History of Developmental Biology

Vitalism vs Physio-Chemical Reductionism
        F Wöhler (1800 - 1879) synthesizes urea
        The Father of Organic Chemistry, or the "Wöhler Myth" ?

Determinative vs Regulative Development

    W Roux (1850 - 1924)
       Mosaicism of "Half"-Frog embryo (1888 experiments)

    H Driesch (1867 - 1941)
        Pluripotency of 4-cell sea urchin embryos (1892 experiments)

    H Spemann (1869 - 1941) [Nobel, 1935] -   Microsurgical techniques
        Grey Crescent - determination of Dorsal / Ventral axis
        Induction of Eye
        Organizer Principle & H Mangold - determination of three-layered gastrula embryo

        RM Eakin (1910 - 1999) "Great Scientists Speak Again: Hans Spemann" [online video]

        What is the original distinction between Organic & Inorganic chemistry, as compared to the present distinction?
        Compare and contrast Vitalism with Reductionism as theories of the development of living beings.

Text material ©2022 by Steven M. Carr