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Mapping the International Trade and Traffic of Electronic Waste

Researcher: Dr. Josh Lepawsky

Our technologizing world is one fraught with radical social, political, and economic unevenness. Digital technologies and the industries that produce them are often represented as desirable economic development strategies. Yet, there is a growing recognition that these high-tech products and industries exact significant environmental and social costs that belie optimistic predictions about the emergence of a de-materialized and sustainable 'Information Age'.

In 2006, Canadians disposed of 140,000 metric tonnes of obsolete electronic equipment or 'e-waste'. The United Nations estimates that anywhere between 20 and 50 million tonnes of e-waste is generated globally; and according to activist groups, 50 to 80 percent of the e-waste designated for recycling domestically in Canada is actually being exported overseas to be processed by poor and marginalized populations in 'developing' Asian and African countries.

No single definition of e-waste exists, but in Canada the emerging targets of legislation include personal computers (PCs), laptop computers, monitors, peripherals (e.g., printers, scanners, disk drives), telephones, mobile phones, and facsimile machines. The dominant approach to e-waste in this legislative milieu is to conceptualize it as a problem to be mitigated through technical engineering and regulation. Typically, the disposal of e-waste is understood as an endpoint within a linear process of production and consumption that culminates in land-filling or incineration. However, there is an important body of research notably in anthropology, geography, history, and sociology that understands disposal and waste quite differently. Rather than an endpoint in a narrowly defined economic process, disposal is understood to be part of complex cultural practices of social constitution, ritual, and reproduction that have not only changed over time in our own society, but also vary geographically in culturally distinctive ways.

Repair and refurbishing of rubbish electronics in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Figure 1: Rubbish electronics repair and refurbishing, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


E-waste recyclign event in Vancouver, BC

Figure 2: Rubbish electronics recycling, Vancouver, British Columbia.


From Mapping the International Trade and Traffic of Ewaste...

Dr. Lepawsky's research interests in the geographies of the international trade and traffic of electronic waste are organized around the following kinds of questions:

  • How much and what kind of e-waste is exported from Canada and where does it go?
  • How are the licit and illicit trade networks for e-waste formed and organized?
  • Where, by whom, and under what conditions is e-waste processed domestically and abroad after it is exported from Canada?
  • How do the domestic and international divisions of labour involved in e-waste processing contribute to the capture and/or creation of value from waste?
  • How do the emerging patterns of e-waste legislation strategically use and represent the geographies of 'waste' and 'value'? What are the implications of those representations for policy and practice?
  • How do materials designated as 'e-waste' in one place become sources of 'value' elsewhere? Reassembling Rubbish Electronics

Research into the above questions has lead to a series of publications that have begun to rethink the dominant storylines about e-waste. A recently successful SSHRC Insight grant is enabling Dr. Lepawsky and a team of researchers to ask new questions. These include:

  • What is the 'right' thing to do with e-waste? Where, how, and under what conditions should electronics be recycled?
  • How might a better understanding of the knowledge, skills, and creativity of workers in foreign markets, who re-imagine and rework electronics disposed of in Canada and elsewhere into new commodities, lead to a rethinking of electronic waste as a potential source of value?
  • Is a system of 'ethical' or 'fair' trade in e-waste -- which would include, among other things, material and component recovery as well as repair, refurbishing, and reuse of machines --  a viable alternative to the existing strategies of national and international legal prohibitions against e-waste exports from 'developed' to 'developing' countries? If so, what would such a system of trade look like and how would it be regulated/governed?

Funded Graduate Studentships

I am interested in hearing from prospective Masters and PhD students to contribute to my new SSHRC funded project researching the prospects and challenges of fair/ethical trade in rubbish electronics and recycling.

Successful candidates will have a strong background in one or more of cultural, economic, and/or political geography (or related disciplines such as anthropology or sociology), science and technology studies, and waste or discard studies. Candidates should demonstrate their capacity for independent research and fieldwork. Familiarity with ethnographic approaches and visual methodologies are of particular importance. Knowledge and experience of working in and beyond North America, especially in Latin America, and/or Asia is an asset.

The positions are fully funded (two years for Masters and four years for PhDs), including full funding for all fieldwork. The positions offer the opportunity to work in a multi-disciplinary research team environment that includes the social sciences and humanities, engineering, business, and not-for-profit sectors. Research team members include faculty at Memorial University, University of Southern California, and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú as well as recycling entrepreneurs and not-for-profit organizers.

Masters students will focus on the question of how a better understanding of the knowledge, skills, and creativity of rubbish electronics workers might lead to a rethinking of e-waste as a potential source of value. PhD students will use at least one of project's organizing research questions to develop their own sub-topic ideally to be investigated through comparative fieldwork in at least two of the projects field-sites (situated in the Canada, the US, Mexico, Peru, Bangladesh, and China).

Memorial University is one of Canada's leading comprehensive research institutions. It hosts the largest library in Atlantic Canada and the university is located in St. John's, a unique and culturally vibrant city set within stunning natural beauty.

Interested applicants should contact:

Josh Lepawsky ( jlepawsky [at] )

Although the funding packages are tied to the researcher, prospective students must follow the formal application process for graduate school at Memorial University of Newfoundland. Details about how to apply can be found at the School of Graduate Studies.


The studentships are conditional on successful admission to the graduate program. Applicants need not secure, or apply for, admission prior to application for these studentships. Annual renewal of the studentships are subject to satisfactory progress towards graduate degree completion. International applications are welcome.

The Department of Geography at Memorial University offers attractive funding packages for graduate students, and there are numerous internal and external scholarship and fellowship opportunities for competitive applicants.

Potential applicants are encouraged to contact me directly by e-mail (jlepawsky [at] for further information about the studentships. Applicants should include in their message answers to the following questions:

1. Why do you wish to pursue a graduate degree (indicate at what level, masters or PhD)? In other words, what are your goals in pursuing such an endeavour?

2.  Why are you interested in e-waste as a research topic?

3. What sort of research questions do you have in mind?

4. How do you anticipate answering them?

5. What do you see yourself bringing to the broader research project that might enrich it?

Please include a curriculum vitae or a brief description of your program of study.

Details about applying to graduate studies at Memorial University can be found here.