TO THE RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD,
BY THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD,
LORD Bishop of Chichester,
and to the right worshipful Lady,
the LADY ANNE NEVILL his wife,
Richard Eburne wisheth in Christ Jesus
our Lord, all joy and
felicity of body and soul
[I]t is not (Right Honourable and Worshipful) for want of patrons to my work, (for such I praise God I need not want, the work itself wanting not favourable acceptation with many of no mean estate and place) that I publish under your names some part thereof: but for want of better occasion and fitter opportunity to express the sincere thankfulness of my heart and mind unto you both; to whom I acknowledge myself so far indebted, as doth cause me often to remember, and will not suffer me to forget you in my heartiest /84/prayers, and the catalogue of my benefactors. To your honour, (right Reverend Father in God) for the great good I have received from the fruit of your learned labours, specially that of tithes De jure Divino, in regard whereof I do oft acknowledge you to be my Master and Teacher, and to you both, for your special and manifold favours to the fruit of my body, my eldest son, whom it hath pleased you both long to entertain in your service, and even in his rashest years to vouchsafe him, and honourably to confer upon him, such preferments as may, by God's blessing, be to him, as a beginning, so an occasion of better, and put him and me in hope, that you are yet farther willing and ready, if God grant opportunity thereunto, to do for him greater things. Accept therefore, I heartily and humbly beseech you both, as a token of my thankful mind, this little parcel and participation, with others, of these my plain and public labours. The argument whereof, if in particular, and directly it suit not with your actions and courses; yet tending, as it doth, to the general and common good of this whole native country of yours to which I know you wish all good and prosperity, I assure myself it will not be distasteful, but /85/grateful to your Honourable minds and affectations.
This favour, if you shall be pleased to add unto the former, you shall yet farther oblige me to pray to him that is Father of all, and from whom cometh every good and perfect gift, for his everlasting favours and manifold graces to you and yours.
/89/The Third Part
The speakers be
Respire, a Farmer
Enrubie, a Merchant
nce again, Master Enrubie, I am come to trouble you a little. For by often thinking and, as it were, meditating upon these new and notable businesses of plantation, which I hope will, and wish may, take good effect, some things are come into my mind that need a better wit and understanding than mine to open them to me. I pray you therefore a little to instruct me therein.
Enrubie. With a very good will. I will do what I may. Ask me what you will.
Respire. The great and goodly works that we have talked of I see to be exceeding good and necessary for our people and means enough to be had for setting them forward. What therefore may be the reason they go on no better?
Causes why our plantations proceed no better.
First, want of a general resolution
Enrubie. There may divers reasons or causes thereof be conceived, the main or principal whereof, in my conceit, is this: /90/there wanteth among us a general and settled resolution to proceed with them.
Respire. What might work such a resolution?
Enrubie. A like knowledge and persuasion of the necessity, ability, and opportunity that our whole nation hath thereunto.
Respire. I pray you, speak somewhat of each of these severally.
Enrubie. I have reasonably well done it already, if you call to mind what hath passed between us in conference. For in our first day's labor I showed you manifoldly that a plantation is for our land, at this present time, very needful. And indeed, it is so needful and necessary that unless God take away the present necessity thereof by war or pestilence, or both, if it be not this way remedied this land cannot but shortly come for want thereof to very great misery and evil.
And at our next meeting I showed you that there are both people enow and means for provision enough to perform such a business, and that in a large and ample both manner and measure, if good courses be taken for it accordingly, which can be best done by some act of Parliament, if the estates of the land might be pleased to take this matter into their consideration as a matter that highly and nearly concerneth the common good at this instant. Matters of ten times less moment are ordinarily vouchsafed the help and authority of that most high and honorable court, and therefore great hope we may conceive that in due time, which is even now, this also shall.
For opportunity, I take it it hath passed between us in our whole conference as a matter granted that there is opportunity thereto offered us abundantly because--as it is most certainly known and out of all controversy--there are sundry places and countries where plantations may be made and our people may inhabit if they will.
Respire. What take you for a second cause?
Secondly, the want of some good course for it
Enrubie. The want of some good order and course for such a purpose, such, I mean, as may be settled generally all the land over by regal and legal authority and not by private agreements and directions only, which, if I be not much deceived, will never effect such a work while the world standeth.
/91/The ancient Romans, well understanding this, never therefore attempted the plantation of any one colony or city alone, or of any of those lands they had gotten in war, but that first there was lex lata, a special law or public decree, much like an act of Parliament with us, made for it, the titles whereof were De coloniis deducendis, De agris dividendis, and otherlike.
Respire. The King's Majesty permitteth any that will to go.
Enrubie. (1) First, that is more than we do know, whatsoever folk do say; (2) experience doth show there must be used to the thorough effecting of any such attempt a coactive as well as a permissive power. It is not an easy matter, scarce to be hoped for in these days and in our land, to make, if need should be, any great army for the field, much less to get voluntaries enough for a plantation, considering that it is easier to get careless young men and single men to go out of their country unto a warfare than to get settled householders and whole families, men, women, and children, to go into a strange country to a plantation and habitation.
Respire. What may be a third cause?
Thirdly, want of industry in our people
Enrubie. The want of industry and inclination to labor and take any pains in our people, who at this present are so overgrown, as I may say, with that pestiferous weed idleness, and so given to immoderate ease and quietness, that it is not possible almost to move them to hear of any plantation, which they conceive cannot be effected, as indeed it cannot, without much labor and painstaking, without industrious endeavors and much diligence. It is reported by authors of good credit of Hannibal--that hammer, as I may well term him, of the Romans--that his army and soldiers were more hurt and disabled to martial affairs by his suffering of them to lie and live in Capua, a city of Italy, but one-half year in idleness and luxury, than the whole host of the Romans had done in some whole years before. We must not greatly marvel if our so long continued rest and peace from wars and warlike employments, our unspeakable idleness and dissolute life, have so corrupted and in manner effeminated our people generally and for the most part that they cannot endure the hearing, much less the doing, of any /92/laborious attempts of anything that shall be troublous or any whit dangerous unto them.
Respire. What remedy may there be for this perilous disease?
Enrubie. None, or at least none better, I think, than a plantation, as I showed you the first day at large.
Respire. Have you any other cause to allege for our backwardness this way?
Fourthly, the immoderate love of their own country
Enrubie. Yes, the immoderate love of our own country. Every man, almost, is so, as I may say, besotted therewith that it is almost impossible upon any advantage to get them out of it.
Respire. And blame them not. You know, I am sure, the old saying Fumus patriae igne alieno luculentior: "The smoke of man's own country is clearer in his eyes than the fire of another." And you have read how the children of Israel, having dwelt in the land of Egypt some two or three hundred years, whereby it was to them their native country, that albeit they were therein most cruelly oppressed by the Egyptians, yet when Moses came to deliver them they were not easily drawn to go out of it and that to a good land, a land that flowed with milk and honey; and how once or twice, being well on the way, they were ready to make head to have returned. And therefore no great marvel if our English people be so loath to go out of a good land, so good a land as England is, a land to which scarce any in Christendom is comparable, and to go into they know not what wild and desolate countries.
Enrubie. That you say were somewhat to the purpose if it were purposed that they should remove which do enjoy and eat the good and fat of the land. But seeing they are either chiefly or only intended to be removed hence that have nothing here but need and misery; they that have not a foot of ground to rest upon nor a house to put their head in; they which by the extreme dearth and want of necessaries for man's life are ready to pine and perish; they have little reason to be so in love with that country that is so much out of love with them that she seems rather a stepdame than a mother unto them, and to refuse and forsake that country which will be to them a kind and loving mother indeed; that country that is ready to receive them with both her arms; that country where they may, if they will, have abundance of that which here they want; that /93/country which will vouchsafe them such livings and means to live by as they are sure in England they shall never attain unto: as if they had never heard that ubicunque bene, ibi patria, wheresoever a man is or may be best at ease, it is best to account that for his country, and that it is but mere vanity for men to prefer the soil of any region before themselves.
In a word, all that you say or can say for this point is as far out of the way as if you would say because children have been born and bred up in their father's house therefore what need soever they have, and how bad maintenance and keeping soever they have there, yet they ought not, nor have they any reason, to go out of that their father's house and to pass into other elsewhere, tanquam in colonias, as into new colonies or habitations, there to be provided for and to live in far better sort.
Respire. I see mine oversight and that all this hath formerly been touched but that either ignorant corruption or partial affection so blinded and overruled me that I could not so well perceive it as now by this your repetition and recollection thereof I do.
Enrubie. Of this matter, then, let this suffice. And if you have anything else to inquire of, proceed unto it, if you please.
Respire. I have heard both you and others say there be divers plantations now either already in hand or to be taken in hand if we will; and I pray you tell me by name what and how many they be.
How many plantations now in hand
Enrubie. They are these, as near as I can remember: Newfoundland, Summer Islands, Virginia, Guiana, New England, and as I hear of late, New Scotland too.
Respire. What, so many? Then there cannot want opportunity of plantation for our people, if we be not wanting to it. And God forbid that so great an opportunity, or rather so many and all so fair opportunities--for that also you have already showed--should be overslipped and neglected. It may be feared if they should God would not be pleased therewith. For what can He do more for us than to make us so many and so fair offers for our good from time to time, as one that loveth our nation, if we will see it, and is willing, by spreading of it into sundry parts of the world, to make it famous and great upon earth?
Enrubie. You say very well. Happy, therefore, shall we be if we make use of it.
/94/Respire. But now, I pray you, tell me what manner of countries those are.
Enrubie. I have already done that also, if you remember well our first day's labor, by showing what good is in them to be had, and by answering your objections pretended against them as if they were not worth the accepting.
Respire. I remember that well. But my desire is that you would relate unto me the state of those countries particularly, one by one.
Enrubie. That were an endless and a needless labor--endless, for that it would require more than one or two days' time thereto; and needless for that it is already done better than I can do it again in several books or descriptions of those countries set forth by other men such as have either found out the countries themselves or desire to farther our plantations therein, unto the which let it suffice that I remit you as by which you may be satisfied for this point at full and that at your best leisure.
Respire. That is a matter of cost, to buy such books.
Enrubie. A little money will do it. I do not think but that you spend more a great deal in any one year in idle and unnecessary expenses which you may spare to lay out on these good uses. The books are delightful of themselves, as all historical treatises commonly are, and so will be a good recreation when you have been wearied other ways. Also they will often put you in mind of these things, whereas my relation will be but once; and when you have read them over and over they will serve for your children and others to exercise them to the reading of English as well as any other books--the sacred histories and books divine, that season the soul as well as the understanding with piety and godliness, always and only excepted.
Respire. The countries being so many, is it intended that there shall be plantations in them all by the English?
Enrubie. What is intended I cannot tell. But this I can tell, somewhat to that purpose is or hath been attempted in them all.
Respire. But it is not possible they should all be finished, is it?
Enrubie. Whether it be possible, God knows, but surely in mine opinion it is somewhat unlikely. It is not good to have many works, great works, in hand at once. It were better, haply, that /95/some of them were quite given over, or at least deferred till some were either finished or brought to some perfection. Vis unita, the old saying is, fortior: forces united must needs be the stronger and dispersed the weaker.
A time may come for the filling up and full storing of them all. For if God vouchsafe to continue our health and peace in this land, as now of long time He hath done, there is no question to be made of it but that were all presently removed that our land is able to spare, which doubtless are many score thousands, yet within few years it will look again for a new removing place for those which out of its yearly increase will be sprung up. And therefore it were not amiss but a thing to be wished and endeavored that, though the full finishing of some one or two plantations be chiefly for the present followed and intended, yet upon a provident, or if I may so speak, a prevident consideration of our occasions and wants for time to come, some both possession and plantation might be continued in all those countries which by God's special favor to usward do at this present rest and remain as it were offered to and into our hands.
Respire. And which of all these seemeth to be most likely to be the best to be set forward before the rest?
Which of them seemeth best to be set forward
Enrubie. Divers men, no doubt, will think diversely, as either their affection carries or their reason persuades them. Disliking therefore of, and detracting from no man's but leaving every man to his own, as I desire they will me to mine, this is mine opinion: that if the plantation proceed by hundreds, Guiana is the best; if by thousands, Newfoundland is best.
Respire. I conceive not the reason of this difference, which yet I persuade myself you do make upon good reason.
Enrubie. Any that understands either the state of those countries or the true nature of a plantation would easily understand me.
Respire. Help me to understand it also.
Enrubie. It is this. If we seek for riches, for good merchandise and goodly commodities to be brought hither, the richest country and the wealthiest for the present, that also whence with fewest hands it may be returned, is the best: such is Guiana. /96/If we seek for room for our overswarming multitudes of people of many sorts to be placed in, the most desolate and emptiest country, voidest of inhabitants and nearest and easiest for transportation is the best: such is Newfoundland. And again, if we plant by composition, Guiana is fittest; if by preoccupation--for a fitter English word on the sudden I find not--Newfoundland is best.
Respire. I pray you, explain yourself again a little better, for what you mean by planting by composition and preoccupation I understand not.
How many ways there be to make plantations
Enrubie. Then are you little acquainted with these courses. The meaning is this: we plant by composition when, seeking to gain a country already somewhat peopled and reasonably inhabited, as is Guiana, we do upon fair conditions, as by proffering them defense against their enemies, supply of their wants, namely, apparel, armor, edge tools, and the like, allure and win them to enter league with us, to agree that we shall dwell among them and have lands and other commodities of them to our content. We plant by preoccupation when, finding a country quite void of people, as no doubt in America yet there are many--as was the Bermudas, now called Summer Islands, for [a] few years past, and as is at this present, for the most part, Newfoundland--we seize upon it, take it, possess it, and as by the laws of God and nations lawfully we may, hold it as our own and so fill and replenish it with our people. In the first manner, a few people may suffice, but to the latter many, very many, are necessary.
Respire. This is very plain. But why speak you nothing of planting by invasion, which some men think to be, as it hath proved to them that have used it, the richest, the readiest, and the speediest course of the three?
Plantation by invasion disliked
Enrubie. First, because we need it not. There are countries enow besides, and such are all those now in hand, in which we may safely plant either by ourselves or with others without any invasion or war at all.
Secondly, if we needed it or any would go that way to work, yet our people generally will not endure it. We see they can hardly, nay, they cannot be gotten to go and plant themselves /97/where they may do it with all ease and freedom that can be, and therefore there is no probability they will once move a foot to go and seek out a country by the sword. We read (Exod. 13:17) that God, when He brought the children of Israel out of Egypt, would not carry them into the land of Canaan by the way of the Philistines' countries though it were the nearer way a great deal, lest the people should repent them when they see war and turn back into Egypt; but God made the people to go about by the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea, teaching us therein how fearful people naturally are of war, as willing rather to forgo even an exceeding good land as Canaan was rather than to go into it by the sword, and that God Himself dislikes not such a fear.
Thirdly, that were a double charge. For so our people must go, first, they that are men only, as an army of soldiers to subdue the inhabitants and take the country, and then after to go men, women, and children to inhabit and keep it if they can. For many times in such cases the event of war proves uncertain, whereas going where needs no invasion they may make their full remove, young and old at first, and rest secure of settling there.
Fourthly, and for mine own part, I do not like it. I nor am nor can be persuaded that it may be lawful for one nation to fight against and destroy another in that sort, and upon no better title than the desire of their lands and goods to bereave each other of their rights and lives.
Respire. Indeed, the Scripture saith, "All the whole heavens are the Lord's, the earth hath He given to the children of men" (Ps. 115:16), by which words I gather that whatsoever country any people do possess and inhabit it is God's gift unto them; God hath allotted and bestowed that on them for their portion. Which being so, it seems to me to stand with reason and religion both that every people whatsoever they be should be permitted quietly and peaceably to hold and enjoy their own country, and that it ought not of any by violence to be taken from them. We must do to all men, Jew or Gentile, faithful or unfaithful, as we would be done unto; and therefore I cannot but like well of your opinion in that point.
Enrubie. Examples there are, I grant, many in sundry histories to /98/the contrary, but you know the old rule, Vivitur legibus, non exemplis: we must live by laws and not by examples. And therefore till we find better proof than practice and further warrant than "Thus and thus others have done before us," I hold it not safe to do the like.
Respire. I see that invasion is neither the best nor so much as a good course for plantation. And therefore I marvel how they either are deceived or do understand themselves that say, as I have heard some that seem to be of good understanding this way, "Invasion and plantation are cousin-germans and so like one the other that a man may take a pattern for the one from the other."
Enrubie. They that say so, and I am one of them, have very fair probability of that they say, as I suppose.
Respire. I am glad then that I made mention thereof, since you are of that mind also, for now I hope I shall be made to conceive how that may be. I pray you, therefore, declare it unto me.
Wherein invasion and plantation are somewhat like. Firstly, discovery
Enrubie.I will, but briefly lest I make you as weary to hear as you seem willing to learn. Thus it is:
There be five things wherein these two actions do very much accord and which the one must use as well as the other or else they cannot prosper. The first of them is discovery. The party invading, or they that will invade another nation or country, must first of all make a perfect discovery thereof, that knowing the situation of the place, the largeness or quantity, the state and quality thereof, the alliance it hath with other people, near or far off, weak or strong, and otherlike, accordingly they may prepare for the attempt. The same must they do that will plant in another country. They must know certainly the situation of it, the largeness and quantity thereof, the nature and quality of the soil, the state of the climate, the temperature of the air, the easiness or difficulty of access and entrance unto it, the most convenient places for erecting cities, towns, and fortifications there. Also whether it be inhabited already or not and how much and in what sort. What kind of people they be, likewise what borderers and allies unto it, what fruits and commodities there or likely there to be had, what dangers or inconveniences there to be feared, with otherlike. For according as they have notice of these particulars they may and must proceed.
/99/Secondly, number of people
The second is people to make the attempt withal. They that will invade others must be sure to raise an army so great and good as in all probability may be able either for number or valor or both to match and overmatch the party invaded. And they that will plant otherwhere must raise such a multitude as in all probability may be able for number and industry in some measure to take up and inhabit the country they go to. To go down as Jacob did into Egypt with seventy souls and within a few scores of years to multiply and increase unto six or seven hundred thousands and above, and to give an onset and prevail, as Gideon did, with three hundred half-armed men upon two or three hundred thousands of well-appointed soldiers is a matter of admiration, showing us what God can do, not of imitation what we may or must do.
What number of people may suffice to begin a plantation withal Respire.What number of people, or how many thousands, may there suffice or be necessary for us to begin a plantation withal?
Enrubie. That cannot regularly and certainly be determined. For as to invade a country withal the army must be more or less according to the state and strength of the country or party invaded; so to plant a country withal the multitude removing must be great or small according to the greatness or smallness of the plantation and the facility or difficulty of planting by reason of either open enemies or suspected friends, with otherlike circumstances and occurrents. This is as much as can be said: that without a number somewhat great no good plantation can be made at all. And though for mine own part I will speak of no certain number, yet this much I will tell you, that I find that the ancient Romans, who were a people of great policy and planted many colonies, when they sent forth any number of people an it were but for one colony--that is, but one city--alone, did never send forth a less number than three thousand, more oftentimes. And they were so precise upon the point, as they that knew well without a number somewhat great their colonies could not possibly stand and prosper, that though they planted divers colonies in one year, as sometimes they did, yet they failed not of that number, that is, to send forth to every several place three thousand apiece at the least. By which practice of theirs I leave it to you and others to judge /100/what is likely they in their policy could have thought to have been a sufficient number to send forth to plant a whole country withal, wherein they were to settle and employ divers cities, towns, and villages at once, and do rest the more confirmed that I am not in error when I do intimate or move that into our plantations, being so spacious and ample as they are, our people should go forth by thousands and not by hundreds.
Respire. What is the third thing wherein these actions be somewhat like?
Enrubie. The third resemblance is provision for the people. They that will invade others must provide and take such order for provision for their own side that they want not necessaries for victuals, for armor, and otherlike, which in all men's opinion are the strength and sinews of war, lest they be enforced to give over the attempt with loss and infamy, or be pressed with famine and endangered with sickness and mutinies, which commonly attend the same. And they that will plant otherwhere must be sure of provision both of victuals for themselves and necessaries for building and other uses till they be settled and have of their own there.
Respire. This is it, as some think, that mars all. For, as it is thought, there is no possibility to have provision for such a multitude or great number of people as must or need to be removed. And indeed, how can it be possible that, ten or twenty thousand removing in one year, they can have along with them a year's or--which is the least that may be--but half a year's provision, which may sustain them till the country itself can succor them?
Enrubie. You and they too are very much mistaken. For, as to an army of thirty or forty thousand soldiers, provision must be had for them all the time they are abroad, but it is not of necessity that they must carry it all with them at the first setting forth; it is sufficient if order be taken how it may be brought unto them by sea or by land from time to time, weekly or monthly as shall be fit and can best be performed; and even so it is for a multitude removing into a plantation. And this I hope you will grant is possible enough to be obtained and done, and this the sooner if you understand withal that into any of the /101/countries to be planted our ships may easily make two, three, or four voyages in a year.
Respire. I see that, as the proverb saith, there be more ways to the wood than one. Proceed, I pray you, to your fourth affinity.
Enrubie. That is celerity. In making an invasion there is nothing more requisite for many causes than that it be done, when it is once intended it shall be done, with all speediness and celerity, a point wherein the ancient Roman captains commonly excelled and overreached all other, and their Julius Caesar them all, and a thing which oftentimes stood them more in stead than any other project or course they could devise. And surely, in making of a plantation I think it to be none of the least points to be observed, for many, questionless, are the commodities thereof. Nothing is more dangerous than a lingering war and nothing more discommodious than a slow plantation.
Respire. What celerity think you needful to be used in that case?
What celerity needful in a plantation
Enrubie. Such that the whole plantation might in some reasonable measure be finished in two, three, or four years at the most.
Respire. That seems a thing altogether unpossible.
Enrubie. Why so? Is it not possible, for example's sake, think you, that if we should make a plantation in Newfoundland there might be sent thither the first year so many as might inhabit it all along one side thereof and ten or twelve miles into the land; the like on the other side the second year; and the third year ten or twelve miles farther on both sides? The rest remaining void in the midst may either be filled up in the fourth year, or--if it be not much, and who hath yet related the breadth of that country from sea to sea?--remain for the spreading of the first number as they do propagate and increase. All which to do will not require so great store of people as some haply may imagine, considering that the parishes there cannot at first be half so thick and need not be one quarter so full as they be here.
Respire. I do not see but that it is possible enough such a thing might be. For we have both people enow and means enough to set them forth withal for such a speedy plantation.
Enrubie. Such celerity used would make a better plantation /102/anywhere in three or four years than is likely to be made by any course that I can hear of yet used in three- or fourscore years; (2) it would be marvelous comfortable and profitable to the people removed; (3) it would secure the plantation from all enemies that shall either envy it or endanger it; (4) and it would set us at liberty for another plantation otherwhere, which, so well and roundly finished in one place, would be a notable pattern and encouragement to any to participate in some other.
Respire. Now proceed, if it please you, to your last resemblance.
Enrubie. The fifth is policy, which in both these cases must much be used. There must be policy for the getting and policy for the keeping of that which is gotten. For getting victory against those they did invade, good martial commanders, whose desire and endeavor hath ever been to perform more concilio quam vi, by policy and good advice than by power and force, have used in former times a threefold policy--honor, preferment, and reward: (1) honor: he that first climbed the walls had his crown; (2) preferment: he that showed most valor was ever advanced to higher place and office in the camp and army; and sometimes, to encourage them all, (3) for their reward they gave them the spoil of the enemy. The whole booty was theirs if they could win the town. The like must be used in a plantation, that the better sort, men of dexterity, industry, and understanding, be preferred to places of preeminence and authority, and that all that will adventure to inhabit the plantation be vouchsafed, by a liberal distribution of the lands and commodities of the country planted unto them, riches and means for them and theirs abundantly and gallantly to live upon. Such liberality and advancement will encourage men to go and will quickly make a good plantation, which covetousness and neglect of persons will never do.
Secondly, for keeping of that they have gotten, martial men do use a twofold policy, viz., to strengthen themselves and to weaken the enemy: (1) they strengthen themselves by making fortifications and settling garrisons, if need be, to keep the city or country gotten; (2) they weaken the enemy by taking from them their armor, that they shall not be able to resist though they would, and by taking of them their children and others /103/for hostages, that they may not dare to resist though they could. And they that will make a good plantation must, as occasion shall require, use the very like.
And whereas the people of those parts are all, or for the most part, destitute of armor and unskillful in feats of arms, by all means it is expedient so to keep and continue them. For, seeing they do for the most part in number of persons and strength of body already exceed us, if we suffer them to have armor and inure them to use it, probable it is that within a little time they will in valor too excel us and so beat us with our own weapons. These be the things wherein betwixt invasion and plantation there is so much affinity. To which I might add two more: equity and authority, without the former whereof an invasion is not bellum but latrocinium, not a warfare but a robbery, and plantation not a lawful possession but a cruel oppression; and without the latter whereof neither can an army be levied for invasion nor will a multitude of people be gotten to set forth for a plantation. But I pass by these, both because of the one I spake but little before upon another occasion, and of the other needs no question, seeing it is out of question that all the places and countries intended for plantations by us are such as in all equity we may, by the law of God and nations, enter upon.
Respire. Your speech hath satisfied me very well; but if you would be pleased for your later point of policy to add some particulars how it might well be practiced, you should give me much more content. For it is a thing that I desire much to hear.
Enrubie. That would I do also, were it not that I doubt lest howsoever you may accept it, yet some other hearing hereof would say unto me, as Apelles to the shoemaker, Ne sutor ultra crepidam, no man should intermeddle but with that which belongs to his own profession, or, which is worse, that I have cut large thongs out of other folks' leather. Wherefore, for that point, let me desire you rather to hearken as I do to hear the words or voice of him or them that shall say, "Thus and thus it shall be. This and that they shall have that will adventure," and having said it, have power what they have spoken in words to perform and make good in deeds, than to press me to say what /104/may or might be done that am not able to say or assure any man that ever any such thing shall be done. Farther, this would require a more large discourse by far than the brevity which I promised and intended will admit.
Whether [it] is better to plant in an island or in a continent Respire. Let that matter go then; and now tell me, I pray you, whether it were better that a plantation be made in an island or in a country at large that is no island?
Enrubie. That I cannot certainly tell you. For in several respects either of them may be better one than the other, as: in respect of certainty, celerity, facility, and security it is better to plant in an island, so it be somewhat large, than in a large continent. But in other respects, as for opportunity to enlarge the bounds of the plantation for variety of commodities, which a large continent may rather yield than a lesser island; for vicinity unto other countries; and for league and amity with neighbor nations and otherlike, it may be better, caeteris paribus, other things being suitable, to plant in a spacious continent than in an island.
Respire. You said but now of such countries as are devoid of inhabitants you thought Newfoundland the best for a present plantation; what moves you to be of that mind? For I hear that some do dislike it very much.
Motives for a present plantation in Newfoundland
Enrubie. I can give you no reason for it out of my own experience, for, as you know, I was never there. For that point, therefore, I had rather refer you to Captain Richard Whitbourne-- I mean to his book of the discovery of that country which he hath lately set forth, whereby you may for that matter be satisfied at large.
Respire. But in the meantime, till I can get that book and be at leisure to peruse it, you shall do me a pleasure if you will in brief relate unto me what you have observed out of it to that purpose.
Enrubie. That I will do willingly. The sum is this: first, it is the nearest place that now is to be planted, not above fourteen or fifteen days' sail with a good wind; whereas Virginia and some of the rest are twice as far at the least and more dangerous for passage.
Secondly, it is the safest place for plantation, as which is out of the road, as I may say, both of the Spaniard to his countries and plantations, and also of pirates at sea, who are most for the Straits. And, if need should be, whither soonest, viz., within /105/a few days' warning, they there may have succor from England and England again from it.
Thirdly, it is the cheapest and readiest for passage and transportation both of men and means of all sorts to plant with, both because our ships do yearly and usually, two or three hundred sail of them, go thither on fishing voyages--and that most of them but half loaden and some with no lading at all--and by plantation no doubt more may and will.
Fourthly, it may soonest be finished and so we freed again for some other plantation, because it is but an island of no great content, not so big as England but near about the greatness of Ireland.
Fifthly, the country itself is healthy and temperate, very agreeable to the constitution of our English bodies, as which is very near in the same temperature for heat and cold that England is, rather warmer than colder, as which lieth above four degrees nearer the south than England, and is encumbered with no noisome beasts or vermin whatsoever.
Sixthly, the soil of the country is very fat, rich, and good, fit for pasture and tillage, equal to most of our grounds in England.
Seventhly, the whole country is rich, viz.: the seacoast with fish beyond measure, as where our nation and some others have fished these fourscore years, and where there is never like to be an end or want of that commodity; the land stored with beasts, birds of the field, fish of the rivers, waterfowl, wood, grass, and fruits of the earth, etc.
Eighthly, the country for the most part is utterly void of all inhabitants, savages or other, so that there is no fear of enemies in it nor or corruption of language or blood from it. Little armor will suffice there for offense or defense.
Ninthly, it lieth very near unto some parts of America, as near as doth England to France, and therefore may be a good means for our possessing of some other and nearer parts thereof than any we do yet, and for conversion of the people thereof to the Christian faith hereafter, and for our present and continual having of such commodities as those parts may and do afford.
/106/Tenthly, it is not far also, viz., not a day's sail from an island called the Bank, an excellent place for fishing all the year, and not above four or five days' sail from the islands of Flores and Azores, which are very rich and well stored with wheat, beeves, sheep, goats, hogs, hens, and many other good commodities for a plantation which from those parts may be had easier, sooner, and cheaper than from England.
Eleventhly, it is a country very strong by nature, as which is stored with many goodly harbors so well made and fenced by God's handiwork with rocks and cliffs that a little fortification will make the whole, being but an island and that not great, invincible by sea.
Twelfthly, it may be a means to increase the shipping of our land, which is as it were the wall thereof, wonderfully, and withal our seamen and soldiers for services by sea, and so to gain us in time the freedom, sovereignty, and safety of the seas beyond all other nations whatsoever.
Thirteenthly, it is likely to yield us many rich and necessary commodities for our land, which now our merchants do fetch as far or farther off at a dearer rate or with more danger a great deal than there or thence they shall.
Fourteenthly, being first and forthwith planted by us, it may be a means of the furtherance of the rest of our plantations intended, which from thence may have many supplies, and which may serve for a resting place for the refreshing of those that go to or from them, this being as it were in the midway and highway to them all.
Fifteenthly, it is very necessary for our land, because if it should through our negligence and backwardness be intercepted by any other nation it would be as ill a neighbor to England as being accepted by us it may be a good. And namely, it would hazard the destruction and overthrow of all the rest of our plantations, which can hardly stand without this, and the loss forever of our fishing voyages there, which these fourscore years we have frequented and enjoyed, which loss alone would be even the undoing of many of our seacoast towns in England that do now live much by them.
Sixteenthly, last of all, divers honorable and worshipful persons /107/have already begun several plantations in that country and so laid the foundation of so famous and notable an attempt as all after ages shall have cause, I doubt it not, to commend their valor and honor their memory. With whom, if others, or, which were much to be wished, if our whole land would join, the work could not, by the blessing of God upon so blessed an action, but luckily and speedily prosper.
Respire. Who, I pray you, are those worthy persons that have made the first adventure of planting there?
The names of such as already have begun a plantation in Newfoundland
Enrubie. They are these: first, the Right Honorable Henry Lord Cary, Viscount Falkland, and now Lord Deputy of Ireland, hath begun a great and fair plantation there some few years since and is well pleased to entertain any such as will adventure with him, either in purse or in person, upon very fit and reasonable conditions.
Secondly, the Right Honorable Sir George Calvert, Knight, and Principal Secretary to the King's most excellent Majesty, hath also a very large and goodly plantation there, which though it be as yet but in the infancy, viz., of not above five or six years' undertaking, yet doth it already well flourish in a place well fortified and secured, wherein are some hundred people or thereabout inhabiting and employed in building of houses, ridding or clearing of grounds for pasture, arable, and otherlike uses, and in making of salt for the preserving of fish and divers other services. And his Honor is likewise well pleased to entertain any that will either adventure with him or serve under him upon very fit and fair conditions.
Thirdly, Master John Slaney of London, merchant, and some others with him have maintained a colony of his Majesty's subjects for divers years past.
Fourthly, divers worshipful citizens of the city of Bristol have undertaken to plant a large circuit of that country and have had people there inhabiting these five or six years with good and hopeful success.
Fifthly, Master William Vaughan of Tarracod in the county of Camarthen, doctor of the civil law, hath also done the like and hath within these two or three years last sent thither /108/divers men and women that do inhabit there and prosper well.
Sixthly, some other worthy persons there are that be adventurers in the said plantation, whose names yet I know not.
By all which you may understand that there is already a fair beginning of this worthy work and that they which henceforth shall go thither shall not be the first that shall adventure to dwell there. Which considered may be a good motive to others to follow them and to join themselves unto them, assured by the manifold experiments of those many and worthy persons as have already adventured their fortunes and means there, and that in several and far distant parts of that land, that the country is very habitable and good for a present and speedy plantation.
Respire. These be good motives indeed for the advancement and hasting of this plantation. And I like them so well that if I were but twenty years younger than I am I think I should be like enough to see it myself, and that now I cannot, yet I shall be willing, if I once see the same well set forward, what I may to animate and persuade others--my children, kinsfolk, friends, allies, and neighbors--thereunto, as unto a place and action that is likely to prove greatly to the good of them and theirs forever that will engage themselves therein.
Enrubie. So doing, and but so doing, you shall do well. For, assure yourself, you shall thereby much further the honor and glory of God, benefit your native country and people, do good service to our renowned king and sovereign, and highly gratify all those that have undertaken so honorable and excellent, so necessary and difficult an enterprise. But now, answer me one question, as I have done many to you.
Respire. I will if I can; what is it?
Excuses and delays for not going into a plantation answered
Enrubie. What lets you, notwithstanding your age, but that you may go also yourself and see it and inhabit it too, if you please, as well as if you were twenty years younger than you are?
Respire. Being so far stricken in years as I am, I am not very willing to travel into other countries but am content, and desirous too, to end my life at home and let them that be young, strong, and lusty go, for they are fit for it.
Enrubie. You are not so old and broken with age that you may say as Father Barzillai did to David (II Sam. 19:35) when he offered him more than an ordinary favor. "I am," said he, "this day fourscore year old. I cannot discern between good and evil; nor hath thy servant any taste in that he doth eat and drink. I cannot hear anymore the voice of singing men and women; and I shall be but a burden to him that would pleasure me." If you be come to this state, you shall by my consent have a placard of ease to abide at home or bill of dotage to trouble you no farther.
Respire. Truly, I cannot so say. I am reasonable strong and healthy yet. I could rather say almost as old Caleb did to Captain Joshua (Josh. 14:6), as strong as I was for twenty years ago, so strong well near am I yet, I thank God, and am as apt and able for travel and employment. My senses are good and my eyesight serves me almost as well as ever it did.
Enrubie. Then are you as fit to go in such a business as ever you were, and fitter too in some respect by your age. Your age hath taught you experience and discretion how to behave yourself and help to manage such a work better than younger men that have had no time to gather observation in the world. Your age will cause that for your gray hairs and gravity you shall be respected, reverenced, and obeyed far more than young men, who, being for the most part unskillful, will get contempt. And lastly, your personal example will five times more prevail to persuade others to go than any verbal arguments that you can make. But say once you will go yourself, and which of your children will not be ready to run with you? But as long as you abide behind you shall not easily get any one of them to go by himself. The like shall you find in other your kindred and acquaintance.
Second, not usual for old men
Respire. But it is not an usual thing for old men to go in such employments.
Enrubie. Therefore they prosper much the worse. They send out a few young and single men that have little or no experience in the world and so are readier indeed and likelier to overthrow than to uphold a plantation. But thus it should not be, nor hath it been in former times. Look but into the beehives /110/when they swarm and you shall find, as one saith well, that the swarm is as old as the stock--that is, that there are in it as well old bees as young. And if you will have better proof, call to mind the sacred histories of blessed Father Abraham's life, what age he was of when he left his country, his kindred, and his father's house and went to dwell in the land of Canaan, and you shall find, I warrant you, that he was threescore and ten year old at least; that is elder a good deal than you are yet. And was not Moses fourscore year old and his brother Aaron fourscore and three when they led the children of Israel out of Egypt, and Joshua eighty year old when he conducted them into the land of Canaan? And we may be sure that in that great multitude of six hundred thousand at the least that removed there were a number of aged people both men and women. So that you may see it is no strange thing for those that are well stricken in years to go and seek new countries.
Respire. Old men be fit to go, but young men methinks be fitter, because they have none but themselves to care for.
Third, young men and single men not so fit as elder and married men
Enrubie. Therefore are they the less fit for a plantation and old men fitter than they, not only because of their better experience in the world, their gravity and authority, as I said before, but also because they have families and so children under them, which will help to fill the plantation apace. But young men and single men, besides the want of experience in them, they can do little good to the plantation but in their own single persons at most. Being unmarried, if they continue so, they will hurt and hinder the plantation thereby, which will be no less hindered by the unmarried there than our land is hindered by the poor married here. If they will marry they shall not easily find with whom, unless it be with the natives of those countries, which haply will be nor handsome nor wholesome for them; certainly profitable and convenient, they having had no such breeding as our women, it cannot be. And when they are married, long it will be before any fruit of their marriage can be up to yield any force or enlargement to the plantation; whereas if such as be already married go over, they, having children, some more, some less, of different ages and growth, they also /111/will be able and ready in a little while, some one year and some another, to enlarge and fill up the plantation by addition of new families, as it were little new colonies, everywhere. Further, whereas young and single men when they come there upon any little dislike will be apt and ready to return and forsake the place, and so coming home again to discredit the action, married men and housekeepers must and will abide; and if haply upon any occasion the man himself come over into England now and then, yet he leaves behind him such a pledge and hostage--I mean, his wife, children, and family--for his return, as may well assure the country that he will not fail, because that now is absolutely his home and proper habitation. Lastly, if any enemy shall assault them, who is likely to stick close to him, the married that fights pro aris & socis, as they say, for God and his country, for his wife and children, with whom and for whom he must and will live and die, or the single man who fights or rather shifts for himself and therefore will soon either yield or run away as he shall perceive to be most for his ease and safety? In good policy, therefore, I suppose it were good and fit that such--that is, married folks and such as have families--above others should be procured and invited to go, yea, and with some augmentation and reward in lands or other benefits above single persons be induced, encouraged, and, as it were, hired thereunto.
Respire. I doubt, because I was never at sea before in all my life, that I shall not be able to endure the seas.
Fourth, hard travel by sea
Enrubie. Firstly, the voyage or journey is not long, not above fourteen days' sail with a good wind, or if any cross wind come, not above twenty, or one and twenty days' commonly.
Secondly, what hardness or difficulty is there of traveling by sea more than at land? It is rather the easier and pleasanter of the two, unless God send any great tempest, which is not very usual all the summer season; it is of the two the more pleasant and easy. For there you may sit in your chair or lie in your bed at will and pass along as delicately as, or more delicately than, do our gentlemen that ride in their coach, and be at your way's end before you be either aware or weary.
/112/Thirdly, why should you not endure the seas as well as do princes, noble and gentle men and women both, that be of a more tender and delicate breeding and constitution of body than you by far, who yet, as no doubt you have often heard, do yearly and ordinarily pass the seas to countries far and near.
Respire. I have no need to go. The intendment is for the poorer sort of the land that have nothing to trust to, and for my part, I thank God, I have a living that is able reasonably well to help me and mine.
Fifth, of them that have livings here
Enrubie. The less need you have to go the more is our country here beholding unto you if you will go, and the more shall the country there be beholding to you if you come thither. For the coming in of one or two that have some good means of their own to bring with them is better for it than of five or six that come with little or nothing. (2) The intendment is for any that will go whosoever. The poorer sort, because they are likeliest to be gotten, though they be chiefly, yet they are not only intended. (3) And the living that you have here, how long will it hold?
Respire. As long as my life doth hold, but no longer, I grant. But if God give me time to live awhile, I hope I shall be able to do somewhat for my children too and see them all reasonably well provided to live when I am gone.
Enrubie. But by your own saying, if you should die within a little while, and what charter have you of your life more than other men? You must needs leave them ill provided for and most of them either to the mercy of the world, which is little, or to the courtesy of their friends, which haply will be less. And what need this, when by your removing you may provide for them yourself and see them in that good state that they need not be beholding to any others but rather able to help others?
(4) Farther, the best provision you can possibly provide them here, if you might live yet these twenty years, can be but for their own time; but removing as you may it is very probable, having that means which you have now, you may be able to settle both yourself and every one of them, though they be /113/half a dozen or half a score of them, in as good a living or better as your farm that you now dwell upon, for you and yours and for them and theirs in perpetuum, forever.
(5) Consider also: (1) that it is so hard a matter to place abroad a child well here that the placing of but one of your children may bring you so far behindhand that you may not be able to do anything for any other of them in seven years after; there they may all be provided for in some measure presently. (2) How grievous and reproachful a thing it would be to your children if, having lived well in your time, they should come to live in a poor, needy, and beggarly fashion. To arise from a poor estate to a richer is commendable and delectable; but to fall from a good estate to a worse of all grievous things it is one of the most grievous and miserable. (3) Whether it be not an evil thing and unadvised to put that upon uncertainties which a man needs not but may be assured of and put out of all doubt.
Respire. What certainty can I have of my life there more than here?
Enrubie. None at all. But of good estate and provision for you and yours exceeding much more. For whereas though by the course of nature and present state of your body you may haply live yet these ten or twenty years, yet that is exceeding doubtful and uncertain. For of one that lives to that age there be an hundred that do not; but that you may live yet ten, or twelve, or twenty months to an end there is great probability by the help of God; and within that time you may have gotten and settled a good estate in a plantation to you and yours. For if you live in the plantation but one month more, if you but once remove hence and be but on shipboard for the plantation though you die before you come there--for I suppose such order will be taken if ever there be good order taken for a plantation--you and yours shall enjoy and be assured of the benefit thereof as well as if you had lived therein seven years. (4) Last of all, consider you well that the apostle and Nature too, for he speaketh according to the law of Nature, saith, "Fathers must lay up," that is, provide the best they can, "for their children" /114/against the time to come; and again, "He that doth not provide for his own" (meaning, no doubt, if he may do it and have good and fit opportunity thereto, as you now have), "and specially for them of his own house, he denieth the faith and is worse than an infidel."
Respire. You press me exceeding hard upon this point and do enforce me in manner to consider, which I will do, God willing, more deeply upon it.
Enrubie. It was necessary to press you hard upon it, for this is a starting hole out of the which I knew well enough you would not easily be beaten.
Respire. You run away upon these points, I see, as fast as lusty horses do with an empty cart; but I have somewhat yet behind that will lade you better and find you more to do, or else I am much deceived.
Enrubie. What is that? Let us have it, for God's sake.
Sixth, it is not usual for men that have livings here to go
Respire. It is not a thing usual for such to go as have good livings here of their own, as I have, but for the poorer sort only that have none at all, and therefore what reason have I to break the custom?
Enrubie. Is this the point you thought would plunge me or set me a stand? This something is as much as nothing.
The manner in ancient times how to raise people for a plantation
Firstly, nowadays, indeed, and with us, it is not very usual. But in ancient times, when plantations were better followed than now they are, it was very usual, as you may see in the persons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were all men of great state, and in the men of Joseph (Josh. 17:14), and in the men of Judah (Judges 1 almost throughout); and as I could show by the practice of many nations who used when they intended a plantation to consider what number it were expedient for them to remove, and that was usually one-half, a third or fourth part of the whole, both great and small, and then to cast lots and as the lot fell so they went away, were they rich or poor, whether they had livings or not.
Secondly, if the custom be otherwise now, that custom may and must be broken, because it is not good, all good laws and policy intending always this: that customs which are good and /115/laudable only should be kept and continued. The other that are not such, as diseases, though of long continuance, out of the body should be expelled. Now certain it is, such a custom, that is, that none but the poorer sort should go over and none of the better sort that have any lands or livings here, would prove very hurtful and pestiferous to the plantation. For who shall be governors and rulers in the country, as I said the last day--and all men know some there must be? What! Poor, needy, and ignorant fellows, that have neither learning nor understanding to such a service? Doth not very reason show that there must go some of better breeding and experience, gentlemen at the least? And if of them there cannot, as it is likely there will not, enow be invited thither for such employments, what supply can there be unless sundry others of a next degree unto gentlemen--that is, yeomen and yeomenlike men, that have in them some good knowledge and courage--be there to be found, who may in defect of better men be advanced to places of preferment and government there and haply prove not altogether unworthy thereof?
Further, what shall the poorer sort do there by themselves
without some, and that some store, of others better stored in money
and means than they, that may employ the poore/83/
Thirdly, and even in our times it is not so unusual a thing as you seem to understand it to be; for you may soon learn, if you will but a little inquire, that in our time also divers men that had reasonable good means and livings here have removed into Ireland and planted themselves there to their great good and preferment. And thus you see that the cloak you have made you of usage and custom will do you as little service to cover your backwardness as Adam's and his wife's aprons made of fig leaves to hide their nakedness.
Seventh, women are unwilling to go
Respire. If that be but bad, I have a better. My wife will not hear to go anywhither beyond sea, and therefore for her sake, though I were willing myself, I must be content to abide at home and end my days in England.
/116/Enrubie. This, indeed, is somewhat; I hearkened for it long since. I know it is a point that pincheth many and makes them more unwilling than else they would be. Women be unwilling, and their wives will not endure to hear of it. Yet this knot is not so hard-twisted but that it may be untwined, I hope. Or if it be a Gordian knot, yet the sword of Alexander can hew it in pieces. To this, therefore, I say thus:
Firstly, women also have understanding and many of them do unfeignedly fear God. And, therefore, being well put in mind of their duty, which is to forsake father and friends and to cleave unto their husbands, and that so inseparably that nothing part them but death, it is not unlikely but that at length they will yield and not utterly refuse that which they cannot lawfully refuse, how hard soever at first it seem to them to be, and how loath soever they are to do it if they might lawfully leave it undone.
Secondly, they also do naturally and tenderly love their children and posterity and wish and desire their good. Probable it is, therefore, that when they shall thoroughly understand that such a travail may, nay, will certainly be, a means to provide good estates for them and theirs forever, such as by no possibility nor probability are here to be had, they will be persuaded at length to adventure as the hen to save her chickens and the pelican to feed her young, if need should be, their life and blood.
Examples of women. Sarah; Rebecca; Rachel; Leah; Queen Eleanor
Thirdly, when the examples of worthy matrons--women of far greater esteem and estate than they--that have done the like: as of the lady Sarah in accompanying Abraham from place to place till her dying day, and that sometime with the peril of her life and her chastity; of Mistress Rebecca in forsaking her father's house and all her friends to go out of Mesopotamia into the land of Canaan to be wife to a man that she had not seen--to Isaac, the son and heir of Abraham before named; and of Rachel and Leah, the daughters of Laban, that were ready to go from their father's with Jacob, their husband, they knew not whither; and others many that in /117/sacred histories are mentioned, it is likely they will not think themselves too good to do the like nor be afraid to imitate them in this fashion.
To these worthy precedents I could add out of human histories not a few worthy imitation and commendation in this case, as namely, Queen Eleanor, wife to King Edward the First, King of England, who, her husband going a long and very dangerous voyage of warfare, viz., into the Holy Land, would by no means be persuaded to tarry at home but would needs accompany him, saying, "Nothing must part them asunder whom God hath joined together," and, "The way to heaven is as near in the Holy Land as in England." And that worthy Spartan dame, the wife of Panteus, a nobleman in Greece, who being retained by her parents and other friends by force that she should not go with her husband into Egypt, within a while after secretly stole away by night and got shipping to carry her to her husband, with whom she continued there cheerfully and contentedly till his dying day.
And it cannot be but that when they shall see some and hear of more of their own neighbors and country folks, English women as they are, that do and will go the same voyages, their example and present practice will be such a special motive even to those that be very unwilling either to accompany or follow them, assured they shall do no worse than they do, as there will not need many more arguments thereto.
Fourthly, there be also divers and sundry causes in consideration whereof--as St. Paul (I Cor. 7:6) in one case allows--by consent of both parties some of them may be borne with for a time and permitted to remain behind, that at the second or third return of their husbands, all impediments that at first hindered being removed, they may go over with them also without any farther delay.
Fifthly, if any be utterly so obstinate and froward [sic MW] or self-willed that no reason, no persuasion, no example seen /118/or heard of, no respect of duty will prevail with them, there is farther remedy to be had, that is, that on them be inflicted paena desertricis: such punishment as is fit for those that utterly and willfully forsake their husbands.
Respire. What penalty or punishment is that?
Enrubie. That I leave to those that have authority as to inflict it so to appoint it as they shall see instant and necessary occasion to require. A new kind of sin may have a new kind of punishment, as oft ex malis moribus, bonae leges: of evil manners have risen up good laws.
Respire. You have pressed me so far, and by your speeches prevailed with me so much, that I have nothing more to say for myself why I should not go, unless I should say that to you which some have said to me of late, but I am loath to do it lest you should be offended.
Enrubie. What is that? Let me have it, I pray you, in any wise, for it shall not offend me, I warrant you.
Respire. Seeing you so earnestly and effectually move me to go, why do not you yourself go also? You that so fain would have others to go should also go yourself.
Enrubie. You shall have my answer thereunto very willingly, that so you may the better be able to answer those that go about that way to stop your mouth and make stay or delay for themselves.
Respire. That is the end for which I purposely and principally move the question.
The author himself doth purpose, God willing, to go into one or other plantation
Enrubie. My answer is this: first, though it be not of necessity that everyone must go himself that persuadeth or moveth others thereunto--for plantation is no matter of our faith and salvation--there may be as great reasons and just occasions why he should not go as why they--others whom he persuadeth--should go; yet because no man shall take any exception at all against me or my persuasions that way, I say I do purpose, God willing, to go. And I shall think myself happy if I may be one of those that may lay the first stones of such a building and spend and end my days in being one /119/instrument among the many thousands of our English nation that shall betake and bestow themselves in such a manner to the enlargement of God's church, of the King's dominions, and of our own English habitations.
But I say withal, secondly: I cannot go as yet because I have not my means and estate so settled and provided as it is fit for one that will go well.
Thirdly, if I go it shall be partly in hope by God's merciful providence toward me and mine to better mine estate and to do good, as to others, so specially to those that are mine own or do otherwise depend upon me. And therefore I have no reason to go till I see some good likelihood of probability and assurance that it may and will be done.
Fourthly, I will not go, by my good will, till I find some good course taken for a good plantation in that place or country where my desire and purpose is, above any I hear of yet, to plant myself. When some such course shall be taken and followed effectually, I will not, God willing, be one of the last that shall make use of it.
Fifthly, I suppose I ought not either to tempt God by going without good and necessary means nor seek my own destruction by running before I am sent in good order. And therefore, expecting a convenient and appointed time, it is enough that I do for the present prepare myself to be ready prepared against that time, and having my mind and affection settled that way, do hearken, as the good soldier for the sound of the trumpet to the battle, for the publishing of that decree that may rouse up all England to such an attempt and expedition.
And many will accompany him
Respire. I like your answer so well that besides other good uses which I shall make of it the while, by God's help, whensoever you shall go--for I see you will not go but upon good ground -- you shall have me ready on reasonable warning to bear you company. And I do not think but that you shall have many more of our neighbors and acquaintance that will do the like.
Enrubie. The more the merrier, by the grace of God. And I pray God of His love and goodness to our nation, and for the furtherance and increase of His Gospel, to vouchsafe to /120/these actions and to all that shall go in them a happy and speedy proceeding, and to us in particular, if it be His will that we shall be partakers in the same, a joyful and good success therein.
THE END OF THE THIRD AND LAST PART. ANNO DOMINI 1624.