The Origins of Harlow
Memorial University of Newfoundland established the Harlow Campus in 1969. Since then thousands of students have had the opportunity to study there. Sadly, many returned home with little or no knowledge or appreciation of the town or the history that created it. This website was created to help that those who would like to learn something of the town’s long history and to understand that the townscape of Harlow contains visible traces of many of the major events of English history. This website provides only a brief overview. It is not intended to take the place of the many books which tell the complete story of Harlow and of the New Town that was grafted on to its western side beginning in 1947. Those interested in the details of the story should consult the sources listed below and, if possible, pay a visit to the Museum of Harlow. This website contains eight pages. This one provides a brief summary of the development of Harlow and some of its most important buildings and institutions. The content of the others is described in the Table of Contents at the bottom of this page.
The Origins of Harlow and the Evolution of the Townscape
Celtic people were living here long before arrival of the Saxons in the 5th century. They probably lived on scattered farms, rather than in a nucleated settlement, but there appears to have been a concentration of activity near Ealing Bridge on Gilden Way, south-east of Harlow, and another north of Harlow Mill station. The most important site was the hill known as Stanegrove, located in the midst of the buildings of the Temple Fields Industrial Estate on the northern edge of the New Town, which was a site for worship by the 1st century B.C. More than 230 Celtic coins, some of them in mint condition, and 96 bronze brooches have been recovered from the site - presumably left as votive offerings.
There is no evidence of a Romanized town in the immediate vicinity, but around A.D. 80 a simple flint and mortar Romano-British temple dedicated to an unknown deity (but probably Minerva) was erected on the hill. In time it was improved and expanded and in the end was a masonry building with painted walls and a large courtyard. The temple was either destroyed, or simply decayed, during the reign of Constantine in the early 4th century A.D. One hundred and fifty-nine Roman coins, dated between 15 B.C. and 390 A.D, have been recovered from the site.
The traditional explanation for the name of the town is that it derives from two Old English words: 'hlaw' or 'hlaew' meaning 'hill' and either 'here' meaning an army or host or 'her' meaning 'holy' or 'sacred'. The people of each Hundred needed a place to meet. In the case of Harlow, the Moot, or meeting hill may have been either Stanegrove, or the hill behind the Green Man pub at Mulberry Green . If it was the latter it might explain the name of this crossroads - as 'moot-bury' or meeting place could easily have became corrupted to 'Mulberry'.
The first written record of the town's name appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 where it appears as 'Herlaua'. All towns are feminine in Latin, so the Norman scribes added the customary feminine ending of 'a'. In Norman deeds the town is spelled 'Herlaue' (where the 'Her' would have been pronounced 'Har', as in Hertford, and the 'au' would have been pronounced as 'o'). This was the regular form of the name until the 13th century when a 'w' reappears, and by 1430 'Harlowe' had become the most common form. The final 'e' was dropped during the Georgian era.
Mediaeval Villages and Manors
During the six centuries between the arrival of the firstin the 5th century and the Norman conquest in 1066 the area acquired the system of villages and manors which persisted until the building of the New Town in the 1950s. The mediaeval parish of Harlow had a population of 184 according to the Domesday Book. It ran south from the River Stort between the parishes of Matching and Sheering on the east and Latton on the west. It contained five Saxon manors: Harlowbury, Brend (later New) Hall, Kitchen Hall, Hubbards, and Moor Hall.
The manor of Harlowbury was given to the Abbey of Bury St Edmonds in Suffolk by the Saxon thane (i.e. nobleman) Thurstan in 1044. The manor was enlarged by King Stephen around 1150 and remained in the hands of the Abbey until its dissolution in 1539. The chapel is the oldest building in Harlow, having been built by Abbot Sampson ca. 1182. The original rafters were replaced by a beautiful crown-post roof around 1300. The adjoining timber-framed hall, parts of which survive within the present house, was probably also built by Sampson. Old Road follows the line of the original main road linking Bury and London, and the Abbot would have stayed in the manor house and worshipped in the chapel, on his way to attend important State or religious functions in the capital.
Henry VIII sold the manor to a family from Devonshire after the 16th century dissolution of the monasteries. By 1720 the chapel had been converted to a granary. The insertion of a second floor to increase the storage capacity put additional stress on the walls, and brick corner buttresses had to be added sometime in the 19th century.
The original Norman village probably lay south of the Harlowbury manor house, but was moved to what is now Churchgate Street in the late 11th century. Settlement at Market Street and Mulberry Green came later, perhaps by as much as a century.
Because of its game-rich forests and its proximity to London, Harlow and the surrounding area was often visited by Royalty, particularly during the Tudor period when a number of property acquisitions were made. Little of what follows has any direct bearing on the structure of Harlow in the 21st century. But the story is an important reminder that you cannot walk very far anywhere in England without tripping over its history, and the names of long-extinct manors bear silent witness to the turmoil of the past.
North of the River Stort lies the Hertfordshire village of Hunsdon which, like Harlow, is listed in the Domesday Book. Sir William Oldhall built a large, brick tower house here in 1447. The house was bought in 1471 by Edward IV who then granted the property to Thomas Howard when he became Duke of Norfolk. In 1525 the house was purchased by Henry VIII who wanted to use it as an escape from the plague in London, because of its 'wholesome air'. Over the next nine years Henry spent £2,900 building an E-plan mansion of palatial proportions, with royal apartments, a great gallery and a moat.
When Thomas Cromwell decided to look for a country seat near the King's house he asked the Abbot of Bury St. Edmonds for a long lease of Harlowbury manor. Apparently his request was denied, although a year later the Abbot granted a 60 (later 80) year lease the next year to a William Sumner. Perhaps as a way of placating Cromwell, the Abbot granted him a pension of £10 from the manorial income.
Henry occasionally used Hunsdon as a base for hunting, but more
importantly, as a place to keep his children. Mary and her household were sent here in 1527. By 1530 Mary, then aged 24, and Elizabeth, aged 3, were both living at Hunsdon. They were still there in 1536 when Elizabeth's mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed and their father married Jane Seymour. It was here on June 22nd of that year, that Mary reluctantly agreed to sign the Articles of Submission, drafted by Cromwell, which recognized Henry as the Head of the Church of England and acknowledged that the marriage of Henry to the ‘late Princess Dowager’ (Mary’s mother Catherine of Aragon) was ‘incestuous and unlawful’, thereby making her a bastard.
Prince Edward, later Edward VI, spent much of his youth here, and Hunsdon House can be seen through the open window in the upper left-hand corner of his 1546 portrait. And it was while she was living in this house that Mary signed the hated letter of submission to the terms of the oath attached to the Act of Supremacy.
On 13 January 1559, Queen Elizabeth made her cousin Henry Carey (the son of Anne Boleyn's sister Mary) the first Baron Hunsdon, and granted him the manor. Much of Henry's great house was pulled down in the mid-18th century and the moat was filled in around 1788. A new house was built around 1810, incorporating the little that was left of Henry's house. It, in turn, fell into ruin until it was renovated and 'Victorianized' in 1860. That house, only about a quarter the size of Henry's, survives today.
Eastwick and Pishiobury
The adjoining manor of Eastwick was given to Anne Boleyn by Henry VIII as a wedding present, and was later bought by Henry Carey. King Henry also bought the manor of Pishiobury, in Sawbridgeworth, just north of the River Stort which forms the border between Essex and Hertfordshire, and gave it to Anne. There is no evidence that she ever lived there and the property reverted to the Crown after her execution. Edward VI granted the manor to one of his Gentlemen of the Chamber The original house, built in 1585 and somewhat altered by Inigo Jones in 1615 was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1782 following designs by James Wyatt. At the same time the park was redesigned in the Landscape Style, and attributed to Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown, the most sought-after landscape designer of the age. The house was converted to a school in 1941. It now houses offices. The stable block, built in 1660, has been converted to flats.
Mark Hall was the principal manor in Latton, the parish west of Harlow. Its lands provided most of the site for the post-war New Town. After the Battle of Hastings its new owner was Count Eustace Adelof de Merc (from Mercke near Calais) whose family held the manor for more than 250 years. Over time the name was anglicized to Mark. Subsequently there was a succession of important owners . One was James Altham, Sheriff of London in 1557 and of Essex in 1570, who played host to Queen Elizabeth I on three occasions (September, 1571; August, 1576 and July1578) during her Royal 'progresses' through the county. The Queen's retinue was too large to be accommodated in one house, and part of it stayed at Latton Hall which was also owned by Altham.
William Lushington, Altham’s cousin, owned the estate between 1776 and 1786. He demolished the Tudor/Jacobean house and replaced it with a new neo-Classical style building. To provide a suitably spacious setting for his new house he moved Latton Street 500 yards to the west and enlarged the park, demolishing Latton Hall in the process. The cycle track running through the Mark Hall North neighbourhood of the New Town follows the line of the relocated road. The Hall and the manor church (St. Mary at Latton) were now splendidly isolated in the park. Lushington’s father bought Latton Priory and lands in Latton and Netteswell, beginning a process of estate expansion that would continue to the end of the 19th Century.
In 1786 the estate was bought by Montague Burgoyne, a philanthropist who supported the establishment of free schools, and the modernization of agriculture. He founded the Essex Agricultural Society in 1793 and introduced the use of mechanized seed drills and threshing machines for his farms. He commissioned Humphrey Repton, who succeeded Capability Brown as the best-known landscape designer of the age, to plan the landscape of the park. Montague’s first cousin once-removed, General ‘Gentleman Johnny’ Burgoyne, who lost the battle of Saratoga, New York in 1776 contributed to what might be called, depending on your point of view, either the loss of the American colonies, or the liberation of those colonies from British domination and exploitation.
In 1819 Burgoyne put the estate up for sale by auction at Garraway's Coffee House in 'Change Alley, Cornhill, London. It was purchased for 100,000 guineas by Richard Arkwright In 1769 Arkwright invented the mechanized spinning machine which revolutionized the cotton textile industry and helped usher in the Industrial Revolution. He wanted to buy a house and living for his clergyman son Joseph, and decided that Mark Hall would be appropriate. He may have learned that the estate was available from Joseph's father-in-law, Sir Robert Wigram of Walthamstow. He and his partner of Mr. Perry Watlington, the owner of Moor Hall, owned the Blackwall Docks in London. Richard's daughter Anne had also married into the Wigram family.
The entire Arkwright estate, including Mark Hall, was inherited by Loftus Wigram Arkwright in the 1860s. His five unmarried sisters were already living in the Hall, and rather than dispossess them, he built a new house for his family at Little Parndon, just north of the site of the now-demolished Parndon House. The new building, known as Parndon Hall, serves today as part of the Princess Alexandra Hospital. The last member of the Arkwright family to live in Parndon Hall was Commander Godfrey Arkwright, RN. On his final night in the house in September, 1953, after 134 years of Arkwright residence on the estate, he wrote a sad letter to the Harlow Development Corporation as the bulldozers were literally coming up the drive, lamenting the loss of his family's estate, but wishing the Corporation well in an undertaking which he recognized was well-meant and necessary.
Mark Hall was let to its last tenants in 1893. The Gilbeys were a local entrepreneurial family that had to look for alternative sources of income when the coming of the railway in the 1840s destroyed the coaching business that had been their principal business. By the time they took up residence in Mark Hall they were involved in the wine trade also owned several gin distilleries. In 1963 they opened a new head office and distillery complex just north of the Town Centre. Regrettably, following the takeover of the company by IDV in 1990 the distillery was closed and the buildings demolished. The site is now occupied by a Sainsbury's Superstore. One of the copper stills has been preserved and is located in the walled garden of the former Mark Hall stables, which now house the Museum of Harlow.
During the Second World War, Mark Hall was occupied by members of the Womens' Land Army. It was destroyed by fire in 1947, but the Georgian stable block (built ca. 1785) escaped destruction and now houses the Museum of Harlow. The Victorian-era servant's wing on the east also survived. Between 1951 and 1960 it was used as a temporary school for some of the New Town's first children and then as the first home of Tany's Dell School. It then fell into disrepair and was demolished. Two of the estate's gatehouses survive: East Park Lodge in London Road, opposite Fawbert and Barnard's School, and North Lodge at the intersection of Fesants Croft and the cycle path which follows the old Netteswell Road.
No Royal or aristocratic families live in the Harlow area any more, but they have been replaced by some modern celebrities. Between the southern boundary of Pishiobury and the River Stort lies Rowneybury House, built in the 1930s as a home for disabled children on an estate carved out of Pishiobury in 1880. It was abandoned for nine years until it was bought in 1999 and 2013, by Posh and Becks: Victoria, formerly Posh Spice of the 1990s singing group The Spice Girls and world-class footballer David Beckham. Victoria is a local girl, raised in Goffs Oak, Hertfordshire. They bought the house in 1999 for £2.5 million, and sold it for £11.3 million.
Just six miles to the south, on the outskirts of Epping, is the century-old Wood House, part of a private gated development adjacent to the grounds of Copped Hall. For 30 years this was one of the U.K. homes of singer Rod Stewart, which explains the fact that it is equipped with a full-size football pitch. He sold the house in 2013 and moved to the mid-18th century, 10-bedroom Durrington Hall on the eastern outskirts of Harlow. In 2016 he was given planning permission to install a 5-a-side football pitch on the property with the stipulation that it would not be equipped with floodlights.
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Creation of this website would have been impossible without the expertise, generosity and enthusiastic support of Mr. David Devine, former Local History Officer at the Museum of Harlow.
The first revision of the website during my sabbatical leave in 2010-2011 and the most recent revision in 2016-2017 were undertaken under the supervision of David Pippy, Online Student Recruitment Coordinator in the Office of Student Recruitment, Memorial University of Newfoundland. His willingness to devote hours of personal time to what must have seemed the impossible task of teaching me how to use SiteBuilder surpasses understanding.
Zachary Wheeler of the Internationalization Office of Memorial University and Tyrel Jennings in the Marketing and Communications Division provided much -needed technical support.
Valuable insights were provided by the late Mr. Vince Dunn, former publican of The Marquis of Granby. Vince introduced me to Mr. Robert Mead, another fount of useful and interesting information.
The staff of MUN UK has always provided assistance to this project. Dawn Bird cheerfully scanned a large collection of new images for me – above and beyond the call of duty. Jacqui Blythin has always been happy to share with me her inexhaustible store of memories of Harlow.
Michael Dyke and Colin Porcher, Old Harlovians, helped me understand the past history of St. John's House and Cottage. Additional background material, and some pictures, have been provided by Mark and David Scott, Adrian and John Whittaker, Kay and Greg Holmes, Dave Morgan and John Graham, the architect responsible for the conversion of The Maltings and St. John's House and Cottage.
Pete and Craig, Publicans of The Crown, provided good food and drink when required.
To all of you, many thanks.
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Canada
16 March 2017