Please Enter a Search Term

Carole Peterson

B.Sc. Washington, Ph.D. Minnesota

University Research Professor

Office: SN3100
Phone: (709) 864-7682
3050 Course Notes:

Affiliations: Developmental, Cognition


Research Interests

Carole Peterson

Currently, research interests focus on memory and on language. For memory, I have been studying children's eyewitness memory for stressful events, namely injuries serious enough to require hospital emergency room treatment. I have been looking at whether children who are extremely upset by an event remember or describe it differently than children who are less upset, how the interviewer's questions can alter the child's recounting of what occurred, and what other individual difference variables (e.g., language skill, temperament, attachment) affect long-term memory for these events. All of these have implications for children's reliability as witnesses in forensic situations. As well, I am studying infantile amnesia, or the age of earliest memory. We are exploring the factors that affect when and what gets remembered years later. For language, I have been studying children's autobiographical narratives, or stories about personal experience. I have been looking at how children acquire narrative skills, and in particular, the role that parents play in helping them learn these skills. Narrative skills seem to be important for helping children acquire literacy; if so, can good narrative skills be taught readily to young children? In particular, can parents be taught ways of interacting with their children that fosters this skill development? In addition, how do narrative skills and memory interact?



Peterson, C. (2012). Children's autobiographical memories across the years: Forensic implications of childhood amnesia and eyewitness memory for stressful events. Developmental Review, 32, 287-306.  [Abstract] [PDF]

McCabe, A., & Peterson, C. (2012). Predictors of Adult Narrative Elaboration: Emotion, Attachment, and Gender. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 31, 327-344. doi: 10.2190/IC.31.4.f  [Abstract] [PDF]

Warren, K.L., Dodd, E., Raynor, G., & Peterson, C. (2012). Detecting children's lies: Comparing true accounts about highly stressful injuries with unprepared, prepared, and coached lies. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 30, 329-341. doi: 10.1002/bsl.1994  [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Warren, K.L., & Short, M.M. (2011). Infantile amnesia across the years: A 2-year follow-up of children's earliest memories. Child Development, 82, 1092-1105. [Abstract] [PDF] 

Peterson, C. (2011). Children's memory reports over time: Getting both better and worse. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109, 275-293. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. (2010). "And I was very very crying": Child self-descriptions of distress as predictors of recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 909-924. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Bonechi, A., Smorti, A., & Tani, F. (2010). A distant mirror: Memories of parents and friends across childhood and adolescence. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 601-320. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., & Nguyen, D.T.K. (2010). Parent-child relationship quality and infantile amnesia in adults. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 719-737. [Abstract] [PDF]

Tani, F., Bonechi, A., Peterson, C., & Smorti, A. (2010). Parental influences on memories of parents and friends. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171(4), 300-329. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Warren, K., Nguyen, D.T., & Noel, M. (2010). Infantile amnesia and gender: Does the way we measure it matter? Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1767-1771. [Abstract] [PDF]

Wang, Q., Peterson, C., & Hou, Y. (2010). Children dating childhood memories. Memory, 18, 754-762. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Noel, M., Kippenhuck, L., Harmundal, L. & Vincent, C.D. (2009). Early memories of children and adults: Implications for infantile amnesia. Cognitive Sciences, 4(2), 65-90. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Wang, Q., & Hou, Y. (2009). "When I was little": Childhood recollections in Chinese and European grade-school children. Child Development, 80, 506-518. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., & Warren, L.K. (2009). Injuries, emergency rooms, and children's memory: Factors contributing to individual differences. In J. Quas & R. Fivush (Eds.), Emotion and memory in development: Biological, cognitive, and social considerations (pp. 60-85). Oxford University Press. Included in the Oxford Series in Affective Science, K. Scherer & R. Davidson (Series Eds.). [PDF]

Peterson, C., Smorti, A., & Tani, F. (2008). Parental influences on earliest memories. Memory, 16, 569-578. [Abstract] [PDF]

Noel, M., Peterson, C., & Jesso, B. (2008). The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers. Journal of Child Language, 35, 823-843. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Sales, J.M., Rees, M., & Fivush, R (2007). Parent-child talk and children's memory for stressful events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 1057-1075. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. (2007). Reliability of child witnesses: A decade of research. The Canadian journal of Police & Security Services, 5, 142-151. [Abstract] [PDF]

McCabe, A., Peterson, C., & Connors, D.M. (2006). Attachment security and narrative elaboration. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 8-19. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Pardy, L., Tizzard-Drover, T., & Warren, K. (2005). When initial interviews are delayed a year: Effect on children's 2-year recall. Law & Human Behavior, 29, 527-541. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. and Parsons, B. (2005). Interviewing former 1- and 2-year-olds about medical emergencies five years later. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 743-754. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Grant, V. V., & Boland, L. D. (2005). Childhood amnesia in children and adolescents: Their earliest memories. Memory, 13, 622-637. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. (2004). Mothers, fathers, and gender: Parental narratives about children. Narrative Inquiry, 14, 323-346. [Abstract] [PDF]

Tizzard-Drover, T., & Peterson, C. (2004). The influence of an early interview on long-term recall: A comparative analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 727-745. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Parsons, T., & Dean, M. (2004). Providing misleading and reinstatement information a year after it happened: Effects on long-term memory. Memory, 12, 1-13. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (2004). Echoing our parents: Parental influences on children’s narration. In M.W. Pratt & B.E. Fiese (Eds.), Family stories and the lifecourse: Across time and generations (pp. 27-54). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Sales, J.M., Fivush, R., & Peterson, C. (2003). Parental reminiscing about positive and negative events. Journal of Cognition and Development, 4, 185-211. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. & Roberts, C. (2003). Like mother, like daughter: Similarities in narrative style. Developmental Psychology, 39, 551-562. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. (2002). Children’s long-term memory for autobiographical events. Developmental Review, 22, 370-402. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Ross, A., & Tucker, V.C. (2002). Hospital emergency rooms and children’s health care attitudes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 281-291. [Abstract]

Fivush, R., Peterson, C., & Schwarzmueller, A. (2002). Questions and answers: The credibility of child witnesses in the context of specific questioning techniques. In M.L. Eisen, J.A. Quas, & G.S. Goodman (Eds.), Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview (pp. 331-354). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Peterson, C., & Biggs, M. (2001). ‘I was really, really, really mad!’: Children’s use of evaluative devices in narratives about emotional events. Sex Roles, 45, 801-826. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., & Whalen, N. (2001). Five years later: Children’s memory for medical emergencies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 7-24. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Moores, L., & White, G. (2001). Recounting the same events again and again: Children’s consistency across multiple interviews. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 353-371. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., & Grant, M. (2001). Forced-choice: Are forensic interviewers asking the right questions? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 33, 118-127. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C. (1999). Children’s memory for medical emergencies: Two years later. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1493-1506. [Abstract] [PDF]

Peterson, C., Dowden, C., & Tobin, J. (1999). Interviewing preschoolers: Comparisons of yes/no and wh- questions. Law & Human Behavior, 23, 539-556. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., Jesso, B., & McCabe, A. (1999). Encouraging narratives in preschoolers: An intervention study. Journal of Child Language, 26, 49-67. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., & Rideout, R. (1998). Memory for medical emergencies experienced by one and two year olds. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1059-1072. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., & Biggs, M. (1998). Stitches and casts: Emotionality and narrative coherence. Narrative Inquiry, 8, 51-76. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (1997). Extending Labov and Waletzky. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7, 251-258.

Liddell, A., Rabinowitz, F.M., & Peterson, C. (1997). Relationship between age changes in children's dental anxiety and perception of dental experiences. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21, 619-631. [Abstract]

Peterson, C., & Biggs, M. (1997). Interviewing children about trauma: Problems with "specific" questions. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 279-290. [Abstract]

McCabe, A. & Peterson, C. (1997). Meaningful "mistakes": The systematicity of children's connectives in narrative discourse and the social origins of this usage about the past. In Favol & J. Costermans (eds.), Processing interclausal relationships in the production and comprehension of text. (pp. 139-154). Mahwah, NJ: Eribaum.