1. J. G. Millais, Newfoundland and its Untrodden Ways (London: Longmans, Green, 1907), 1.

2. Journal of Frederick Newton Gisborne (1824-1892) of an Electric Telegraph Survey in Newfoundland 1851, entry for 4 Nov., allegedly repeating traditions "from a book of traditions (written in the Indian allegorical language)." Typescript at the CNS (Nfld FF 1013 G57).

3. J. B. Jukes, Excursions in and about Newfoundland during the Years 1839 and 1840 (London: John Murray, 1842), II, 175.

4. J. G. Millais, Newfoundland and its Untrodden Ways, 320.

5. Related to me in Micmac by Thomas Boonis, of Cumberland, June 10, 1870.] Silas Tertius Rand, Legends of the Micmacs (New York and London: Longmans, Green, 1894), 284-93.

6. Arthur Huff Fauset, "Folklore from the Half-Breeds in Nova Scotia, The Journal of American Folklore 38(Apr-Jun 1925), 304-305. The tales were collected in 1923 at Lequille, near Annapolis Royal from Micmac Indians living near a black settlement. The informant of this story was John Paul, a 40-year-old farmer and basket- maker.

7. Elsie Clews Parsons, "Micmac Folklore," The Journal of American Folklore 38(Jan-Mar 1925), 85-86. Informant for this story is Mary Madeline Newell Poulet, who had most of her stories from her own mother, Mary Doucet, a Newfoundland born Micmac, who in her childhood moved with her family to Cape Breton, where she died in 1895.

8. Frank G. Speck, Beothuk and Micmac, Indian Notes and Monographs, edited by F. W. Hodge (New York: Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1922), 27-29.

9. Marjorie Stoker, "Folklore from Conne River Settlement, St. Alban's, Bay d'Espoir, South Coast [of Newfoundland]," Memorial University of Newfoundland, Folklore Archive, 66-17, 9-10.

10.Edward Chappell, Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland and the Southern Cost of Labrador (London: J. Mawman, 1818), 70-71.

11.James P. Howley, The Beothucks or Red Indians: The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland (Toronto: Coles, 1980 [=1915]), 153.

12.Relazione of Bishop Fleming from 1834-35 to the Sacred Congregation Propaganda Fide; translated and quoted by M. F. Howley in his Ecclesiastical History of Newfoundland (Boston: Doyle and Whittle, 1888), 319-20.

13.Edward Wix], Six Months of a Newfoundland Missionary's Journal from February to August, 1835 (London: Smith, Elder, Cornhill, 1836), 86-89.

14.Ibid., 110.

15.Ibid., 94-95.

16.Gerald Penney, "The Micmac Cross of Bay de Nord," unpublished paper, Centre for Newfoundland Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 14 January 1983 (Nfld E 99 M6 P44 File), 2-3.

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