that article available to your supervisor.

Citations should take the place of footnotes whenever possible. Work them into the text smoothly. For material in quotation marks, include page number references. Try to avoid using e.g, cf, and "see also." The following passage is an example of preferred phrasing: Allan Gibbard (1973) and Mark Satterthwaite (1975) independently asked the question of what happens when the agents studied by Kenneth Arrow in Social Choice and Individual Values (1963) decided...others refocused attention on resource allocation (Charles Kindleberger 1964a,b; John Cornwall 1977).

Footnotes: Number footnotes in order, corresponding to numbers in the text, and place them at the bottom of the page (rather than as endnotes). Footnotes are not necessary for works cited; use citations instead as shown above.

Reference list: Verify references carefully; they must correspond to the citations in text. List alphabetically by author's last name and then by year. In references lists, only the first author's name is inverted. Please list all authors; avoid using et al. in lieu of authors' names. Include authors' first names unless the first names are not published. See the following examples.

Chapter in an edited volume:
Alpert, Marc and Howard Raiffa. 1982. "A Progress Report on the Training of Probability Assessors," in Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press, pp. 7-32.

Article in a journal:
Alston, Richard M.; J. R. Kearl, and Michael B. Vaughan. 1992. "Is There a Consensus Among Economists in the 1990's?" Amer. Econ. Rev. (Papers and Proceedings), 82:2, pp. 158-77.

Book:
Atkinson, Anthony and Joseph Stiglitz. 1980. Lectures in Public Economics. New York: McGraw Hill.

For coauthored publications, only the first author's name is inverted: last name, first name. Subsequent authors' names are written normally: first name last name. The year of publication or presentation appears directly after the author(s)' name(s); this applies to all references, whatever their form or forum.

All publication titles are capitalized: books, papers, articles, journals, etc. Book titles are capitalized in standard fashion and italicized. Paper/article titles are capitalized and put in quotation marks. Journal titles are italicized and not abbreviated.

Journal volume/issue numbers are written in roman typeface: 22 :1. Note the colon. (Small caps, parentheses, italic, and bold typeface are not used.)

Unpublished Paper: Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor and Michael Orszag. 2001. "The Cost of Early Retirement in the OECD," IoES work. paper W01:02, http://www.ioes.hi.is.

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