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The Golden Fleece.


Orpheus Iunior is required by Apollo to discouer where the Golden Fleece lies.

Orpheus performes his Maiesties commandement, shewes that there be sundry kindes of the Golden Fleece, all which, after an allusion to the English natures, hee reduceth into one maine Trade, to the Plantation and Fishing in the Newfoundland. The generall cause, which moued Orpheus to regard this Golden Fleece.

[A]Pollo secretly informed by the Fraternity of the Rosie Crosse, that Orpheus Iunior could well tell where the King of great Britaine might perpetually finde Trading both in time of Warres, as Peace, to /inrich Aaa (1)/ inrich himselfe and his subiects, which Trading they stiled the Golden Fleece, more certaine then Iasons Fleece transported from Colchos, or the Philosophers Stone, so much dreamed on by the Chymists, because the sheepe which yeelds this pretious Gaine, were to be shorne for eight moneths space without intermission, and of bodies farre bigger then the Peru sheepe, which the Spaniards bragge to equalize Asses for proportionable greatnesse. In May last, 1626. he commanded Orpheus Iunior, as hee tendred his seruice, and the good of his languishing Countrey, to discouer where these Golden coated sheepe pastured, and the manner how the noble Britaines might attaine vnto them.

Orpheus Iunior answered, that the Golden Fleece which the fraternity of the rosie Crosse insinuated to his Maiestie, was parti-coloured like the Rainebow, so produced by the Patriarch Iacobs Art, according to the seuerall obiects represented, and likewise diuided into the Naturall, the Artificiall, and the Mysticall, sometimes singled out the one from the other, sometimes mixt, as politike Merchants and Diers know best; yet all of them comprehended vnder one generall name, viz. Trading. That it was necessary for the Commonwealth of Great Britaine, to pursue all the kindes of these obiects, lest the English Nation, who neuer likes any thing how profitable soeuer, vnlesse it be diuersified,

Pragmata non Angli invariata probant.

might take surfet of one sort of Trading, and at /length: (2)/ length fall to a loathing thereof. Whereto he adioyned, that by many yeares experience, hee had learnt the skill of discerning spirits. And that hee found out this quality of the English, to delight in varieties of Newes, though for the most part false; of Apparell, though they sold their lands for it; of multiplicities of Law-suits, though oftentimes they knew themselues bought and sold by them which they most trusted; of meate and drinke, though they felt the euent in grieuous torments. And as in their natures they respected choise and change, so in their outward senses hee obserued first that their sight receiued more contentment in many colours, then in one alone; specially, those colours of Gold and Siluer, they preferred before the pure and simple, which they held in contempt as fitter for Hob-lurkins, then for generous spirits. As for their smelling, they approued of sundry sorts, as Ciuet, Amber-Greece, Muske, Storax, and aboue all, of Tobacco, though some of them lost their wits and the vse of their senses in the taking of it; and though most of them were ready to choake for good fellowship. The like he said, he could discourse of the rest of their senses, outward and inward. But these instances would suffice, as he conceiued, to open the way to many kindes of Trading, as well to furnish that Nation with those seuerall Commodities, though superfluous, as to replenish the Kingdome with more supplies, lest in prouiding themselues barely on their Countries charge with all those wares which their newfangled imagination prouoketh them /to: Aaa 2 (3)/ to long for, their Countrie might in a small while deuour her selfe, or else eate vp her owne tayle like a Munkey.

Now to explaine what hee had spoken of the mysticall Golden Fleece, hee onely at that time offered to declare the nature, vse, and place where it flourisheth, as how he came to the knowledge of it, if it pleased his Maiestie to affoord him audience. Apollo bad him proceed, signifying vnto him, that the principall scope of the Meeting at that season, was to haue that beneficiall Trade communicated to all his vertuous Attendants in Great Britaine.

Orpheus Iunior then went forward in this discourse: About ten yeares past, most mighty Prince, musing with my selfe what might be the Psalmists meaning of those words: Their sound is gone out into all Nations, I happily coniectured at the last, that the Word of God should not onely be spread abroad and planted by those which ought of zeale and charity to teach it; but by those, which like the frogs out of the Dragons mouth, might publish it for temporall ends. [Marginal Note: Apocalyp.] And when I had throughly lookt into these ends, the one neglected by the Professors of the Gospell, the other begun and continued with prosperous successe by the Spaniards in the West-Indies, where within these 120. yeares, many thousand Heathen people haue receiued the Christian Religion, though not so purely, as wee could wish, I collected this memorable obseruation, that our Sauiour makes vse of our worldly desires to serue his diuine intentions. In this fashion deales /an: (4)/ an Earthly Father with an vntoward Daughter, for whose aduancement in mariage, he giues a large portion to counteruaile her imperfections. By which meditations of mine, I perceiued, that nothing but gaine could moue the carelesse minds of our Ilanders to seeke abroad for new habitations. I lookt into the Plantations at the Summer-Iles, Virginia, yea into Affrick, as farre as the Cape of good hope, where for the ease of our East Indian Fleetes, I conceiued at Sancta Helena, or Soldana, a fit Plantation might be erected. But after that I had considered the many difficulties by reason of the tediousnesse of the voyage, the charge, and aboue all, the malice of the Spaniards, who being like to the Dogge in the Manger, doe want people to plant, and yet they will not permit others to plant. I saw that God had reserued the Newfoundland for vs Britaines, as the next land beyond Ireland, and not aboue nine or tenne dayes saile from thence. I saw that he had bestowed a large portion for this Countries mariage with our Kingdomes, euen this great Fishing, that by this meanes it might be frequented and inhabited the sooner by vs. And I verily thinke, that his Heauenly prouidence ordained this Iland not without a Mystery for vs of Great Britaine, that Ilanders should dwel in Ilands; and that wee should ponder on this ensuing Morall:

Euen as our Sauiour Christ making Fishermen, Fishers of men, preferred, Peter, Andrew, & others his Apostles, being plaine persons and simple, before the great Lords of the earth, as also the Lillies /of: Aaa3 (5)/ of the field, before the Royalties of Salomon: so in these latter daies, his vnsearchable wisedome preferring necessary maintenance, before needlesse superfluity, hath allotted Newfoundland, the grand Port of Fishing, to the Professors of the Gospell. And because the depraued nature of mankinde delighteth in appetite and some appearance of profit; therefore his sacred Maiestie discouered that plentifull Fishing vnto vs, to allure vs from our home-bred idlenesse, to this necessary place of Plantation. It is not Gold, nor a Siluer mine, which can feed either body or soule; but the one requires nourishment to be gotten by the sweat of the browes, the other must haue spirituall repast by the Word of God. Before the Spaniards inhabited the West-Indies, and had found those rich treasures in Peru; Sincerity raigned among the Nobles, and Simplicity among the Commons. But now money being growne in some places more rife then in times past, neighbourly Loue and Humility are fled backe into Heauen: so that we may well curse the time when these Mines were first seized on by the Spaniards. For, as the Author de la nouvelle Fraunce affirmeth: when I consider, saith hee, that by these Golden mines, the Spaniards haue kindled and entertained wars in all parts of Christendome, and haue studied to ruinate their neighbours, and not the Turke; I cannot thinke, saith this French writer, that any other then the Deuill, hath beene the Author of their voyages. Ie ne puis penser qu'autre que le Diable ait esté Autheur de leurs voyages. In this resolution being confirmed, /I: (6)/ I transported two seuerall Colonies of men and women into those parts with full intent to follow after, and to lead the remnant of my life in this new Plantation.

It seemes strange vnto my vertuous followers in Parnassus, replied Apollo, that a man of your fashion, not driuen by need, which as the prouerbe saies, makes the old wife trot, but sufficiently prouided for in your natiue Countrie, should now in the midst of your age, spend the best and rarest part of your life, which is yet to come, in building and tilling of new places.

To this Orpheus Iunior answered, I confesse, most Noble Prince, that sometimes I feele my Pillow very vneuen, my head tossed and turmoyled with many a netled thought, and my minde playing loath to depart from my natiue soile. One while the conceit of my supposed worth, reputation, kindred, acquaintance, ease, conuenience of meanes at home, and other symbolized ornaments of this present world, doe recall mee backe, like another Demas, from this charitable worke in the Newfoundland. But instantly I blush for shame, when I thinke on the magnanimity of Heathenish men, who may rise against vs at the iudgement day, and plead their good deserts before our frozen zeale; That a Citizen of Rome, for the safety of his City of Rome, sacrificed his life in that horrible gulfe; That Codrus of Athens, though a King, did disguise himselfe as a priuate Souldier, of set purpose to dye for the sauing of his people; That the chiefest Nobility among the Gothes and Vandales, /forsooke: (7)/ forsooke their owne habitations, to accompany the meaner sort of people, and to lead them into forraigne Countries, who without their personall presence, would haue staid at home like Drones, and pined for want of liuing.

Patria magnanimis est vbicunque bene,

That's my Countrie which giues me my welbeing. Euery place agrees with an honest minde, and that as naturally, as the Sea with the Fish, as the Ayre with the Fowle. Another while I meditate on that saying of S. Paul: He which prouides not for them of his owne houshold, is worse then an Infidell: Whereby the care of my Wife and Children, kindling an indulgent loue within mee, reuokes my resolution from this enterprize. But presently after I see the same God ouerlooking Newfoundland, which ouerlookes Europe, and all the world ouer, sounding out this Proclamation: He that loues his Father and Mother aboue me, is not worthy of me: which the Iesuites imbracing somewhat too meritoriously, doe to our shame, put in practice, abandoning all the pleasures of their natiue Countrie, and betaking themselues to the vttermost parts of the earth, so that China and Iapan doe ring out the name of our Sauiour Christ by their meanes and trauels.

Sometimes I suspect the Action, because I see men of my ranke so much giuen to lazinesse, and the loue of their dunghils at home, that they will indure any smart of oppression or cracke of credit, rather then they wil depart into a remoter place to liue in perpetuall plenty. But this cogitation /quickly (8)/ quickly vanisheth, when I consider the estates of our rich and poore, how the one will not, the other cannot. The one lies besotted with the lullabies of carnall ease, caring more for this worlds vanity, then for heauenly Blisse purchased by workes of charity, which as S. Iames wrote, will helpe to couer multitudes of sinnes. And the other for want of meanes, cannot get thither without some good peoples deuotions. In which latter discommodity I am sory to find so many helplesse in my Country of Wales. Wheras close by vs, I see our neighbours of Deuonshire scorning to become Gossips to pouerty, yearely to send aboue 150. ships to salute the Newfoundland, transporting therehence those Commodities, without which, Spaine and Italy can hardly liue.

This is our Colchos, where the Golden Fleece flourisheth on the backes of Neptunes sheepe, continually to be shorne. This is Great Britaines Indies, neuer to be exhausted dry. This pretious Treasure surmounts the Duke of Burgundies Golden Fleece, which he called after that name by reason of his large customs which he receiued from our English Woolls and Cloth in the Low Countries. From this Iland, our English transport worth 20000. pound; and might yeerely treble this summe, if the Plantations goe forward as happily as they doe, and may with the tenth part of the charge, which hath beene defrayed about other Plantations. So many men, so many mindes. Euery man hath his peculiar fancie, either by the motions of good Angels, or by the instigation of the Spirituall /Tempter,: Bbb (9)/ Tempter, or by the constitution of the braine, hot cold, or deprauedly mixt. But let men in cold blood lay aside their crotchets, and the sparkling flames of imagination, and iudiciously weigh the vtility of this businesse, comparing the dangers, the remotenesse, and charge of other voyages, and no doubt but God will giue them a new heart, to imbrace this proiect, which experience for these 80. yeares space hath confirmed vnto vs to bee more beneficiall, then any other whatsoeuer.

Here Orpheus Iunior suspended his speech; when as all the Auditors and standers by shouted for ioy, to heare that a new Colchos was found out for the restoring of Trading, which lately began to faile in the North-west parts of Europe. There were many Ladies which purposed out of hand to imitate Isabella Queene of Castile, in selling their Iewels, Rings, and Bracelets, for the furthering of this Plantation and Fishing, as the other had done to furnish out Columbus for the first discouery of the West-Indies. Great was the zeale, & most hopefull the Charity like to spring from this zeale, (for euery man prepared an auspicious offring for the gratulation of these ioyfull newes) when they also vnderstood that all the profits of this Golden Fleece were to be distributed among the Professors of the Gospel, & that Great Britaines Monarchy might in a short time arriue to as great riches as the Spanish. After these applauses, his Maiestie beckned to Orpheus Iunior, that he should proceed in his discourse. But suddenly the Lady Pallas interrupted him, saying, that it were requisite, all his Nobles /and: (10)/ and Gouernours of Prouinces should be present at the discouery of the Golden Fleece, whereby some timely order might bee taken for the guarding of the Coast, which produced this pretious increase of Trade. Apollo liked very wel of this wise admonition, & against that day seuennight, required his Pegasean Postmasters to summon his Prouinciall Gouernours, all other businesses set aside, that they should appeare before him in the great Hall of the Court of Audience at Parnassus.

CHAP. 2.

Orpheus Iunior particularizeth the manifold benefits of the Golden Fleece, which might serue to repaire the decay of Trade, lately complained of in Great Britaine, and to restore that Monarchy to all earthly happinesse.

IVst on the prefixed day, the afore-mentioned Gouernors appeared before his Maiestie, at the place appointed, where Apollo, the Lady Pallas, the Muses, the Graces, the Nymphs of Great Britaine and Ireland, and all the wise Councellors of State, with the choise spirits of his Empire attending on his Maiestie, hee commanded Orpheus Iunior particularly to certifie vnto them the necessity and commodity of the Golden Fleece, which might supply the defects of Great Britaine, and restore it to the most flourishing estate, wherein it euer stood in former times. Orpheus Iunior after some few excuses of his disability, proceeded to epitomize the singular properties of the Golden /Fleece,: Bbb2 (11)/ Fleece so much expected in this wise:

Most redoubted Emperor, and next to our great Creator, the prime Author of our worldly happinesse, I am glad after the manifold crosses, which I haue sustained by sundry accidents, that God hath reserued me an Instrument this day to discouer that gaine, which helpes our Commerce personall betwixt party and party, and the Prouinciall betwixt our Kingdomes and the foraigne, and both in the scale and ballance of Trade. But before I declare the Commodities of this Trade, I wil first shew the Necessity wherein we stand, if it be not suddenly aduanced forwards.

To begin with my Natiue Countrey Wales; Although many strange sicknesses haue diuers times of late yeares afflicted vs, yet notwithstanding the multitudes of people are here so great, that thousands yearly doe perish for want of reliefe. Yea, I haue known in these last deare yeares, that 100. persons haue yearly died in a parish, where the Tithes amounted not to fourscore pounds a yeare, the most part for lacke of food, fire and raiment, the which the poorer sort of that Country stand in greater need of, then the Inhabitants of the Champion Countreyes, by reason of their Mountaines and hills, which cause the winter there to be most bitter with stormy winds, raine, or snow, and that for the space of eight moneths. As also experience teacheth that Mountainous people require more store of nourishment for their bodies, then they which dwell in the plaines or vallies: which was the reason, that in the North /parts: (12)/ parts of England, Seruants vsed to couenant heretofore with their Masters to feed them with bread made with Beanes, and not of Barly from Allhalontide vntill May.

Another point of Necessity to procure vs to set forwards this most hopeful Plantation, and consequ~etly the Fishing, proceeds of the want of woods. For the Ironmongers vpon what warrant I cannot learne, haue lately consumed our woods, and those fit for timber, within lesse th~e 6 miles to the Sea, so that we must shortly repaire to other Countryes for woods to be employed towards shipping, building, husbandry, &c. which poore men are not able to do. The decay of these woods also wil cause our breed of Cattle to decrease, which heretofore stood as a shelter vnto them against tempestuous blastes.

Thirdly, this maine businesse is to be promoted in regard of the Generall Populousnesse of Great Britaine, which is the cheife cause, that Charity waxeth cold. Euery man hath enough to doe, to shift for his owne maintenance, so that the greatest part are driuen to extremities, and many to get their liuing by other mens losses; witnes our Extortioners, Periurers, Pettifoggers at Law, Conycatchers, Theeues, Cottagers, Inmates, vnnecessary Alesellers, Beggers, burners of hedges, to the hindrance of Husbandry, and such like, which might perhaps proue profitable members in the Newfoundland. But aboue all, the state of younger Brothers is to the [sic MW] pitied, who by the rigour of our Norman Lawes being left vnprouided of mainte- /nance: Bbb3 (13)/ nance are oftentimes constrained to turne Pyrats, Papists, fugitiues, or to take some other violent course to the preiudice of the Common-wealth.

For these important reasons arising out of meere necessity, Pantations ought suddenly to be erected. And where with lesser charge then in the Newfoundland? Where can they liue to helpe themselues, and benefit their Country better, then in ioyning to encrease the reuenewes of the Crowne of Great Britaine by the rich trade of Fishing? The Commodities whereof, I will here cursorily repeat.

[Marginal Note: 1] First, this Trade of Fishing multiplyeth shipping and Mariners, the principall props of this Kingdome. It yearely maintaineth 8000 persons for 6 moneths in the Newfoundland, which were they at home would consume in Tobacco and the Alehouse twice as much as they spend abroad. It releeues after their returne home with the labour of their hands yearely their wiues and children, and many thousand families within this Kingdome besides, which aduentured with them, or were employed in preparing of nets, caskes, victualls, &c. or in repayring of ships for that voyage.

[Marginal Note: 2] Secondly, It is neer vnto Great Britane, the next Land beyond Ireland, in a temperate Aire, the south part thereof being of equall Climate with Little Britaine in France, where the Sunne shines almost halfe an houre longer in the shortest day in the yeare, then it doth in England.

[Marginal Note: 3] Thirdly, it will be a meanes for vs to reape the rest of the commodities of that Countrey, which /now: (14)/ now we cannot enioy for want of people to looke after them, and also for want of leasure, our men there being busied in the Summer about the fishing, or in preparing of their stages and boats, and afterward returning home against winter. The commodities of the Land are Furres of Beuer, Sables, Blacke Foxes, Marternes, Musk-rats, Otters, and such like skinnes, as also of greater beasts; as Deere, and other wild creatures. To this I adioyne the benefit, which may be made by woods, being pine, birch, spruce, Furre, &c. fit for boords, Masts, barke for tanning, and dying, Charcoales for making of Iron. Out of these woods we may haue pitch, Tarre, Rosen, Turpentine, Frankinscence, and honey out of the hollow trees, as in Muscouy, and heretofore in our owne woods before they were conuerted to the Iron Mills. There is great store of Mettals, if they be lookt after.

[Marginal Note: 4] The Plantations well and orderly there once erected, will helpe vs to settle our Fishing Trade farre more commodiously, then now it is. For whereas our Fisher-men set out at the end of February, they may choose to set out before the end March, if euery man hath his stages there ready against their comming, and not by the first commers destroyed most barbarously & maliciously, because their countrymen which come next after them may be behind them a fortnight in building of others. And likewise the Planters themselues may fish for Cod there a moneth before our English men can arriue thither, and also after they are gone they may fish almost all the yeare after. /They: (15)/

[Marginal Note: 5] They may fish there for other kindes of fish besides Cod, as Mackerels, Salmons, Herrings, and Eeles, salting them and barrelling them vp: which will much aduantage this Kingdome being hither transported.

[Marginal Note: 6] They may erect salt houses there, hauing woods sufficient for that purpose, which may saue this Kingdome much money, which now goes out to other Countreyes for the same.

[Marginal Note: 7] The Plantations may in a short time supply vs with Corne here in England, when the same growes deare, as commonly it doth within the space of euery fiue yeares, whereby wee are faine to be beholding to Danzk, and Poland, expending that way much of our Treasure. That Land hauing the vegetatiue salt and vertue of it vnwearied, entire, and fresh, cannot but beare a world of corne, considering also the gummes and liquors which from time to time since the Flood or the Creation haue with the heate of the Sunne distilled out of the trees into the earth, which renders it most fruitfull. The which may be likewise gathered by obseruing the commodities and fruits, which now the earth produceth without the industry of man.

No place of the world brings naturally more store of Gooseburies, and those bigger then our Garden ones, Rasburies, Mulburies, Filbirdes, Straburies, Hurtles, Cherries, wilde Pease, and abunndance of Roses.

[Marginal Note: 8] By this Trading into Newfoundland, no commoditie is caried out of the Kingdome, as in other voyages, which is a matter of great consequence. /But: (16)/ But by the labour of their hands they bring home Fish wet and dry, and Traine Oile; Or else they bring home Salt, Wines, Spice, Sugar, &c. in exchange of their Fish out of France and Spaine, a speciall enriching of this Realme, and an augmenting of the Kings Customes and Impostes.

[Marginal Note: 9] The Plantations there will saue many a poore mans life, who falling sicke, as among so great a number some may chance to be, may quickly recouer their healths by fresh victualls and good lodging.

[Marginal Note: 10] This Plantation will preuent other Nations from engrossing the Countrey and the Fishing to themselues, as perhaps hereafter some may goe about such a Plot. It will reduce such as resort thither, to acknowledge our Kings soueraignty ouer that Land. It will serue to bridle their outrages, and also the abuses committed by our owne Countrymen about the taking away with strong hand one anothers stages and boates. It will serue to rstraine their insolencies, who now bragging, that they are there West and by Law, doe wilfully set fire on the woods. It will bridle their thefts, which filch at their departure all the railes of other mens stages, together with their salt, which being full laden with fish, they are forced oftentimes to leaue behind them. It will serue likewise to hinder their barbarous casting of their ballast into the harbours, which in a short time will ouerthrow both the hauens and the Fishing.

To these motiues I could ioyne others; But because I thinke here are sufficient to lead men of /vnder-: Ccc (17)/ vnderstanding to see into their profit, & what may most easily be performed, I will leaue off to trouble your patient eares any longer with a more tedious discourse, hoping that these wil suffice as restoratiues to repaire the languishing humours of our Country. To the furtherance of which worthy worke I inuite the Inhabitants of Great Britaine, like true Christian Patriots, to put to their helping hands. What for mine owne particulars I haue done, our Newland Merchants know. And more as yet I would doe, were my meanes answerable to my mind; Howsoeuer, during my life I shall reioyce that in this vale of misery I haue set out my talent to some good behoofe. And in the houre of death it shall be my comfort, that I haue laboured to keepe the Faith not altogether fruitlesse and imaginary, but accompanied with some actuall deeds of Charity. /CHAP.: (18)/

CHAP. 3.

Apollo calls an Assembly of the Company, for the Plantation of Newfoundland, where Mr. Slany, Mr. Guy, and others, meeting by his Maiesties Commandement, Captain Iohn Mason is willed to disclose, whether the Golden Fleece be there, where Orpheus Iunior alleadged it to be. Captaine Mason auerreth it to be in the same Iland more abundantly then in any other place.

APollo hauing with acute iudgment, and mature deliberation resolued to countenance and continue the Plantation of the Iland commonly called the Newfoundland, afer his Maiestie had by publike proclamation commanded the same to be hereafter called Britannioll, & to be diuided into three parts, as Great-Britaine was at the first planting by the Troians, or as others affirme by the valiant Cimbrians, hee assembled all those expert gentlemen, which had either aduentured their fortunes or persons in that hopefull Countrey. And in the magnificent Hall of the Delphicke Palace, there appeared the noble minded Iohn Slany Treasurer of the society for that Plantation, Humphrey Slany his brother, & others of the Corporation out of London and Bristow; Then entred Iohn Guy Alderman of Bristow, who was the first Christian, that planted and wintered in that Iland, establishing an English Colony at /Cuperts: Ccc2 (19)/ Cuperts Coue within the Bay of Conception, about 13. years past. After him, came Captaine Iohn Mason, who dwelt in that Country sixe yeares. Next to these, many others out of Bristow and Wales succeeded, who had spent some few yeares in that Land. And particularly, one Captaine Winne a Cambro-Britan was much noted in this Assembly for his personall abode and painefull care in setling the Plantation at Feriland in the South part of this Coast, where for the space of 4 yeares hee did more good for my Lord Baltimore, then others had done in double the time.

Apollo not mindfull, that there were any more Aduenturers & Planters of eminency then these, which he beheld there present, was about to frame a speech vnto them, when the Lady Mnemosyne Princesse of Memory whispered his Maiestie in the eare, that there were other Noble Britaines, which had likewise aduanced this glorious enterprize. And why said Apollo, doe they absent themselues from this Assembly? They haue reason for it, answered the Lady Pallas; For if they repaire hither to your Maiesties Court, and their Enemies watching that opportunity should enter into their charge, the remedies which you consult vpon at this present, will fall out to bee applyed, as Physicke to a dead Coarse; Some of the Dunkirkes may take their progesse into your Britanniol, to solace themselues there with your Nimphs, and to glut their greedy throats with Cods-heads. In what a case thinke you will your Iasons bee with their Fishing for the Golden Fleece, if some of /these: (20)/ these Raggamuffins make hauocke of their Ships, Mariners, Goods, and Plantations? Before you borrow the personal presence of those Gentlemen who are here wanting, it were fit your tooke some order to secure that Coast from Piraticall rouers. The Lord Vicount Falkland looketh vnto his great Gouernement in Ireland, to see the same well fortified and guarded. The Lord Baltimore is likewise busie in supplying his Colony at Feriland. Sir William Alexander attends on the valiant King of Great Britaine, night and day, taking care by what meanes he may most commodiously transport his Scottish Colonies into those parts. Sir Francis Tanfield, and Sir Arthur Aston, two generous Knights, which to their immortall glory, doe imploy their times in building and manuring that new ground, cannot be spared from their Plantations, lest the wild Boares breake into their Gardens. I thinke, said Apollo, I must send for Hercules from his starry Spheare, or get another Medusa, whose very sight shall turne these Dunkirkes into stones, before my vertuous followers shall endure the least affront at the hands of malicious Erynnis, that Patronesse of barbarous Pirates. In the mean time we will thinke on some conuenient course to restraine these threatned thunders and blustering blasts.

And seeing that you my deare seruants, are here assembled at this time, I must haue you to satisfie the wauering world, whether the Golden Fleece be in greater plenty and abundance in this Iland or in New England, Virginia, the Summer Iles, or in /some: Ccc3 (21)/ some other forraigne Coast, which your Nation may easily possesse. At these words, there was much muttering among the English and Scottish. For some contended on the behalfe of Virginia; others contested for New England. Euery man had his opinion according to his imaginary obiect, wherein most preferred priuate fantasies, before the intellectual facultie. His Maiestie hauing patiently awayted for their vnanimous resolution, like Brethren of the same Iland, borne vnder the same Prince, Religion and Gouernement, and seeing no end of their disputes, hee willed Captaine Mason to breake the Ice, in respect he had beene sixe yeares acquainted with ice and frosts at Cupert Coue, one of the coldest places of those Countries, and boldly without partiality, feare, or sinister regard, to disclose the secrets of the Soile, the benefits of the Land, and whether this Plantation were such an inestimable iewell as Orpheus Iunior had deliuered, or to be had in more estimation then any other place.

Captaine Mason after some complementall excuse of his disability, answered in this wise: I could haue wisht that Mr. Iohn Guy, my predecessor in Britannioll, a man both learned & experienced in these exploits, had spared me the relation, which your Maiestie hath imposed on me: But seeing the lot is falne into my share, I will repeat those passages, which hee and others here know better then my selfe.

This Iland now in question is altogether as large as England, without Scotland. And at the /degree: (22)/ degree of 51. of Northerly latitude. Where England ends, there this blessed Land beginnes, and extends it selfe almost as farre as the degree of 46. iust in a manner as the climate lieth from Caleis to Rochell. The weather in the winter somewhat like vnto it in Yorkeshire, but farre shorter, for the Sun shines aboue halfe an houre longer in the shortest day, then it doth in London. The Summer much horter then in England, and lasteth from Iune vnto Michaelmas, specially in the Southerly part. I haue knowne September, October, and Nouember, much warmer then in England. But one thing more I found worthy of an Astrologers search, wherefore the Spring begins not there before the end of Aprill, and the winter comes not in before December or Ianuary: the causes I know not, vnlesse Nature recompenceth the defect of the timely Spring, with the backward and later winter. Or else because our Plantations lay open to the Easterly windes, which partaking of the large tract of the Sea, and of the icie mountaines, which flote there, being driuen by the current from the Northerly parts of the world, might happily proue the accidentall cause of the Springs backwardnesse; yet tolerable enough, and well agreeing with our constitutiõs. Towards the North, the land is more hilly and woody; but the South part, from Renoos, to Trepassa, plaine and champaine euen for 30. miles in extent. It abounds with Deere, as well fallow Deere, as Ellans, which are as bigge as our Oxen. And of all other sorts of wilde Beasts, as here in Europe, Beuers, Hares, &c. The like I may /say: (23)/ say for Fowle and Fish. I knew one Fowler in a winter, which killed aboue 700. Partridges himselfe at Renoos. But for the Fish, specially the Cod, which drawes all the chiefe Port townes in Christendome to send thither some ships euery yeare, either to fish, or to buy the same; it is most wonderfull, and almost incredible, vnlesse a man were there present to behold it. Of these, three men at Sea in a Boat, with some on shoare to dresse and dry them, in thirty dayes will kill commonly betwixt fiue and twenty and thirty thousand, worth with the Traine oyle arising from them, one hundred or sixe score pounds. I haue heard of some Countries, commended for their twofold haruest, which here we haue, although in a different kinde: yet both as profitable, I dare say, as theirs so much extolld. There is no such place againe in the world for a poore man to raise his fortunes, comparable to this Plantation, for in one moneths space, with reasonable paines, he may get as much as will pay both Land-lords Rent, Seruants wages, and all Houshold charges, for the whole yeare, and so the rest of his gaine to increase.

As for the other question, whether the title of the Golden Fleece may bee conferred more deseruedly vpon this Iland, then on any other forraigne place, where his Maiesties Subiects of Great Britaine doe vse to Trade? By the last part of my Discourse, it is plaine, that it goes farre beyond all other places of Trade whatsoeuer, and iustly to be preferred before New England, Virginia, and other Plantations, for these foure reasons: /First,: (24)/ First, it lieth neerer to Great Britaine, by three or foure hundred leagues, then eyther of them. For wee may saile hither within twelue or fourteene daies, being not aboue sixe or seuen hundred leagues passage: wheras Virginia lieth as far again. Secondly, it is better in respect of Trade, and the concourse of people, which with 500. or 600. Ships, doe yearly resort thither. By which meanes they augment their Princes Customes, and doe maintaine many thousands of their fellow-subiects, their wiues and children. Thirdly, the conueniency of transporting Planters thither at tenne shillings a man, and twenty shillings the Tunne of goods. And if the party be a Labourer, it will cost him nothing for his passage, but rather hee shall receiue foure or fiue pound for his hire to helpe the Fishermen on the Land for the drying of their Fish: whereas euery man which goeth to Virginia, must pay fiue pound for his passage.

Lastly, wee are better secured from Enemies, for we haue no Sauages to annoy vs in the South-parts: And if any warres should happen betwixt Great Britaine and Spaine, we need not feare their insolent inuasions. For wee haue a Garrison of three or foure hundred Ships, of our owne Nation, which fish at our doors all the summer, and are able to withstand an Armada, if their King would but confirme that Commission, which his blessed Father, about three yeares already past granted, that two warlike Ships be yearely sent as waftors to defend the Coast, and to be authorized with power to leuy men & Ships there, if occasion /so: Ddd (25)/ so require; and all vpon the charges of the Fishing fleete. This Commission I obtained, and sithence I left it with my friend Orpheus Iunior, to bring to perfection, who as I am inforemd, is at this present in the Court of Great Britaine, an earnest solicitor to that effect. To conclude, after the Fishing Fleetes are returned homewards, we are safe, for the windes are commonly from August out Westerly, whereby none can come to vs. And if they should; we haue other places in the Country to goe to, till our Enemies bee gone. For there long they dare not stay for feare of the Frosts, which perhaps their tender complexions cannot brooke as well as our Northerly Nations.

CHAP. 4.

Apollo commands Iohn Guy, Alderman of Bristow, to shew how the Plantations in the Newfoundland might be established & secured from the cold vapours, and foggy mists which in the Spring are supposed to molest that Country.

APollo hauing noted how important to Great Britaine the Plantations are like to succeed and fall out for the restoring of their State to worldly felicity, that it proue a paralleled Monarchy to the proudest of the bordering kingdomes, made choise of Iohn Guy, Alder- /man: (26)/ man of Bristow, to shew in what manner the Britaines should order their Plantations in this Golden Iland, and secure their new habitations from the icie and cold foggy Aire, which in some seasons of the yeare were reported by the Fishermen, to molest and damnifie the Inhabitants.

Master Guy earnestly sought to post ouer the handling of this serious determination to Captaine Mason, in respect hee had wintred there longer then he had. But Apollo by no meanes would alter his imposition, saying, that in regard that Mr. Guy had oftentimes beene personally in the Land, and wintred there twise, being the first Christian, which made it apparent to the world that it was habitable & commodious for the vse of mankinde, and also for that he had calculated the mutations of the seasons, keeping a Iournall of euery Accident during his abode in the Country; hee, and none but he should direct what might be conuenient for the setling and prosperous propagation of these most hopefull Plantations.

Mr. Guy seeing that by no entreaty or excuse, he could put the taske off from himselfe, with a lowly reuerence to his Maiestie, he said; If the Noble Emperour had askt my poore iudgement a dozen yeares past, concerning these secrets, it may be, I might haue giuen him more agreeable contentment, then at this time. For then the modell of the Country and Climat lay more fresh in my apprehension. Notwithstanding, seeing the lot is cast vpon me, I will produce the best remedies which I know for the correcting of the malignant /ayre,: Ddd2 (27)/ ayre, if so I may without scandall call it. The Country I assure your Maiestie, is as tolerable as England, Caeteris paribus, comparing all the seasons together.

And if some nice persons feele one winter among many, more snowy and frosty then other, they seeme to forget their owne Country, where the like inconuenience hapneth. But to auoid the worst, if euery Householder digge vp the next ground to his habitation, and round about the same, and then burne it, those moyst foffy vapours will not appeare, specially after the Sunne hath once warmed and pierced into the earth so dismantled and layd bare. Secondly, let them dig welles neere their houses against winter, that they may haue water in despite of the frost or snow. Thirdly, let them prouide them of fewell enough before winter, to haue the same more seare and dried. Fourthly, let them build their houses with a hill, or great store of trees interposed as a shelter betwixt them and the sea-windes, which there are Easterly and very nipping. There is no winter to speake of before the midst of Ianuary. And when the Easterly windes blow, the weather is no other, then it is in Holland. And I verily beleeue, that in the south part of the Land, where it trends towards the west, and where the ground is eauen and plaine without hilles, it differs not much from the temperature of the south part of Germany. And for the further encouragement of our Planters, I can auow this for a certaine rule, that once being passed a mile or two into the Land, the weather /is: (28)/ is farre hotter. I found Filberds sixe miles distant from the Sea side, very ripe a moneth before they were fit to be eaten by the Seaside. So great an alteration there is within sixe miles space, by reason that those raging Easterly windes are defended and asswaged by the hilles and woods which stand as walles to fence and breake their force.

Aboue all things, I wish the Planters to sleepe in boorded roomes, and not to be too idle the first winter for feare of the Scuruy. For in all Plantations this disease commonly seaseth vpon lazy people the first winter. Yea, Sir Walter Rawleighs Colony in Virginia, though a hotter Country, 1586. could not auoid this mortall sicknesse. These rules obserued, our Planters may liue happily. They may fish a moneth before others, which come out of England thither to fish, & they may fish three moneths or more for Cod and Herring, after they are departed, which will much enrich them. /CHAP.: Ddd3 (29)/

CHAP. 5.

Sir Ferdinando Gorge is accused by the western Fishermen of England, for hindering th~e of their stages, to dry their Fish in New England, and from trading with the Sauages for Furres and other Commodities. Ferdinando Gorge his answer. Apollo reconcileth their differences.

VPon the Friday seuennight before Easter, in Lent last, 1626. there arriued here at Parnassus, certaine Westerne Merchants out of England, iust about that time, as Apollo had decreed straight execution against some for the eating of Flesh on some prescribed dayes, for that weighty and politicall respect of maintaining Nauigation, wherein the workes of our Creator doe shew themselues no lesse admirable, then the land. Assoone as these Merchants had heard this necessary Law, with the execution, one of them, a person of very discreet behauiour, desired liberty to speake on the behalfe of his poore Countreymen for some oppressions, which Ferdinando Gorge Gouernour of the Fort at Plimouth, whom they pointed at, present in the great Hall of the Court of Audience, had vnder colour of a Patent deriued from his Earthly Soueraigne of great Britains Prerogatiue, most vncharitably & vnlawfully committed against them, their Factors, and Mariners on the Coast of New England in Amrica. Apollo willed them to declare their grieuances. First, they /particularly: (30)/ particularly shewed that this place was an Heathenish Coast, vntilled, and voyd of Christian Inhabitants: in regard whereof they tooke it to be lawfull for them being Christians, who in such remote wild Countreyes were to passe for Freemen, and equal for right with Alexander the great, that went into the East Indies, as they into the West, there to enioy the benefit of the Law of Nations, to discouer new Countries, to exchange wares for wares, Cloath for Furres, Ciuility for rudenesse, and likewise to transport Fish, which they laboured hardly for, Pitch, Tarre, Masts, and such like, which they could not haue in Europe, without a farre greater charge. All this notwithstanding, Sir Ferdinando Gorge by his Lieutenant and Agents, opposed their Commerce, forced them to compound for their Stages, and pretended the Commodities of the Country to bee due to him, and his Associates, who first discouered the same, and afterwards had obtained a Patent thereof, of the Noble King Iames for their vse. Likewise, they intimated, that the Sea was free and common to all men, more common then Ergo in the Schooles, or the word Homo, which the Grammarians, euen since Orbilius, Quintilian, and Priscians time, haue stoutly maintained to bee a common name to all men, ciuill and sauage; yea, and to all sorts of women, the chast, as the strumpet. In respect of which Community, warranted by the Lawes of the Rhodes, the statutes of Oleron, by the Constitutions of Holland, and lastly, by his transcendent authority which wrote the Booke /called: (31)/ called Mare liberum, they hoped to settle a beneficiall Trading, as well for Fishing on these forraigne Coasts, as for such Land Commodities, which the Sauages would trucke with them.

Apollo vnderstanding of these oppositions, tending in appearance to be a publike grieuance, demanded of Sir Ferdinando Gorge, wherefore hee sought to engrosse those merchandizes, and to make a monopoly of the Furres, which being bought of the Sauages, might in time by this concourse of his fellow Christians, proue a meane to ciuilize those rude Nations; and specially his Maiestie askt him why he went about to appropriate the Sea Coasts to some few of his adherents, which ought to be common, which serued to exercise honest men in industrious courses, and to make good his Law against the eating of flesh vpon prefixed dayes?

Sir Ferdinando Gorge answered: Most dread Soueraigne, the honour of a King consisteth as well in aduancing the building vp his Sauiours Church, as the inlarging of his Territories, which may proue an addition to the strengthening of his Forces, and the inriching of his Crowne. For the perfection of which glorious worke, it pleased God to raise mee and others to aduenture our meanes for the discouery of this Country called New England, which before lay vnknowne. Hauing found it a habitable place, commodious for the vse of many distressed people, whom I saw to grone vnder the burthen of pouerty in my natiue Soile; I resolued to imitate the painefull Bees, to /build: (32)/ build houses, like Hiues, and therein to transplant them. For which purpose to auoyd the confused state of an Anarchy, I prepared the Plantation intended with the support of the Regall countenance, and to that end got the Patent specified by my Aduersaries with large priuiledges, immunities, and power, whereby our Planters might rest assured, not onely of security against Drones, but also of the quiet fruition of their profitable endeuours hazarded with their liues, and not to bee attained without labours and the sweat of their browes. Of what consequence not only this Plantation is, but likewise all others of the like nature, who knowes better then your Maiestie, who once a yeare suruayes the vttermost parts of the earth, euen to the Southerne Pole? For what is it, which renders a Nation vnhappy? Next to the want of Gods knowledge, which the Scripture terms Darknesse, it is the want of necessaries for the sustentation of life, as meat, drinke, and apparell. And when through a long peace, and their ouerspent fields, their Country-men doe increase and multiply, so that the extent of their natiue Land is not capable nor sufficient to maintaine them, what (poore soules) shall they doe? If they rob or steale, they are hanged. If they looke for worke, perhaps they may meet with some couetous wretch that will retaine them during the haruest of Hay and Corne: but in the Winter, which in this Climat is longer then the Summer, they may starue for lacke of food, rayment and fyring. This inconuenience was foreseene aboue 100. yeares /since,: Eee (33)/ since by Sir Thomas Moore, who grieuously bewailes the ouer-sight of our Policies, for condemning men to be hanged, who robd of meere necessity; whereas their Country, like a prouident Mother, ought rather to prouide them reliefe, whereby they might liue like men borne of a wise and politike mother. [Marginal Note: In lib. de Eutopia.] Some mothers haue loued their children, that they haue hazarded their own liues, to get heritages for their younger children: yea, and were content to suffer want themselues, rather then their ofspring should miscarry.

Examples we can produce many. How came the world first to be planted? If the first Generations after Noahs Flood, had all abode in Armenia, Chaldea, and Assyria, the rest of the world had beene created in vaine. Therefore God sundred them by confounding their languages at Babell, that the glory of his power might be noised in all Regions, and the sound of his Name, throughout all Nations. This made Saturne to plant in Italy. This made Hercules to trauell to the Atlantique Iles, and to ingraue his name on those memorable Pillars at the Straights of Gibraltar. This made Iason with his braue Fleete of Argonautickes to saile into Cholchos, in hope of a perpetuall Trade for the Gold of that place with his Grecian Commodities. How came the Iles, the Iles of the Gentiles to be peopled, but by Plantations transported vpon the charge of able and substantiall persons. Marseiles was ciuilized and inhabited with a Greeke Colony. From whence are we all come into these parts? We are not Natiues, but after many hands /led: (34)/ led into this Kingdome. Wee came from Saxony our selues, as the most of Italy doe descend from the Northerly parts of Germany. The Spaniards deriue their pedegrees from the runnagate Gothes, or from the Moores, who likewise glory to bee a remnant of the fugitiue Arabes.

O what a shame is it vnto vs at this day, to see whole numbers of our English and Scottish dispersed abroad in Popish and Moorish Countries, turned Apostataes, and in time forgoing the memory of their naturall Mother-tongue, as of the true Faith, wherein they were baptized! Now how easily might this monstrous and inhumane absurdity be preuented by a timely Plantation?

To this end haue I and my Copartners laboured. But as we were laying the foundation, these Antiplanters enuying at those hopefull attempts like those which repined at the rebuilding of Ierusalem, would needs inioy the fruits of our labours, despoyling vs of our Stages, and the plaine plats of ground bounding on the Sea; and not thus content, they would cut downe a tree worthy forty shillings, fit for a Mast, where a tree of two shillings might serue their turne. Sometimes they would either of despite to the Planters, or in a wanton vnbrideled humour, set fire on the woods two or three miles together. We neuer gaine-said them to fish vpon our Coast, but on the contrary, we were very glad of the occasiõ. Only we sought to curbe their insolencies, which committed these outrages. We endeuoured to hinder their wilfull casting their ballast into the harbours, which in /snall: Eee2 (35)/ small time will quickly decide this present controuersie, when the harbours shall by this outragious abuse, bee choakt and dammed vp without any hope of recouery.

As for the Trade of Furs, how can this be a grieuance more then it is in England, where the petty Lords of Mannors clayme a farre greater Iurisdiction there, to enlarge their Forrests and games: yea and some haue obtained a Free Warren, that none whatsoeuer should hawke or hunt vpon their Lands, or within their Precincts. If this be allowed in Old England, much more ought we to stand vpon our Royalties in New England, in lieu of our infinite charge and paines taken in our voyages, and setling there our new inhabitants. What Gentlemen of fashion will forsake their Country, except they shall haue a larger extent of command, and more hopes of benefit then at home? To suffer such barbarous insolencies to bee done on a mans Free-hold, cannot but trouble the meekest man on the earth: yea, another Moses, another Iob. To this I adde, how some of these Antiplanters led by an vnheard-of greedinesse of gaine, haue sold vnto the Sauages, Muskets, Fowling-Peeces, Powder, Shot, Swords, Arrowheads, and other Armes, wherewith the Sauages slew some of those Fishermen, which had so inconsiderately sold such dangerous wares to Infidels. By which means they are now become dangerous & formidable to the Planters themselues. And farre more fearefull would they haue proued vnto vs, if the King of Great Britain our Soueraign, /had: (36)/ had not strictly made a Proclamation to the contrary, that no Subiect of his should presume to sel th~e any such vnlawfull ware. Vpon the brute of which Proclamation, the Sauages being hopelesse euer to receiue of our Nation more Gunpowder; they very circumspectly sowed in the best cornefields they had all the Powder which remained, with full expectation to reape a goodly haruest thereof, as of Mustard or other seedes.

Apollo according to his wonted manner, hauing paused and meditated on the Plaintiffes and Defendants allegations about one quarter of an houre: at last pronounced this definitiue sentence. Forasmuch as wee conceiue both this Plantation, and the Fishing Trade to be very expedient to Great Britaine: we order both of them, like Hippocrates Twinnes, to consociate together in brotherly amity, and to assist one another without malicious emulation. That the Fishermen haue conuenient places for the drying of their Fish on the land, with as much woods as will serue for their fewell during their abode in that Country, and for their returne homewards by the way, and also as much woods as will build vp or repaire their Ships & Stages; prouided that the commn sort of Marriners shall not of their owne heads, without their Master of the Ship, and one of the chiefe of the Planters be present, cut or cast down any woods, but what by them shall be seene fit for those necessary vses. Secondly, that none of the Fishermen shall throw their Ballast into the Harbours to deface the same. Thirdly, that for some /few: Eee3 (37)/ few yeares, they shall not traffique with the Sauages, but shall leaue the same to the Planters, vntill the Plantations be compleately strengthened, and of sufficient power to liue of themselues, and bee conueniently armed against those barbarous people. Fourthly, that all such plats of plaine lands, neere to the Harbours, which the Planters shall from henceforth rid of woods, and make apt for Stages to dry fish vpon, shall belong to the Planters: And that all such places which the Fishermen haue already rid, and built Stages vpon, shall appertaine to them for euer. As also al such Stages, which they shall hereafter build for that purpose. In lieu of which priuiledges, euery Ship shall transport a Tunne of such prouisions which the Plantations want, receiuing for the same, tenne shillings, towards the fraught, and the price of the goods by them disbursed in England. Fiftly, that both the Planters and the Fishermen shall ioyne and suddenly assemble all their forces together with their best endeuours to expell Pirates, and their Countries enemies; if any arriue on that Coast, with intent to prey vpon eyther of them. Sixtly, if any dissention happen betwixt the Fishermen and the Planters, the matter shall be compromitted to twelue mens arbitrement, sixe of the one side, and sixe of the other, and if they misse to accord the parties difference, then the chiefe person in the Plantation, and the Master of the Ship, whereof the Fisherman is, to end the businesse as Vmpires and principall Iudges. /CHAP.: (38)/

CHAP. 6.

Apollo moued to pitty vpon a Petition preferred vnto him by certaine Saylers Widowes, whose Husbands perished in the voyages vnder the East Indies Company, causeth foure famous Knights of Great Britain, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Martin Furbisher, Sir Henry Middleton, and Sir Thomas Button, to signifie their opinions, whereabout the best passage to the East Indies did lye.

VPon the Feast day of Saint Marke the Euangelist last past, 1626. as Apollo was conferring with certaine Cosmographers, for the aduancing of the East Indy Trade, the Lady Pallas whispered his Maiestie in the eare, to admit some into that conference, which had beene principall Nauigators imployed for discoueries towards those Coasts. For said she, though speculation bee the most noble Science in Philosophy, yet for the atchieuement of a reall and beneficiall Trade, it serues to no other vse, then as a Preparatiue in Phisicke to make the humours pliable and tractable for the insuing Purgation: the which notwithstanding may proue erroneous and deceiueable, if it meetes with a malignant, stubborne, or peruerse matter. For who can by a coniecturall knowledge, pierce into more hidden occurrences? There is as much difference betwixt speculation and practise, as is betwixt a clinicall scholler, discoursing /of: (39)/ of Countries by his Map or Globe on a Table, as a Mariner trauersing the Ocean, where oftentimes he meetes with such difficulties, that hee is forced to returne home, and to wait for a more seasonable opportunity. Therefore if you meane to hold vp and continue this Company, it were good you sent for some choyse and well experienced Nauigators which may direct this businesse, associated with the Gentlemen aboue-named.

Apollo liked very well of this aduise, and presently caused these foure famous Knights to bee sent for, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Martin Furbisher, Sir Henry Middleton, and Sir Thomas Button. As soone as they were come into his Maiesties presence, he related vnto them, that vpon a Petition exhibited vnto him by many poore Widowes of the City of London, and of other Cities & Towns in Great Britaine, how their Husbands perished in their voyages to the East Indies, by the distemperature of the climate, in passing so often vnder the Tropickes, and the burning Zones, they therfore desired eyther that he should dissolue the East Indie Company, or finde out a more conuenient passage to these Countries, where the Spices grew, which their Countrymen wanted. Otherwise they must of necessity continue still vnmaried; or liue in daily feares to lose their succeeding Husbands, who for their reliefe would hazard their liues, as the others had formerly done. For such was their ineuitable Fate, they said, that none would aduenture on Sailers Widowes, but men of the same vocation. Vpon which clamors of these distressed /Creatures,: (40)/ Creatures, his Maiestie being moued to pitty and commiseration, required them to yeeld their seuerall censures, by what passage the English Nation might traffique into those Lands of Spiceries with lesse perils and losses of Sailers. Sir Francis Drake first deliuered his opinion, that the moderne Cosmographers agreed vpon foure waies to the East Indies: Two imaginary, by the Northeast, which Pliny mentioned, Sir Hugh Willowby attempted, and the Hollanders prosecuted vpon the North of Muscouy to Noua Zembla, Waygate, and the Riuer Ob, but all in vaine: and by the North-West, which Sir Martin Furbisher first entred into, and Sir Thomas Button sithence pursued, but without fortunate successe. The other two waies to saile into the Lands and Ilands of Spices, were famous, which himselfe had past. The one through the Streights of Magellan, the other by the Cape of good Hope. Of these, he liked those of Magellan, and now the rather, for that Tierra del fuego, which is the South part of those Streights, is lately found out by certaine Hollanders, to be an Iland: And that himselfe had beene driuen by foule weather, as farre as 57. degrees of Southerly latitude, where he found some Ilands, and in all likelihood, an open passage about the 60. degree, which the Hollanders tried to be true, now stiling the same, Lameers Streights. This way hee approued lesse dangerous then the other, specially to the Molucca Ilands; so that they would begin their voyage about the end of August from England: that they might arriue there by the end of December, /which: Fff (41)/ which falls out to be the first of Iune, or end of May, in these Streights. Sir Maurice Abbot contradicted Sir Francis Drake, and said, that the greatest comfort in such long voyages, was to be sure of fresh victuals, which they could not bee assured of, by those Southwest Streights.

To this Sir Francis Drake answered: that for Wood, Water, Fish and Fowle, they might haue enough on this side, and neere the Streights; that they might be relieued in distresse at the Riuer of Amazons by their Countrymen, where Captaine North, Captaine Parker, and Captaine Christmas had planted, whereof the two last liued there of late, foure years in despite of the Spaniards, whom they wearied out of the Country with the helpe of the Natiues, for all that they came with 1500. men to surprize them. Being past the Streights, they might haue fresh victuals in abundance at the Iland of Mocha in the height of 38. degree, which is subiect to the States of Arauco, deadly enemies to the Spaniards, and but fiue or sixe leagues from that Centinent [sic MW]. Or else they may get some with ease at the Iland of Saint Maries, twenty or thirty leagues further. If the Trade be to the Moluccaes, they may spare two moneths voyage this way; and also they shall meet with Salomons Iles, and many rich places vpon the Coast of New Guinea, which affoord plenty of victuals, Gold, Pearles, and Spice. Sir Henry Middleton much misliked this Southwest way, because of the vncertainty of prouision, and the solitarinesse of the voyage; whereas hee was sure all the way by the Cape of /good: (42)/ good Hope, at Sancta Helena, Soldana, at the Iland of Madagascar, to be stored with necessaries vntill he came to his iourneyes end. Further, hee said, as also the East India Company confirmed the very same to be true, that they had small doings now to the Moluccaes: For their Trade lay about Iaua maior, where they had a Factory at Bantam, and to Serrat in Cambaia, to Sumatra, and the Persian Gulfe.

After some altercation betwixt these last aforespecified, Apollo commanded Sir Martin Furbisher to declare his opinion touching the Northwest passage, which hee accordingly did, prouing that the most part of Meta incognita, where hee had beene, seemed by all probability to bee broken lands and Ilands, and that if he had had sufficient store of prouision, hee would haue aduentured through in despite of the mountaines of Ice, which threatned to immure him in. And that hee much maruelled at their slownesse of late, which finding the passage cleere and open in a farre more temperate climate, then where he had beene, did notwithstanding misse to find it out.

Sir Thomas Button much incensed to bee taxed for slownesse, who had busied himselfe all the daies of his life in warrelike actions, hauing beene at the sacking of Cales, and imployed in Ireland against the Spaniards, in Hispaniola, at the voyage of Algiere, and many other Sea voyages, for answere said, That if Sir Martin Furbisher had wintred in the 58. degree in America, which experience taught to be as the 63. degree of Europes coldnes, /hee: Fff2 (43)/ hee would not haue beene so briefe to impute slownesse vnto him. As for the Passage, hee verily beleeued as Sir Martin did, it lay open. And that hee would haue done his endeuour to haue sailed through. For in Hudsons Bay, hee saw two very likely passages towards the Northwest, to enter in; but that hee was otherwise authorized and commanded to goe on Southwestwards to the bottome of Hudsons Bay, so that hee durst not but follow the tenor of his Commission. Yet notwithstanding he hoped, that he had not spent his time in vaine, during his voyage in those angry climates. For first he discouered, that those Seas could not bee sailed through, but in Iune, Iuly, and August, being alwaies subiect to foggs, ice, stormes, and sudden windes. The sunne seldome seene, so that the best Nauigator can hardly obserue the certaine height thereof. Onely his chiefest comfort during his abode there, was, that the dayes were very long, with very short nights: though otherwise the want of cleernesse to obserue either sunne or starre, were able vtterly to ouerthrow the whole voyage. Further, he noted, that Trumpets might not be spared, but most necessary to be had of such as passe in those Seas. For if two ships went together, they would quickly lose one another by reason of the thicke mist, though they went so neere as they might hallow one to the other. Likewise, he said, that shirts of male might not be spared, for feare of the sauages arrowes out of some ambuscado: Or else thicke leather Targets made of Buffe, as the Spaniards vse. To this hee added, that by /experience: (44)/ experience hee found another necessary note, which hee wished all such as were imployed in these remote Enterprizes to beare in minde, to carry with them good tooles, as well for repayring of their Ships, as to dig on the land, if they suffer shipwracke: And withall, the fittest engines which can bee deuised for weighing of shipping vpon such occasions; and in any case a couple of Crabs to be brought along with them in these vnknowne Discoueries, for the hoising and landing of their Ships, or other heauy necessaries, as Artillery, Timber, &c. Also, that the Discouerer should marke the set of the Tide. For whensoeuer he loseth his strong Tide, or findes ground in 100 fathomes, let him rest assured, that he goes out of his direct course, for the finding of this hopefull passage. To conclude, Sir Thomas Button deliuered two notes more of great consequence for the preseruation of the Discouerers healths and liues, which Apollo better liked then all the former Discourses; whereof the one was, that hee obserued Aqua vitae, Sacke, and such hot liquors, to become most hurtfull to his men in the cold Winter, and on the other side, small drinke and Barly water most soueraine to maintaine them in health. The other obseruation was, that the iuyce of those tender branches or sprigs of trees which flourished fresh and greene in the Winter, out-daring the bitter blasts, and withstanding the extremity of the frosts, being pressed out, and ministred to the sicke, did miraculously restore them to their health. And the meanes of his first knowledge thereof, /proceeded: Fff3 (45)/ proceeded by seeing of the multitudes of Partridges, which fed and liued thereon all the Winter, to become fat and plumpe.

CHAP. 7.

Apolloes Censure of Sir Thomas Buttons voyage to the Northwest Passage.

His Directions for the preseruation of health in frosty seasons, and for the preuenting of the Scuruy.

An Elegy in their commendations which aduentured their persons for the discouery of the aforesaid Passage.

APollo seemed much delighted with these narrations of Sir Thomas Button; and to let the vertuous of Parnassus know somewhat more of these remarkeable euents, hee made this discourse: How many famous Captaines here haue I admitted into my Court, which neuer entred into these hidden and magisteriall secrets of nature? Nay, how many wise Philosophers bee there here graced with my fauours, which vnderstand not these wonders of naturall effects? This Gentleman hath sufficiently performed his part in the discouery of the Northwest passage, considering the power limited vnto him by his Commission, which hee might not with safety transgresse. Yet I could with such as bee in authority in /assigning: (46)/ assigning the like Commissions hereafter, to adde that Clause, which King Henry the eight of England sometimes vsed to enable his Generals with, that if that seruice proued disastrous and vnfortunate, notwithstanding the former words of the Commission, they should preserue the Honour of their King and Country by some braue exploit of their owne proiecting. For many occurrences may, like rubbes, light in their way, which the cleerest Eyes of State could not possibly foresee. Sometimes the Enemy may haue a siluer bridge by slye intelligencers into his Neighbours Land. Sometimes a Commander may meet with a good booty at Sea, though he were beaten off from the Land. Or if one place be strongly barricadoed, hee may finde another most easily to be wonne. What ouerthrew and vtterly dispersed the inuincible Armada in 1588. but the precise relye, which the Spanish Admirall stood vpon in regard of his Commission limited by the Councell of Spaine? Let this suffice to excuse Sir Thomas Button for his not entring into one of the two passages, which he suspected to crowne the Discouerers voyage with eternall fame. And now to enter into the latter points of those secrets, which he mentions to haue tried, so vsefull for his peoples health; know this, O ye that study Physicke, that as Hippocrates wrote, mens inward parts, specially the stomacke, is hotter in Winter then in Summer. Looke in an extreame frosty Winter, how all the sap and vertue of Plants and Hearbs, shoote inwardly, and descend into the root, running thither as to their /sanctuary,: (47)/ sanctuary, refuge, and last helpe in nature. Euen so stands it with the body of man, which for vegetation and vigorous constitution, may in some sort be compared to a Plant. In Summer, the heat and radicall moysture is dispersed here and there, vp and downe, and through all the parts of the body, so that the heat in the stomacke is of a mild oily warmth, and at that time more truely naturall, then in the winter. For Experience teacheth, and Anatomists confirme it, that in the winter, chiefly in frosty weather, mans liueliest heate setleth it selfe in the stomacke, neere the heart, the center and root of life, the other parts being oppressed with cold. There likewise it will beginne quickly to inflame in frosty seasons. When the raw ayre gets into the body at the mouth, and at the pores, or at such time, when these pores of the skinne and outward superficies become thickned, whereby the spirits may not haue their free euaporation. Hence grow oppilations and obstructions; and consequently the Scuruy, being aided on by the meseraicall veines, full of putrified dampish blood, or by the melancholike spleen, swolne with too much windy nourishment. For the abating of which infirmities, moyst opening medicines of a biting nature, cooling and piercing liquors, somewhat of a milky mildnesse, and the iuyce of springing hearbs, must bee regarded by a wise Phisitian, and preferred before strong liquors and fiery Drinkes, which commonly are too too binding. I doe therefore much commend this Knight for this carefull obseruation, as for the /discouering: (48)/ discouering of those tender Plants which Iaques Cartier applaudes to be so soueraigne against the Scuruy, and called Anneda, by the Sauages of Canada. But now of late yeares, this precious Plant hath beene sought after by Champleine and other Frenchmen, albeit without successe; vntill this Gentleman renewed the memorie therof. And most famous had he yet been, if he had transported hither some Sets or Slips of these powerful Plants, which by this time might haue increased to succour many an honest mans life distressed by this hidden & trecherous Guest. I haue spoken the more largely of this sicknesse, because our moderne Practitioners in Phisicke should take this obseruation for a watchword, that most of the new diseases, Agues, putride Feuers, and such sicknesses as spring in the winter or in the beginning of the Spring, they be but waiting-Maids to this traiterous Lady; & for this cause, let them beginne their Cure with the Scuruy, and with the cleansing of the Bloud, and the rest will vanish away, as it were by miracle.

As soone as Apollo had ended this speech, hee charged Hippocrates, Galen, AEgineta, and other famous Phisicians, to take care ouer all the English Sailers, which from thenceforth, should hazard their liues to the Indies. He likewise commanded the East Indies Company to be more bountifull to the poore Widowes, whose Husbands chanced to miscarry in their seruice. Lastly, his Maiestie caused the London Merchants to ioyne together for the prosecuting further of the Northwest passage, and for the honour of those braue spirits, which /had: Ggg (49)/ had already aduentured their persons in the discouery, to ingraue on a brazen Table these verses following, and the same to place as a Frontispice on the Delphicke Palace:

Orbis in Occiduâ latitat via parte sub Arcto,

Ducit ad Eoum quae magis apta mare.
Frobisherus, Dauis, Hudson, et inclitus ausis
Buttonus validis hanc petiere viam.
Cambria non tantum, sed et Anglia laudibus effert
Te, Buttone, suis; aequiparátque Drako.
De quot te memorem saluum euasisse periclis?
Sint testes Indus, Maurus, Iernus, Iber.
Non glomerata tibi Glacies imperuia ferro,
Non Hyemis longae nix numerosa nocet:
Quin tunc vlterius transisses, altera naui;
Obuia succedens si releuasset onus:
Albionémque nouam nobis incognita Meta
Tum bene vulgasset per freta nostra maris.

Neere to the Pole, there lurkes within the West,
A shorter way to saile into the East.
Braue Furbisher, Dauis, and bold Hudson
Sought out this way with the valiant Button.
Not onely Wales, but England rings his name,
And with great Drake compares our Buttons fame
Though Ireland, Spaine, India, and Affrick rage,
To beare the brunts of his stout Pilgrimage:
Yet they will prize him more, when more they
How he endur'd a winter deep with Snow. (know
For eight moneths space, besides the Icy hills
Which Natures eares with strange amazem~et fils. /And: (50)/
And if supplies had come in his distresse,
New Pillars he, like those of Hercules,
Had rais'd, but with Plus vltra in the place, (race.
Where Drakes new Albion waites for Britaines

CHAP. 8.

The Merchants of Lisbone doe complaine on the English and Hollanders, for trading into the East Indies for Spices, Drugs, and other Commodities. Apollo reiecteth their complaints, and aduiseth, how they may saile thither with lesser inconueniences, then heretofore.

APollo hauing giuen order to the Inhabitants of Great Britaine, to set forwards some Shippes for the discouery of the Northwest passage: word was presently brought to the Portingals, taht his Maiestie had interessed the Protestants in the Trade of Spiceries. Whereupon the City of Lisbone sent to Parnassus foure of their most substantiall Citizens, where being arriued, they made meanes by Osorius one of their learned Bishops, to haue a full Audience of their matter the next Court day, which fell out on the fift of Iune last, 1626. as Menante the grand Post-master deliuered the last weeke at Paris. But Mercurius Gallobelgicus, affirmeth otherwise, that that [sic MW] this weighty cause was discussed on the ninth of Iune. Such is the disparity of iudgements, and /in-: Ggg2 (51)/ inequality of reports, that wee cannot rightly be informed by any of these Currents concerning those passages, which happen in our neerest times. How much lesse then shall we credit Historiographers of elder ages, which haue left vs the occurrences of many memorable affaires, which ought to serue as mirrours to posterity? Howsoeuer, most true it is, that the East Indy Cause was decided before the sunne entred into the Tropick of Cancer, in this Moneth of Iune last. The ground of the Plaintiffes suit was fixed most vpon the Diuision, which Pope Alexander the sixt made betwixt the House of Castile, and the House of Portingall, about 120. yeares past, that all the whole world then newly discouered, or to bee discouered, should equally be shared betwixt them both; the East Indies to belong vnto the Portingals, and the West Indies to the Castilians, the same to haue and to hold to either of the said Nations, their Factors; and Agents for euer warranted contra omnes gentes. Vnder colour of which authenticke Patent, they freely inioyed the same, vntill the bold English and Hollanders lately intruded into their Liberties, and haue vsurped many of the Coasts in those rich Countries. Apollo not wont suddenly without mature deliberation to order causes of such high consequences, sent for Peter Martyr the Author of the Decades, and asked him, how that Partition became ratified? Peter Martyr now a member of the Corporation of Parnassus, and not daring to conceale the verity of that businesse from the sincere Head of the vertu- /ous: (52)/ ous Society, answered, that indeed such a Capitulation was treated of betwixt those Princes, and that iust, as the said Commissioners intended to diuide the whole world by certaine Lines and imaginary points in the Globe, they were quite put out of their agreements by a Knauish Boy, who at that time accidentally bathed himselfe in a riuer neere vnto them, as they debated of these Lines, and hearing the Commissioners varying and wrangling about the drawing of these new Lines, he turned his backe side vnto them, and wished them to forme the same equally, as if they should delineat from the Center of his Ano, and so taking the same for a patterne, the one halfe should appertaine to the one, and the other halfe to the other. Vpon which ridiculous interruption, the Commissioners being abashed and ashamed, that a Childe should touch so seriously vpon their Masters ambition, they departed, leauing the partition vnperfect.

Apollo perceiuing that the Portingals drift was to ingrosse the whole Trade of Spiceries as a Monopoloy preiudiciall to others of the Christian Profession, vtterly misliked their aspiring and greedy purposes, and after some bitter exprobration of their Couetousnesse, hee framed this speech vnto them: In going about to appropriate the whole world to your selues, yee seeke to ecclipse the power of the Omnipotent, to forestall the wonderfull Art of Nauigation, and by keeping backe the Protestants, to let the Mahumetans still to ioyne with you in this beneficiall Trade, I confesse your /Nation: Ggg3 (53)/ Nation deserues to be commended for your discoueries of the Cape of Good Hope vnder Vasco de Gama. But afterwards, for you to ingrosse into your hands more Coasts and Trades then yee are able to mannage, is meere auarice, and a wrong to your Creator, who happily by these your Neighbours aduentures, may in time to come discouer as yet more vnknowne Countries, and settle in those remote places the word of God, euen beyond New Guiny, where more Noble Nations doe yet reside then yee haue found out. What greater glory can arriue to this part of the world, then to search into the vttermost parts of those Southerne Regions? In all ciuill Countries, the Inhabitants must as well looke into the Artificiall waies of acquiring wealth, as into the naturall meanes abounding in the places of their abode. This consists in Corne, Cattell, Wooll, Lead, Tinne, or in the like Commodities, which are ordinarily and without much Art deriued from their natiue Seates. The other depends on their industry and more curious skill to work vpon those materialls, as by their Wooll to Compose Stuffes of Serges, Perpetuanaes, Paropous, or the like; or else by Commerce and Traffique to exchange some of their superfluous wares with Forraigners, for some of their superfluities. Now in trading to these remote Countries, questionlesse some of these goods are exported to counteruaile those Wares, which Strangers might otherwise, to the preiudice of the Kingdome, import and bring in.

Before the Londoners and the Hollanders did set /out: (54)/ out Fleetes to the East Indies, the Turkes vsed to share with the Portingalls in those Commodities which now the Protestants trade for. Heretofore they paid at Lisbone, Aleppo, or Alexandria for euery pound of Pepper, two shillings, whereas now they pay but three pence in the East Indies, for Mace foure shillings sixe pence, which now stands them but in nine pence. Cloues at Lisbone or Aleppo, foure shillings sixe pence, and now but tenne pence. Nutmegs there two shillings, here but foure pence. Indico foure shillings, here twelue pence the pound. Likewise they paid for raw Silkes out of Persia, twelue shillings, but now they pay at the Persian Gulfe, not eight shillings the pound. Whereby a good Commonwealthsman may obserue, what Gaine there may redound to Great Britaine, if this rich Trade be graced and followed. And if they transport no coine out of this Kingdome, but Spanish Reals, Dolers, or outlandish monyes, carying also some of their Tinne, Carzeyes, and Broad cloathes, to the Persian Gulfe, where they are best vendible; there is no question, but this Kingdome will become much inriched. For the sound of Denmarke, the Hans-townes, and France will returne vs more money, then they haue need to bring into the Indies.

But first I could with AEsculapius to call a consultation of his best experimented Physicians, and to lay downe a dietary for their healths, for a Northerne man taken out of his naturall Element, and placed but for a small while in those fiery Cli- /mates,: (55)/ mates, will quickly droope. And now in the interim vntill this consultation bee concluded, out of the experience of such as trauelled into those parched Countries, I wish them to ballast their ships with Turneps, as a Defensatiue against the Scuruy, to carry along with them the salt or iuyce of Scuruygrasse well sodden, and stopt vp in glasses, and aboue all, the iuyce of Lemons.

Item, to bring along with them, good store of White wine Vineger to mingle with water, a liquor which preserued Sir Francis Drake in his long voyage round about the world.

Item, to vse Cider, and such cooling drinkes, more then Wines or Aqua vitae; sauing at times of excessiue heat, when the body becomes fainty, and the spirits are withdrawne into the outward parts. Then, a little draught of their hot waters, or a cup of Sacke, will refresh nature, although they sweat neuer so much. For it is found out by experience, that the moisture which lies within the body, is exhaled and forced into the exteriour parts, and that the inward part then forsaken of that moist comfortable humour, and being cold, gladly receiueth a sudden restoratiue to repaire those annoyances, which the violence of that vnusuall heat hath extracted.

Item, to feed betimes in the morning, and not at noone, when the Sunne is vehemently hot, or else late in the euenings, once or twise a day, as their stomackes serue them.

To winde vp this discourse in a word, I exhort our East India Merchants, to beare in minde these few verses: /If: (56)/

If Englishmen, which Indias Coast doe range,
May not haue Spice for English goods exchange:
Farre be it from a Christian to transport
Our Treasure hence into an Heathnish Port.
'Tis better with plaine cheere to make our Feasts,
Then with repentance late to welcome Guests.
While these Auisoes I to England giue,
The Hollanders I meane not to forgiue.
Beware, lest whilst great bulkes of Ships yee raise
In hope of Gaine, yee reape not more dispraise.
How many men by Feuers to our cost,
Bred of Suns heat and salt meates haue we lost?

Cùm sine Thesauri massâ, nec Aromata vendat

India, nec mutet quae sua Terra refert:
Absit, vt hunc Belli Neruum Mercator auarus
Transferat, aut ditet Regna inimica Deo.
Quã satius foret absque dap prandere patellis,
Excidio Patriae quam saturare gulam?
Dum tibi vaticinor, non
Belgis parco: cauete,
Ne Nautas, moles amplificando ratum,
Diminuatis opum spe; manducare salita
Accelerat rabiem Sole calente Febris. /CHAP.: Hhh (57)/

CHAP. 9.

Apollo sends for some of the Merchants Aduenturers of euery seuerall Company out of Great Britaine, graceth them with his countenance, and promiseth them the continuance of his Fauours.

AFter this businesse of the East India Trade was thus recommended and blest by his Maiestie, with all auspicious graces, bonis auibus, and with sailes of comfort velis secundis committed to Neptunes protection: His Imperiall Maiestie sent for the other Aduenturers to forraigne Countries out of Great Britaine, some of the Moscouy Company, some of the Turky Merchants, some of the French Trade, of the Sound, of the Dutch, of the Greenland Company, some of the Virginian, of the Summer Ilands, of the Riuer of Amazons, of Guiny, and Binny, and of other Aduenturers, he caused some to appeare before him, charging them to follow their Trades without any more feare of Moorish or Dunkirk Pirates. And particularly he charged the Aduenturers into these last recited Coasts to pursue their enterprizes, to saue their Country that wastfull expence of Tobacco, which yearely would bee exported out of their Country, if they did plant that weed in those hot places, specially at the Amazons, and at the vppermost part of the Riuer of /Gambra: (58)/ Gambra in Guiny about the 13. Degree, not a Moneths saile out of England, they should reape a rich haruest of Tobacco; besides in this last, they might get Hides, Elephants teeth, Cotton yarne, yea, and perhaps meet with another Golden Fleece, if it be true, as some report, that the King of Morocco hath his fine Gold in exchange of Salt, from People inhabiting not farre from this Riuer of Gambra. All these hopefull Proiects did his Maiestie lay before our Britaines, exhorting them to become more industrious, to cast by the hideous coat of Pouerty, and with an vndaunted courage to saile into the vttermost ocean.

Impiger extremos currit Mercator ad Indos,
Per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per ignes.

CHAP. 10.

Apollo to make the Golden Fleece a complete Catholike Restoratiue to the State of Great Britaine, commands the seuen wise men of Greece to declare out of their experience, some more meanes for the inriching of that State: which they seuerally performe.

NOtwithstanding all these profitable proiects, and more then reall appearances of the Golden Fleece, Apollo in another Assembly held at Pindus by reason of the violent Summers heat, which infested the populous City of /Par-: Hhh2 (59)/ Parnassus, in a Speech reiterating that as yet the Scales were not equall, for the benefit of Great Britaine; his Imperiall Highnesse concluded, that the Golden Fleece should be a Catholike Restoratiue as well for the Inlanders and the Sea Coasts, as for the Plantations to bee aduanced forwards; and therefore hee wished the seuen wise men of Greece to repaire their reputations lately lost in missing to reforme the world, and to deuise some new Remedies and Commodities for the perpetuall good of that Monarchy, which hee laboured to preserue as the apple of his eye.

Byas was chosen first to signifie his Opinion; who discoursed in this manner. I haue trauelled ouer all this spacious Iland, and by a curious suruay, I found more Parkes for Deere inclosed in this Country, then in all Christendome besides. I found many Commons, Mountaines, Heath, and wast grounds, which might be better conuerted and seuered for bearing of Corne, Grasse, and Hay, wherein the labour will quickly defray the charge, and mightily inrich the Natiues. In Lincolneshire about the Washes and Marshes; there may many new habitations be erected in imitation of the Low-County men, who haue wonne from the Sea, as the Venetians before them their famous City, more vnlikely grounds then any I saw in Lincolneshire. A Patterne wherefore let them take from Sir Hugh Middleton, that renowned Barronet, which makes London for euer obliged vnto him for her water, a piece of worke eternizing his Name so farre, that a Spanish Embassador /vpon: (60)/ vpon the sight thereof rauished with admiration, protested, that if such an enterprise had beene atchieued in Spaine, his King had ennobled him with the Title of a Count. This industrious Gentleman, together with Sir Ambrose Theloall, pursuing on the like profitable workes, recouered aboue 1000 acres of Land from the Sea, in the Ile of Wight, worth a thousand pound a yeare. And if others would follow their vertuous examples, doubtlesse the euent would crowne their designes and cost with prosperous successe. If Commons were husbanded and tilled, by such inclosures the Commoners should reape that commodity seuerally in 20. Acres, which they could not in 100. while they lay confused. A little Good is better managed, then much disorderly inioyed. Some men will get more by their Gardens and Orchards, then others by thier Plow Lands. How many Mountaines, Heaths, Wasts, and Furzy grounds might be conuerted to better vses then they be at this day? Yea, and many thefts, robberies, and other intollerable abuses, might bee preuented by these inclosures.

Here Bias ended; when Pittacus began to discouer his Plot. Well hath my Collegiat Bias manifested a matter of great import, beneficially tending to restore Great Britaine to prosperity. But what shall the Inhabitants afterwards doe, when the genuine and natiue vertue, which now is verdant, of a liuely saltish vigour, spicke and spanne new, what shall they doe fiue or sixe yeares hence, when they haue throughly gotten the maiden- /head: Hhh3 (61)/ head of these wastes, and wearied all the youthfull graine of these grounds with bearing of Corne? Will they feed and sucke still on the blood of their decaied veines? The best grounds will grow out of heart in a short time, vnlesse they be holpen by Art. I confesse the subiect, which I intend now to commend, is sordide, rude, and more beseeming a Clownish Coridon, then one of my education in this magnifique Court; yet neuerthelesse, because the same serues to inrich his Maiesties Territories in these Westerne Coasts, which hee holds as deere as his Thessalian Tempe, I will disclose the secret meanes to renew the life of ouer-wearied Lands. There is no ground but hath Marle, either neere the superficies of it, or deeper in the wombe of the earth abounding. This Marle in some Countries, by the reuolution of time, is turned to lime, or limestone, and this lime in some places is growne to a finer mould, euen to chalke, which is the perfection of all Marle. Where none of these abound, nature hauing not as yet wrought her selfe to her fulnesse, I wish euery Landed man with an Augur, boarer, or piercing worme, to search and try in the deepest part of his earth, where the same lieth hid; for surely shallow or thicke, he may finde Marle vpon his Land. If it be oily, vnctuous, and clammy, then it is fat and rich. It is of sundry colours, and different likewise in the goodnesse. For there is a yellow Marle, a Red, a Grey, and Blew; all which are good, if they be oily and slippery as Sope, and mixed with earth; as also weake, if it be incorporated with gra- /uell,: (62)/ uell, stone or sand. The red Marle is the worst, vnlesse it be found to lye neere the blew. For the best is the blew in operation, and will last longest. Next vnto it is the yellow, and the grey better then the red. All which may bee searched after in the veines of the earth. Hauing met with it, let the Husbandman glory, that hee hath met with treasure, able to supply his owne and his Countries necessities. Onely let him take this for a Caueat, that at the first marling of his ground, hee must look he plow not with broad and deepe furrowes, but narrow, lest he throw his Marle into the dead mould. For the nature of Marle is to send all the goodnesse downewards, and for that cause it must not be buried too deepe, but still kept aloft on the vpper mould. And in this it differeth much from Dung and Mucke, which spend their vertue vpward, and will ascend by their misty vapour springing vp to the face of the ground, though they be buried deeper then they ought to bee. I could admonish men oftener to hearten their outworne grounds with other remedies, as with the soile of old Ditches, or with sand, or to transferre and temper fresh earth brought from lay grounds, with their ouerspent mould, as they vse in Deuonshire. Or to adde tough clay to the tender sandy, for the one is life to the other being so incorporated, specially moist with the dry. But I hope this being practised, their Corne fields will produce sufficient increase, so that they shall not become too often beholding to the Sound of Denmarke for Rie, as commonly heretofore euery /fiue: (63)/ fiue yeares they haue beene.

Periander after this speech, produced his opinion: Seeing we haue, like Moles, begunne to treat of earthly Commodities to inrich this decayed Countrie, let me exhort them to plant Orchards, the benefits I dare well say, will counteruaile the French Vineyards if they be rightly followed, and need but small pruning and looking to after the first planting. By this way they shall haue Cider, which with a little helpe of some Spice, will goe beyond most of their Wines, and consequently, saue aboue sixe hundred thousand pound a yeare, which now most lauishly are consumed by them, euen to the cutting and ending of their fatall threed. Already some discreet and circumspect Landlords haue couenanted & conditioned with their Tenants, that they shall euery yeare during their Leases, plant fruit Trees: which if others will imitate, not onely wines will grow in lesse vse, but malt will be spared out of the superfluity of their store, to furnish the needy, and supply Nauigations and Plantations abroad.

As soone as Periander had done, Thales the Milesian tooke his turne and spake: Many small pieces of meat put into the Pot, make fat pottage, and as the other Prouerbe implieth, many a small makes a great, and mountaines were made of small motes or atomes, which I alleadge in my defence at this present, for though I cannot promise Golden Mountaines to augment the State of Great Britaine, yet I dare auow, that I shall reueale one Proiect which shall spare them sixty thousand /pounds: (64)/ pounds a yeare now of meere necessity transported into France and Spaine for Salt. Why may not they erect good store of Salt-houses in England neere those places, where Coales are digged, about New-Castle, in Lancashire, and in Wales, where lately an Alderman of London had one, which supplied Bristow, and those Westerne parts with very fine Salt? I know not what makes men so backward now adaies, vnlesse they are made to beleeue by the Spirit of Errour, that a bare naked Faith will iustifie them with doing any deedes of Charity. For besides their yearely gaine, they may doe very meritorious deedes equall to Almes-giuing, which as S. Iames writes, will couer a multitude of sinnes, in setting the poore at worke. If they think it much to erect so many Salt-houses, as will serue all the Ilanders, by reason of the deare rate of Coales to be conuerted for other vses, let them set vp some in Newfoundland, some in New England, and others in New Scotland, where they may haue plenty of woods. And it is knowne, that Wood fire without conuerting Wood into Charcoale, wil serue to boile Salt as wel as Coal. There Salt being at hand to be had for the Fishermens vse, it will saue at the least twenty thousand pound, vnto the English, which now with the tunnage and the Salt they are forced to be at charge. [Marginal Note: Discouery of Newfound Land.] Captaine Whitborne in his book of the Cõmodities of that Country, among other exceeding good notes by him there deliuered, writes, that one Panne will make aboue 20. bushels of good Salt in euery 24. hours, onely with mans labour and the Salt water; and not, /as: Iii (65)/ as some doe vse to make Salt vpon Salt; which so there made, shall not stand in three pence the bushell to those that prouide in that manner: Wheras Salt now stands them in twenty pence at the least euery bushell. And as the said Captaine Whitborne further affirmeth, that Salt thus orderly boyled, doth much better preserue Fish, whether it be Ling, Codde, or Herring, and keepe it sweeter, then if the same were seasoned with any other kind of Salt. Yea, and Fish preserued with this white fine Salt, will sell dearer in Spaine or Italy, then if it were salted with the other muddy Salt.

After Thales, Chilon began his relation in this wise. I thinke there is money enough in the Land, if people would bring it forth to take the Aire, that Aire which God made common for the poore as the rich. What a deale of Plate is there in London, and in rich mens houses, which some had rather goe directly into Hell, then to sell it for the commn good. It were fit that such creatures had Tutors, or as the Ciuilians say, Curators to manage their Estates for them, seeing they haue not the benefit of reason to distinguish what is conuenient for mortall men, which must suddenly returne to the dust of the earth, and then whose shall these Goods be, which these Fooles haue prepared with curses, & disquietnes of mind? If Commissioners and Presenters were vpon their oathes, to sound & search into euery mans ability, Subsidies might be trebled on some, and the needier sort eased. But in vaine doe I speake of Tutors, Commissioners, and Iuries, if Merchants bee not lookt /vnto,: (66)/ vnto, that they transport not Money, Plate, or Bullion, as the Statutes of Edward the 3. Richard the 2. Henry the 4. Henry the 6. Henry the 7. and Edward the 6. doe all strictly prohibite. Erasmus in King Henry the 8. daies, was like to feele the seuerity of those Lawes, if that Magnificent King had not highly fauoured him. For when this famous Scholler thought to take shipping to goe into the Low Countries at Grauesend, the Kings Officers confiscated 300. pound which hee had gotten in London, by the liberality of the King, Sir Thomas Moore, and other fauourers of Learning in those daies; so that poore Erasmus, like another Pauper Henricus, was constrained to returne backe to London, where after that hee had bewailed his mishap to Sir Thomas Moore, and other friends of his, hee was aduised by them to repaire to the Chamber of Presence, when this noble King sate at dinner. The King wondred to see Erasmus, who had taken his leaue of him aboue a fortnight before. And thereupon merily askt him, what winde draue him backe againe to his Court, whom hee imagined to haue beene at Rotterdam? Erasmus shewed the Case, how his Maiesties Officers vsed him. The King vnderstanding the matter, bestowed on him 60. pound towards his stay, and wrote to the Searchers, commending their dutifull care, that they should repay Erasmus all his money. Many Noblemen also being present, incouraged by the Kings liberality, presented Erasmus with good gifts, which with the Kings, amounted to 300. pound more; so that hee returned home into his /Coun-: Iii2 (67)/ Country with twise so much more money, then he brought with him into England. And from thence forth in all Companies, applauded the iustice and liberality of the English Nation. If Officers would watch to doe their indeauours for the seizing of Coine, which may be transported yearely into Forraigne parts, doubtlesse money would become more plentifull within the Land.

Here Chilon ended. And Cleobulus framed his speech in this manner: So great is some mens Couetousnesse at this time, that they had rather hazard their soules to hell, rather then to imploy their money for the honour and weale of their Country. They will rather keepe it by them, then lend part to releeue their dearest friends. And I know not how to compell these wretches to bring it abroad, vnlesse the Common-wealth would order Tutors ouer them, as my Brother Chilon aduised, grounding the equity of this Order vpon the antient writ, de Lunatico inquirendo. For surely a spirit possesseth them worse then that, which madded Saul. There is no other way to draw money out of misers hands, but by hope of profit. Since the Statute enacted in King Iames time, for 8. in the 100. money is farre more scarce. And therefore in my iudgement, if that Act were repealed, there might insue a twofold benefit. First, money would become more plentifull. And then if an Act were made, that Vsurers might be tolerated to take 9. pound in the 100. pound, for one yeares vse, & that the party which borrowes, should pay 20. shillings more to make it vp 10. pound, as in /former: (68)/ former time, and this last to be conuerted towards some meritorious work, mony would waxe more abundant, and no man would grudge to pay 20. shillings for a vertuous purpose. And perhaps the same would lessen the exaction of the rest in the mercie of God. To this furtherance of money I would haue those Brokers and extorting Iackes receiue corporall punishment, who shall by indirect tricks and monthly bills exact vpon pawnes more interest, then euer the Iew of Malta tooke of his deadly enemies.

After him the Lawmaker Solon discoursed, as followeth: I haue heard this day sundry pretty proiects pronounced by my Colleagues for the enriching of Great Britaine. But if all these fall out happily, and the Deuill still continue to sow his seeds of dissention in mens hearts to goe to Law one with another for a Goats haire by the procurement of Makebates, and the aduice of some couetous Lawiers, to what end shall his Maiestie spend his time to succour and supply them with money, and they presently after to bestow the same on others for the molesting of Innocents.

This were to make our great Appollo accessary and priuie to iniurious dealings. First, let my good Ilanders weed out, or at least wise restraine the insolencies, deceits, and equiuocations of Lawiers, and then seeke for remedies to heale their indispositions. Shall the mild Comforter of humane soules minister an occasion of scandall to reprobates, and fewell to their iniquities? If they get wealth, men, as I see, haue not the wit to keepe it. Therefore /I: Iii3 (69)/ I thinke fit, and it is a treasure inualuable, to tame the Lawiers, before any mroe riches be giuen, as swords in mad mens hands, to offend the seruants of God. What intolerable knaueries haue beene exercised of late yeares by fellowes of this ranke against honest men, yea against whole Countries, whose blood, like that of Abell, doth cry for vengeance? I know one poore Lordship in Wales which was persecuted by them, and forced for foure thousand pounds to compound for their natiue freehold, which by Records found in the Tower their Ancestors had enioyed 300. yeares, and all vpon that farre fetcht maxime, Nullum tempus occurrit Regi, that no prescription of time might barre the Prince of his Right? And if the wise King Iames of blessed memory had not set a period to their insinuations, by limiting 60 yeares to his titulary demand, God knowes to what euent their dangerous positions would haue issued vnto? It is an easie thing for a man to find a staffe to beat a dog, and for a cunning Lawier with the crochet of his braine to circumuent harmelesse people. How many thousand pounds are yearely spent in Wales alone to maintaine suites at Law, which might be well spared, if the fountaine were dam'd vp? Let the King of Great Britaine shut vp the spring, which enuenomes multitudes of his poore subiects, who grone vnder their burthen, worse then the Israelies vnder the bondage of Egypt, and Wales alone shall saue aboue 40. thousand pounds a yeare, which now they consume, besides their dear time not to be redeemed, in vnnecessary suits at Law. /CHAP.: (70)/

CHAP. 11.

Apollo not throughly contented with the proiects of the seuen wise men of Greece, commands others, viz. Cornelius Tacitus, Cõminaeus, the Lord Cromwell, Sir Thomas Chaloner, Secretary Walsingham, Sir Thomas Smith, and William Lord Burleigh, who were knowne to be farre more Politicke Statesmen, to deliuer their opinions, how Great Britaine might be inriched.

APollo liked reasonable well of the inuentions demonstrated by the Seuen wise men of Greece. But for all that, some of them hee deemed to be more theoricall then really practick; and therefore He caused some of his vertuous Attendants, which had been famous for their Actiue diligence in managing matters of State, to discouer more proiects, whereby Great Britaine might attaine to a present fruition of Treasure. For, as his Imperiall Maiestie said, Philosophers being Clinickes, and retired to close chambers delighting more to be, as Persius notes of them

Esse quod Arcesilas aerumnosiq; Solones,
Obstipo capite & figentes lumine terram,
Like to Arcesilas or Solons found,
With down bent heads, & eies vpõ the ground.

then personally to bestirre themselues, as men of motion ought, in bringing their purposes and plots to execution, they could not proue so necessary members to act what he intended, as those which had by their industry got the start of them /in: (71)/ in actuall businesse. The euent his Maiestie saw in Cicero, and Caesar, which moued our most prudent Apollo to referre these Pragmaticke affaires of Great Britaine to the experienced Cornelius Tacitus, to Philip Comminaeus, to the Lord Cromwell, which flourished in King Henrie the 8. daies, to Sir Thomas Chaloner sometimes Ambassadour in Spain, & author of those admirable books de repub. Anglorum instaur. to Sir Francis Walsingham, to Sir Thomas Smith, which wrote the Commonwealth of England, and to William Lord Burleigh Treasurer of England.

Cornelius Tacitus as the most ancient, was elected first to certifie his censure, who with a free Romane candour framed this discourse: There is asmuch difference betwixt the face and state of Great Britane at this day, and the fashion as it stood in Domitians time, when I liued there with my victorious father in law Iulius Agricola, as we see betwixt it and the Countrey of the Crime Tartare. Then, there was elbow roome for the Inhabitants sufficient without multiplicities of Law-suites, subtle shifts, conycatching, or contagious thronging and hudling together: But now,

Sunt homines alÿ. natura Britannica differt.
In Britanes Isle both men and Land are chang'd.

We Romanes by our Legionary Cities wonne them to ciuility, which they according to their quicke capacities speedily apprehending, embraced the Christian Faith, paid tribute to Caesar, and continued in loyall obedience vnder his Lieutenants, vntill our Monarchy became transla- /ted: (72)/ ted to Constantinople, that so the fulnesse of time might inuest Antichrist in old Rome, the Babylon of the West. Since which time, as the Children of Israel were sometimes aloft, sometimes cast downe, this Iland indured sundry changes. But in my iudgement next vnto suits at Law, which the wise Solon obserued to begger both Towne and Country, the populousnesse of some chiefe Cities, and specially of London, doth impouerish the Royall Chamber of that Empire, insomuch that it is in a manner impossible to inrich them, before the Drones, and yong hungry Bees bee remoued to some forraigne Places by an Act of Parliament, and so prest by transcendent authority. The people which I would haue thus prest, are the Inmates, the Cottagers, the needy, and needlesse numbers. An honest Minister assured me, that in his Parish at London, there were many which perished of want, being ashamed to begge; and that he knew tenne persons hauing but a roome of twelue foot square to containe them, & but one bed for them all. Many of the like calamity might bee found in that City, two or three housholds crept into one house; that I haue diuers times wondred, that they are not euery second year visited with the Plague, or Purples, considering the multitudes of Channels, Iakes, and other vnpleasing places which infect the Aire, able to poyson the strongest Snake. For the verifying of this my allegation, I will produce one example which may serue to confirme the same. I haue heard it reported by very credible persons, that about 4. yeares past in a house neere /S. Dun-: Kkk (73)/ S. Dunstons of the West, the Priuies there being emptied on a night, the next morning they found not onely their Brasse and Pewter in the lower roomes soild and filth'd, but likewise their Plate two stories higher standing on their Cupboord, tainted and corrupted with a yellowish vnseemely colour. Yea and that which Aristotle himselfe would admire at, they found their money in their purses to haue lost the colour, as if it had beene of purpose varnished with smoaky dung. If the serious regard of their healths moue them not, yet let the wisedome of Magistrates foresee the inconuenience which yearely accrues to the Generality, by suffering vnnecessary people to hinder the gaines of the industrious, and withall to know this, that too many of the industrious Craftsmen themselues flocking together, doe so diuide the profit, which more politikely being fitter for a few, that both the one and the other, are often seene to faint vnder their owne waight. Better it is for a City to content themselues with a few substantiall neighbours, then to be troubled with many rakers. If the City of London, which is thought to hold eight hundred thousand Soules within it, and the Suburbes were rid of 40000. of these, the rest would thriue the better, and saue at least two hundred thousand pounds a yeare, which now are spent in vain, & hereafter wil be conuerted for the weale of the whole Iland. In one yeare there were suppressed 700. Cottagers in Glocestershire, since which time, that Country flourished.

Comineus Lord of Argenton, the great States- /man: (74)/ man of France, whom Katherine de Medicis Queen Mother, and somtimes Regent of that Kingdome, was wont to terme the Heretike of State, because he disclosed the secrets of Princes, vttered his opinion next after Cornelius Tacitus. In the warres betwixt the House of Burgundy and my Soueraigne Lewis the eleuenth, I remember, that Money fell out very scarce, as it doth now in Great Britaine, for all that saying, which this wise King was accustomed to repeat, that his France might be compared to a Meadow ready to bee mowne twise a yeare. And one of the principall meanes, which he inuented to be stored with money, was to raise his Coine. From the Saxons time vntill my time in the Raigne of King Henry the sixt, an ounce of Siluer was diuided into 20. peeces, and so passed for 20. pence. King Henry by reason of his wars with vs, and afterwards with the House of Yorke, proclaimed the ounce at 30. pence. King Henry the 4. vpon the like necessity, enhansed it to 40. pence, which so lasted vntill King Henry the 8. daies, who raised the ounce to the value of 45. pence. King Edward the 6. proclaimed it at fiue shillings. If Money continues still scant, I see no reason, but that it might be raised higher, as in former times; which also would induce men to bring forth their Plate. In France, Venice, yea and in Golden Spaine, Brasse money goes current, two and thirty Marauedis amounting to sixe pence; which they call a Reall. Of these Marauedis, I heard a Rhodomonting Castilian vaunt, that hee would bestow 600. thousand of them with his deare Daughter, to her /mar-: Kkk2 (75)/ mariage. In some Countries they vse Shelles, Pepper, and lether peeces for money. In other places, gaddes of Steele or Iron. At the first troubles of the Low Countries, they made stampes on Past-Boords, which they licensed to goe current for Money. In the last warres of Ireland, base Coine was ordained to supply the vse of the finest Siluer. As long as it will passe in estimation, and warranted by publike authority, either Money may bee raised, or the same of a mixt alloy, as the Venetian Liure, or the French Souls, or of such other mettall as the Prince liketh, may serue the Subiects turne in time of warres, as it serues those Nations both in Warre and Peace.

The Lord Cromwell succeeded this Noble Frenchman, and said: that hee was one of the chiefest Instruments vnder King Henry the 8. to dissolue the Religious Houses in England, & wished, that now some of those Farmes and impropriated Tithes, were for a few yeares lent by the State of England to support Ecclesiasticall persons in the new Plantations, meaning those, which the State could spare in their places. And he hoped by this meanes, the Clergy being prouided for in those New Lands, Churches would there be built the sooner, and the Plantations in a short time would helpe to inrich this Kingdome with many sorts of Commodities, specially if some of the Religious that went in person, & others well beloued in their Country: that for their sakes, others of good account would accompany them, and so assist the Common-wealth by their power and example. /Sir: (76)/

Sir Thomas Chaloner renewed the old proiect of building Busses & flat Flemish boates for fishing on the Easterly coasts of this kingdome, saying, that it was a shame for his nation to looke on while the Hollanders yearely tooke worth 300000 pounds of fish vpon our sea coasts, and in our liberties, although they fished farther off then they did; for the truth of which assertion of his he alleadged the testimony of Bartolus the famous Lawier. As Ilands (saith he) in the sea next adioyning, so likewise the Sea it selfe to an hundred miles extent is assigned to the bordering Countrey, L. Iur.

Secretary Walsingham was of opinion, that letters of Mart or Reprizals would furnish the land with treasure, so that they went forth in Fleetes more strongly prepared then in Queen Elizabeths daies; For that now-a-dayes the Pyrates of Algiere had taught the Spaniards more wit not to go so weakly mand and stor'd as in times past. In Drakes, Haukins, and other braue Aduenturers voyages, our English found a Golden age. But that now the case was otherwise. Therefore they must goe strong, if they meane to surprize any rich Carricks. Likewise he wished them, whose powers extended not to supply themselues with many Copartners, to watch about the lesser Ilands in America, and not to draw too neere those Forts where the Gallies frequ~eted, nor to be aduenturous about the time when the Spanish Fleet repaired thither. About Brazill, and the riuer of Plate hee supposed they might intercept good booties & with more safety: of if they entred into Lameeres straights; they /might: Kkk3 (77)/ might in the South sea meet with rich prizes. Further, he animated the East Indy Company to ioyne with the Hollanders to driue the Portingals out of the wade of Spiceries. Further, he aduised the English to prouide the like kinde entertainment for the Spanish prisoners, if not in their owne Countrey, yet in the Summer Ilands, and other Plantations where they might be put to labour as well as they employ them in their Gallies, vntil they paid sufficient ransomes. Lastly, he counselled them to erect a speciall society of men of war to ioyne together in the Nauall expedition, and to lend vpon reasonable considerations some of those shippes, which they tooke, to waft our Fishermen, and to defend the Plantations.

Sir Thomas Smith protested, that there must be strait Lawes enacted against superfluous commodities imported into the land out of other Countreyes, before the Golden Fleece could possibly become the Catholike Restoratiue. Among many superfluities hee insisted principally on three. 1. vpon the extraordinary vse of Tobacco. 2. vpon forraigne stuffes and silks, which wrought the Decay of English cloth, and consequently of many poore Housholds, which liued by spinning, weauing, fulling and dressing of cloth. 3. He enueighed against the multitudes of wine tauernes, and Alehouses, saying that a great part of our Treasure were yearly wasted in these fiery houses; That halfe of them might well bee spared, and that in Cities and Townes, next to the contagion of the Aire formerly mentioned, they were the chiefe causes of the inflamation of mens blood, and so of /(78)/ Feuers, and most of our late sicknesses. And in conclusion he pronounced these verses:

In ancient times they vsed much to Fast,
And what was spar'd they turn'd to Almes at last:
But we the Sabbaths make Saturnall Feasts:
On Holy dayes Drinke makes some worse then beasts.
If men did Custome pay for Ale and Beere,
Great Charles then Spaines King Philip richer were.
Our blood's inflam'd: Diseases grow by Wine:
Our Barnes waxe lesse: The Poore doe grone and pine.
Tempore Maiorum Ieiunis multa colebant,

Inque Eleemosynas Cepia versa suit.
Sabbata nunc mutant in Saturnalia Bacchi,
Patrum Festa dies ebrictate scatet.
Si pro Ceruisiâ persolueret
Anglia Censum,
Ditior Hispano, Carole magne, fores.
Corporis hinc nim ÿ facta ebullitio morbos
Accersit, minuunt Hordea, languet [Igenis?].

Lastly, William Lord Burleigh brought forth his opinion, and said, that all the meanes, restoratiues, and good orders, which hee had heard deliuered would proue of no validity, nor euer come to perfection, except his Maiesty of Great Britaine might find some zealous ministers to execute the Lawes and statutes concerning the hindrance of Trade. And further he signified, that one maine point for reformation and repaire of Trading consisted in rewarding those vigilant spirits, which like Sentinells, awaked when others slept, or proiected for the cõmon benefit, while others spent their time like belly-gods in bibbing of sugred sack, & in pampring their guts with gluttonous fare. In these two positiuely he laid the foundation of Great Britaines well fare: In the execution of these new Decrees, and in rewarding of the industrious: whereby the obstinate might be punished, and the vertuous /heart-: (79)/ heartned. And in conclusion, this prudent Atlas, on whose vnwearied shoulders sometimes relied the waight of Englands cares, made this discourse: In one thing more I note the prouident Remedy, which the diuine wisedome lately manifested in this Kingdome by remouing from hence many people with famine, war, plagues, feuers and other sicknesses; A remedy surely applyed for two beneficiall respects; In his loue to these, by translating them to a happier place: In his mercy to the rest, which suruiue, that they take heed by such terrible & sudden accidents, how they wast those means whereof they are but his Stewards in lauish feasts, in Tobacco, Apparell, in suites at Law, or in drinking more then sufficeth nature: And to bestow the estimate of what they shall saue hereafter by their thrift on nobler monuments, in offring of sweet smelling sacrifices to his sacred nostrils, by helping to build places of succour for their distressed brethren, seeing that the honey-bees doe ouerswarme at home; for certainely, if all these, whom He lately tooke to his mercy, had been yet liuing, their natiue Countrey could not containe them, but that a greater Decay of trading would necessarily haue ensued; nor could all the wits of our wisest Politicians haue deuised remedies to restore it, which now may in all humane probability serue to make the Golden Fleece an absolute Catholike Medicine. God grant, that the same may worke effectually, and conuert the steely heart into a relenting, tender, and into that which is truly Christian. Let all good Christians say, Amen. Fita voluntas Domini. /CHAP.: (80)/

CHAP. 12.

The Order, which Apollo tooke for the setling of the Golden Fleece, before his late Progresse into the Tropick of Cancer, recommending the same to the care of the Fraternity of the Rosie Crosse, the foure Patrons of Great Britaine. The Consultation of the foure Patrons for the good of Great Britaine, The copy of Saint Dauids sonnet, which he pronounced in the Amphitheater at Parnassus in honour of the King of Great Britaines mariage and Coronation.

THe day before the summers Solstice in Iune last 1626. Apollo sent for the famous fraternity of the Rosie Crosse, St. George, St. Andrew, St. David, and St. Patrick, those carefull Patrons of Great Britaine, and in the presence of the Lady Pallas, the Muses, the Graces, and other vertuous persons his Fauorites, he deliuered this short speech: The time now drawes on, that we must take our Progresse into the Tropicke of Cancer, where we must exhilarate with our influence those rude subiects of ours, which inhabit neere the Northerne Pole, to gratifie their natures, which otherwise would proue more fullen, with some perpetuall Dayes without Nights, for their patience in tolerating so many long nights without dayes at the winters Solstice, during wch time of our Progresse, I require you, my Gratious friends, to assist the planters of the NewfoundIle, which we haue lately styled Britanniol, and to treat on their behalfe with that magnanimous King Charles of /Great: Lll (81)/ Great Britaine, that hee confirme the commission and orders, which his Father of blessed memory granted about three yeares past for the establishing of Wafting ships for the defence of that hopefull Plantation, and of the fishing fleetes against the oppressions of Pyrats, assuring him from vs, that there lies the principall part of the Golden Fleece, which Orpheus Iunior hath sounded out in his Cambrensium Caroleia, which he published at the celebration of his Mariage with the Paragon of France; which likewise he lately renewed here before vs at Parnassus: And not onely hee, but others haue intimated the benefit of this Proiect, namely, the Noble Sir William Alexander in his New Scotland, and Master Misselden in his Circle of Commerce, who in most liuely termes paints out the substance of this Fleece.

A braue Dessigne it is, as Royall as Reall, as Honourable as Profitable. It promises renowne to the King, reuenew to the Crowne, Treasure to the Kingdome, a purchase for the Land, a prize for the Sea, Ships for nauigation, Nauigation for ships, Mariners for both: Entertainment for the rich, employment for the poore, aduantage for the Aduenturers, and encrease of Trade to all the subiects. A myne of Gold it is; The Myne is deepe, the veines are great, the Oare is rare, the gold is pure, the extent vnlimited, the wealth vnknowne, the worth inualuable. All this you shall signifie vnto that Noble King. And in the interim of our progresse, we command all the rest of my vertuous Corporation to obey the Lady Pallas, /whom: (82)/ whom wee doe substitute in our stead as Queene Regent to see our State well and peaceably gouerned. At these words the vigilant Emperor mounted vp into his fiery Chariot, and began his stately Progresse.

After whose departure the foure Patrons consulted how they might grace the mighty King of Great Britaine. St. George he deuised a triumphant shew to honour the Knights of the Noble Order of the Garter, the Portraiture whereof Menante meanes shortly to expresse. St. Andrew framed an eloquent Oration of Vnity vpon that Embleme: Henricus Rosas, Iacobus Regna. St. Patrick composed a briefe booke of the Military Science, enterlaced with that late proiect of the double armed squadrons, wherein euery Bowman was taught to vse of the Pike as a Rest to his Bow; wherby his Country of Ireland might be secured from hostile inuasions. St. Dauid made choise to reioyce the Kings heart with a sonnet in memory of his hopefull Mariage and Coronation. The which when he had perfected and sung in the Amphitheater at Parnassus, Scogin and Skelton the chiefe Aduocates for the Dogrel Rimers by the procurement of Zoilus, Momus, and others of the Popish Sect, very saucily interrupted him. The true copy whereof as it is registred in the Library of that Court, is this that followeth: /St.: Lll2 (83)/

St. Dauid.

I Long to sing of Charles his Waine,

And with due praise to raise
The Flowre deluce of Charle-le-maine.
New dayes bring forth new Layes.
O happy Starre! O hopefull daies!
Braue Iasons Golden Age!
Kinde Courtiers, heare S. Dauids Layes,
Free from wiles, farre from rage.
Who Cambriaes Ioyes then Cambers Son,
Should for this match expresse?
This match, whose Beames doe strike vpon
Towers, Fields, and Wildernesse?

Scoggins interruption.

What wilt thou proue a Phaeton?
Stand backe, and doe not presse:
Among our wits a Coridon,
Thy selfe a Swaine confesse.
Base is thy tune, so seems thy state
In Courtlie Eagles eyes;
None may come in at heauens Gate
Without S. Peters Keyes.
Without great meanes none out of Wales
Shall greete our Noble King.
Dar'st thou then come with Newfound tales?
And them before him sing?
Thy Cambria is a barren land
For Goates and Satyres fram'd:
Like to the Alpes, or that wild Strand, /Which: (84)/
Which thou hast Cambrioll nam'd:
Thy Nation meete to be still gull'd
With Lawyers quirks and quips:
Thy Muse vnholy, too much dull'd,
No drop of life she sips.
No Wedding Robe, hast thou on, Foole,
Yet look'st here wedding Cheere:
A Guest vnbid must bring his Stoole;
Stand backe and draw not neere.

St. Dauid.

Stand backe thy selfe, thou greedy Elfe,

Shall Slugges the Hauen hold?
And merry Greekes runne on a Shelfe
From Colchos bearing Gold?
Both Sea and Land in league conspire
Rich Cambrioll to deface,
If Argonautickes thou aspire
To keepe from Courtly Grace.
O how thy Midriffe swelles with Gall
Against an Antient Race!
Wee are no Slaues, true Britaines all
May see his Highnesse face.
If Cats may looke vpon a King,
And Curres barke at the Moone:
Arcadian Swaines like Swannes may sing,
And Dauy begge one Boone.
That Dauid which made Pagans bow
To Christ, though Fiends repine.
That man which made Pelagians know
Their faults, and truth to shine: /That: Lll3 (85)/
That name, which through Great Britaines Land
The first of March doth ring:
If not; the same of Newfoundland
Shall lead me to our King:
Whose Heart I faine with Orpheus straine
Would cheere; and then salute
The Queene, which Fates for him ordaine
With Violl and the Lute.
The sacred Muses sent me heere,
And, if Might quells not Right,
I will draw neere, (O doe not ieere)
The Light, their Angels sight.
To whom Ile show what's yet vnshowne,
My Countries griefe and neede;
And in thy eare (although a Clowne)
Ile whisper through a Reed.
Our Cambria is a fertile soile
Abounding with all store;
Else would not her Hells-brokers spoile,
And sucke her blood so sore.
Had Cambria not more Drones then need,
Her shoares would yeeld good ships:
Her Land more wealth, where now we feed
With honey needlesse lips.
Till Hydra suits bee well restraind,
Our Iarres will neuer cease:
Our meanes grow meane, our honour stain'd,
Voyd of Grace, voyd of peace.
But if our King play Hercules,
And daunt them with his Mace:
Old Cambria shall with Cumbers lesse
Sustaine new Cambriols case. /And: (86)/
And both together Tribute pay
More store then Peru's Oare,
Which at his feete they'll yearely lay,
With some in hand before.
S. George did kill, as Legends say,
A Dragon fierce of prey:
Next vnder God this Monster may
None but our Soueraigne slay.
Marke well my words, whose Pedegree
Is fetch't from Cambers line;
And with our Leekes who do'st agree
Thy Roses to Combine.
Take wares vnbought, a thing that's strange,
Fish, Iron, Salt, and Pitch,
Trayne, Skinnes, and Masts
: or in Exchange
Fruit, Wine, Gold, Silkes most rich.
Our Seuerne goes not farre behinde
The Thames for fruitfull ground:
Nor this my Muse shall any finde
Vnrelisht or vnfound.
Let Friends or Fiends, or Momes accurst
Taxe her for want of life:
With sweet the best, with sowre the worst
She payes to end the strife.
I'st not folly? and vnholy
For Bayards to discerne
Of doubtfull colours suddenly,
Before the right they learne?
Although I am no Puritane
Pure kisses I commend.
Pure iests I praise in any man,
So they to goodnesse tend. /I: (87)/
I haue not read, I must confesse,
Those bookes cald Lutherane:
And thine, O Wickliffe, haue I lesse;
Yet am not I profane.
These Mysteries I leaue to such,
Who pale with study teach:
Or vnto such, whom ouermuch
Wants Feare commands to preach.
Skeltons interruption.
Why dost thou smite, O busie wight,
Our eares with thy discourse?
Art thou a Iew, or Rome-a-Night,
A bruitish Turke, or worse?
Thy Song some Welsh Sidanens Loue
May gaine to thy desire:
But Courtly Dames will thee reproue,
Fly from high beauties fire.
Haunt thou Bride-Cakes, and Country cheere
As fits a Cambrian Peere.
Thy Mumsimus, thy murmurs here
None will but dizzards heare.
Bray there aloud, and roare complete
Amidst thy Pipes and Ale:
From Babels seat springs thy conceit,
Thy sonnet is so stale.
S. Dauid.
I come not here for Belly-cheere,
Nor for Tobaccoes fume.
With mirth for mirrh my Soueraigne deare,
To perfume, I presume.
Whom mighty Loue meanes to destroy,
He lets them quaffe a while: /And: (88)/
And mads them with a smoaky toy,
Themselues till they beguile.
Bayte thou those Beasts: and Ile take leaue,
To greet our Charles his waine:
Whose rayes shoot on, as I conceaue,
The stocke of Charle le-maine.
Their Starre I saw from Cambria West:
Which made me Gifts prepare,
Leekes crownd with Pearles; yet to contest
Against me still you dare.
You gape for Fees, but a Gold Ring
Suits not a Meazells snout.
A Lambe shall wring your Adders sting
And canuase all your rout.
Rather then you should terme me Iew,
Leane Bacon I will eat:
Or Pudding nere so blacke of hew,
or Hare, though beauties meat.
But if you please and stand precise,
Vpon those Iewish Lawes:
Your double tongue Ile Circumcise,
Which marres your Clyents cause.
I worship not false Mahomet,
Who barres the Ivy signe,
As ignorant, how some haue met
In wine the sisters nine.
Nor Romes good will seeke I to winne,
Which orders me to plow
Red furrowes vp in naked skinne
And merits seed to sow.
Such Grace let Popes graue on themselues,
And leaue me as I am; /Who: Mmm (89)/
Who brookes it worse then Egypts Elues
The Diuell, or his Dam.
I count that Church Baudes Pedlery,
Which all for money cares;
Sells Masses, Pardons, Letchery,
Soules, Beads. o precious wares!
Though Iack a dandy, when he houles,
Frights children from the dugges:
Will men giue bribes to keepe their soules
From Purgatories bugges?
Though Apes weare coates, and some birds prate,
Not knowing weale from woe:
Yet sober men (though somewhat late)
Owle Mattins should forgoe.
I hunt not for more miracles,
The Gospell to confirme:
Nor outward shewes, Gulls Spectacles,
To hold my Inside firme.
The Golden Calfe old Iewes averr'd
With manly voice to crake:
Christs body some are not afeard,
From Gods right hand to rake:
I like as ill the Cloister life,
Vnlesse a Nunne I schoole.
Let him that hates an honest wife
Be gelt, or beg'd a foole.
No Priest shall cozen me to fast
To pull my courage downe,
If once of Shrift my Wife had tast,
Or lou'd a grasse-greene gowne.
At Tombes and Shrines I dare not call,
On Saints this match to guide: /Nor: (90)/
Nor Heauens Queene; let Idolls all
Lye from this mariage wide.
But vnto O N E, that's alway prone
To pardon humane vice,
I vow them both in Christ alone
A liuing Sacrifice.
The Stony-heart who can deny
But vnion tender makes?
Of diffring Tunes an Harmony,
In spight of Hellish Snakes?
No venome shall their soules defile,
No dreames, no magicke spells:
Not Crocodile tempt them with guile.
So sweet Loues Posie smells!
No Beast shall touch their honey flowres,
No flashing curse them sindge,
What God hath set he weedes at houres;
Gods knot let none infringe.
With Oile of Gladnesse, Bathes of blisse
Dipt shines free Maiestie
In Albions Throne, where Thamesis
Extolls their Amitie.
The Crownes they weare, no Fiends can teare;
S. Michaell guards his owne.
The Golden Scepter which they beare
With Lawes swayes Field and Towne.
With might & maine their mind contends
The Dragon to put by,
Who red with blood at last intends
The westerne Monarchy.
Yet let him reckon with his Oast
For his warre-fares wages: /Not: Mmm2 (91)/
Not all his Rents in Indiaes Coast
Will pay th'arrerages.
Let none wonder, if God Thunder
Vengeance for our Iarres:
While we vnder Sathan wander,
Himselfe with Dauid warres.
But reconcil'd he wils to fight
His Battells valiantly.
Though Dauids might Goliah slight,
On God all Conquests lye.
Couragious King, then bid vs smite
Tyrants downe, Gyants growne;
Downe with those Dons, which Britaines spight,
Tara tantara downe.
Me thinkes Lisbon I see now wonne,
Th'Iles ransack't, th'Indies sack't,
And sweet Eliza thought vndone;
Rein-stald by vs awakt.
In March, like Iune, their springs first light
Reuiues our Garden beds
With louely Roses, red and white,
And Leekes with siluer'd heads.
The Spirits Gardner will keepe greene
With Buddes perpetually,
Our Rosie King and Lillies Queene,
On him if we relye.
Whom last I pray, as Pageants gay,
As Maskes, or Gemmes in Gold,
My Muse to prize, though clad in gray,
My Will, though too too bold. /CHAP.: (92)/

CHAP. 13.

Vpon an Information preferred before the Lady Pallas, against Scoggin and Skelton for interrupting S. Dauid in his Sonnet; she vtters some obseruations on the behalfe of the Learned, and thereby takes an occasion to banish all Scoffing Companions from Parnassus, and from becomming at any time after partakers of the Golden Fleece discouered in this Treatise.

THe next day after this Sonnet was sung in the Amphitheater at Parnassus by S. Dauid, Spencer the Emperours Atturney for the English Poets, being moued with the vnmannerly and rude interruptions of Scoggin and Skelton, informed against them as Libellers before the Lady Pallas, who sate as Queene Regent in Apolloes absence. These dogrell Rimers confessed their Errour, that they were seduced by the Spirit of Detraction, to disgrace this Reuerend Prelate as much as in them lay, because his Grauity had composed that Sonnet in such a homely straine, as seemed more conuenient for men of their ranke, then for a venerable Patriarch, whose veine ought rather to flow with Heroicall blood, then to borrow their plaine robes of Poetizing.

Vpon this Confession of the Dogrell Rimers, ore tenus, the wise Regent proceeded, and vttered these notable resolutions; that Scoggin and Skelton well deserued to be punished as Libellers in that Starre- /Chamber: Mmm3 (93)/ Chamber-Court. First, because they had interrupted a person of that high worth, and that publikely, before they had heard the Sonnet throughly repeated, which argued, that they did it more out of spleene and preiudicate iudgement, then out of the apprehension of their titulary liberties. Secondly, that a simple course Poeme inriched with liuely matter and iuyce, ought to be preferred before an heroicall swolne verse puft vp with the barme or froth of an inconsiderate wit. Thirdly, that no man should critickly quote downe the imperfections of any Booke or writing, except hee also would note the best and choisest conceits thereof, whereby it might appeare in the ballance of vnderstanding, that the one did downe-waigh the other. For it is easier to finde faults, then to mend them, to pull downe a house, then to build one vp. And whosoeuer would marke the worst things, leauing the sweetest and most worthy of commendation behinde; her Grace compared him to that Foole, which forsooke the Rose, and smelt to the pricking brier. Fourthly, that many men vsed to reprehend the works of the learned, which their owne muddy Pates could not apprehend nor comprehend, because they might seeme wiser to the standers by then the Muses had made them. Fiftly, that a iudicious Writer should not care what censure a malicious Sycophant gaue of his workes; For it were more honourable to bee praised of one Socrates, then of a hundred Momists. That Scholler therefore, which with an Apology defends his innocency against these vipers toungs /the: (94)/ the most prudent Queen likened him to that hare-braind Traueller, which in the scorching Moneth of Iune being troubled with the croaking noise of Frogs, would needs light downe from his horse to be reuenged on them for offending of his tender eares.

All this, sayd the noble Queene, did our Reuerend Patriarch know, when hee went forwards with his Sonnet notwithstãding the crosse-oppositions of these Buffones, scorning out of a braue Britaine courage to reuenge himself on such contemptible creatures. Neuertheles, because their floutes and taunts tended to the breach of Ciuill Orders, her Maiestie banished all scoffing companions, and base ballet Rimers quite out of the Iurisdiction of Parnassus and Colchos, and for euer after to become incapable of the mystery of the golden fleece.

The conclusion of Orpheus Iunior to his Soue-
raigne the King of
Great Britaine.

IF with kind words your Maiestie approue
This Golden Fleece sprung from a subiects loue:
Ile sweare you hold your Fathers worth by right,
That from your lippes there shootes a quickning
But if your mind more waighty cares withdraw,
One fingers touch sufficeth me for Law.
Ile dreame that you haue read, what I present,
Or deem'd it meet for wisedomes Parliament, /Or: (95)/
Or else Ile faine new fancies in my Braine,
That to your state this worke might bring some
Or that you doe of Vaughan well conceaue,
But to your Cookes this as a prey you leaue:

I care not, whilst crown'd Lillies you become,
While Trade helpes Armes abroad, and Peace at

Orphei Iunioris conclusio ad Magnae
Britanniae Regem.

Si placidis verbis tibi nostra probetur Opella,

Quae Maiestatis ponitur ante pedes:
Dignum iuro Patris te, maxime Carole, Sceptro,
Et iuro labris lumen inesse tuis.
Sin magis impediant grauiora negotia mentem,
Sat mihisi digito tacta sit ipsa tuo.
Idaeas signam, te perlegisse: Senatu,
Aut Aulae scribis hanc meruisse legi;
Vel de Vauhanno bene te sentire: sed Orsa
Tradere nostra Coquis igne voranda tuis.
Nil moror: Albionis decorant dum Lilia Serta:
Dum foris Arma, domi Pax, Noua Terra viget.


[Contents | First Part | Second Part | Third Part | 16-17th Century Texts]

NOTE: This document was transcribed from the original The Golden Fleece published in 1626 and contained in the Centre for Newfoundland Studies, Queen Elizabeth II Library, Memorial University of Newfoundland. No effort has been undertaken to emend or correct the source text. For further information please contact Dr. Hans Rollmann at

These pages constructed by Duleepa Wijayawardhana