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Jacqueline Carter

B.A. (Hons), M.A. Carleton University; D.Phil. University of Oxford

Assistant Professor; R. Psych.

Office: SN2077
Phone: (709) 864-8118
Affiliations: Clinical



I received my doctorate from the University of Oxford in 1997 under the mentorship of Professor Christopher Fairburn and completed my post-doctoral training at the Toronto General Hospital Eating Disorders Program in Toronto, Ontario. I practised as a registered psychologist in Toronto from 1999-2012 where I was a Staff Psychologist in the Eating Disorders Program of the Toronto General Hospital and an Associate Professor in Psychiatry at the University of Toronto as well as an Adjunct Professor in Psychology at York University.

Research Interests

To date, my research has focused on understanding the nature and maintenance of eating disorder psychopathology, evaluating psychological treatments for eating disorders, and identifying predictors and mediators of treatment outcome. My research thus far has concentrated mainly on anorexia nervosa. Recently, I have begun to focus on examining psychobiological factors in binge eating disorder and obesity. Together with my collaborators, I am also studying an addiction model of overeating and obesity.

Current research projects

Firstly, I am collaborating with Dr. Marion Olmsted at the Eating Disorders Program of the University of Toronto to collect data on possible mediators of treatment outcome in anorexia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of weight gain, extreme dietary restriction, and the maintenance of an unhealthily low body weight even in the face of severe physical and psychological impairment. In this study, I am examining whether changes in intrinsic or extrinsic motivation to change, or difficulties with emotion regulation mediate treatment outcome.

Secondly, I am also continuing to collaborate with Dr. Caroline Davis (York University) to conduct further research on an addiction model of binge eating disorder and obesity. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of extreme methods of weight control. Most individuals with BED are overweight or obese. For the past several years, we have been studying psychobiological factors related to sensitivity to reward in BED and obesity.

Thirdly, I am collaborating with Dr. Guang Sun, a CIHR-funded Professor in the Department of Medicine at Memorial University, to study biopsychological factors associated with weight regain in obesity. The problem of weight regain is one of the biggest challenges facing the field of obesity. Numerous studies have found that most individuals who achieve at least a 5-10% loss in body weight - a weight loss range that is associated with significant health benefits - return to or surpass their baseline weight within 3 to 5 years. Weight regain is likely due to a complex interaction of biological and psychological factors. The weight–reduced state is associated with adaptations in various psychobiological mechanisms involved in the regulation of energy balance, adaptations that favor weight regain. From a psychological perspective, several previous studies have identified certain behaviours associated with successful weight loss maintenance (e.g. frequent monitoring of body weight, high levels of physical activity, and adherence to a calorie-reduced diet), but little research has examined underlying psychological mechanisms that may explain why some individuals are able to persist with weight-control behaviours in the long-term, despite the biological adaptations that promote weight regain, and others are not. In collaboration with Dr. Sun, we are interested in studying the interaction of endocrine factors that affect energy balance and psychological factors in the prediction of weight regain.

Finally, I am initiating a new line of research on body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in older women.

Publications (2000 - present)

Kelly, A.C. & Carter, J.C. (2012) Why self-critical patients have more severe eating disorder pathology: The mediating role of shame. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, in press.

Carter, J.C., Mercer-Lynn, K.B., Bewell-Weiss, C.V., Crosby, R.D., Woodside, D.B., & Olmsted, M.P. (2012). A prospective study of predictors of relapse in adults with anorexia nervosa: Implications for relapse prevention. Psychiatry Research, in press.

Kelly, A.C., Carter, J.C., Zuroff, D.C. & Borairi, S. (2012). Self-compassion and fears of self-compassion influence eating disorder treatment outcome. Psychotherapy Research, in press.

Carter, J.C., Norwood, S.J. & Kelly, A.C. (2012). Interpersonal problems in anorexia nervosa: Social inhibition as defining and detrimental. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(3), 169-174.

Davis, C. Fattore, L. Kaplan, A.S., Carter, J.C., Levitan, R.D. & Kennedy, J.L. (2012). The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: The moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 15(2), 181-7.

Davis, C., Levitan, R.D., Zai, C. Carter, J.C., Kaplan, A.S., & Kennedy, J.L. (2011). Opiates, overeating, and obesity: A psychogenetic analysis. International Journal of Obesity, 35(10), 1347-54.

Davis, C., Curtis, C. Levitan, R.D., Carter, J.C., Kaplan, A.S., & Kennedy, J.L. (2011). Evidence that 'food addiction' is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite, 57(3), 711-717.

Carter, J.C. & Bewell-Weiss, C.V. (2011). Non-fat-phobic anorexia nervosa: Clinical characteristics and response to inpatient treatment. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44, 220-224.

Bewell-Weiss, C.V. & Carter, J.C. (2010). Predictors of excessive exercise in anorexia nervosa. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(6), 566-571.

Davis, C. & Carter, J.C. (2009) Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder: A review of theory and evidence. Appetite, 53(1), 1-8.

Davis, C., Levitan, R.D., Reid, C., Carter, J.C., Kaplan, A.S. & Kennedy, J.L. (2009). Dopamine for 'Wanting' and Opioids for 'Liking': Obese Adults with and without Binge Eating. Obesity, 17, 1220–1225.

Carter, J.C., McFarlane, T.L., Bewell, C.V., Olmsted, M.P., Woodside, D.B., Kaplan, A.S., & Crosby, R. (2009). Maintenance treatment for anorexia nervosa: Cognitive behavior therapy versus treatment as usual. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, 202-207.

Dimitropoulos, G., Carter, J.C., Schachter, R. & Woodside, B. (2008). Family functioning in carers of persons with anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 739-747.

Carter, J.C., Bewell, C.V. & Devins, G.M. (2008). Illness intrusiveness in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 519-526.

Bewell, C.V. & Carter, J.C. (2008). Motivation to change mediates the impact of eating disorder symptomatology on treatment outcome in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 368-371.

Davis, C., Levitan, R.D., Carter, J.C., Kaplan, A.S., Reid, C., Curtis, C., Patte, K. & Kennedy, J.L. (2008). Personality and binge eating disorder: A case-control study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 243-250.

Coelo, J., Carter, J.C., McFarlane, T.L. & Polivy, J. (2008). "Just Looking at Food Makes Me Gain Weight": Experimental Induction of Thought-Shape Fusion in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Women. Behavior Research and Therapy, 46, 219-228.

Davis, C., Levitan, R.D., Kaplan, A.S., Carter, J.C., et al. (2007). Dopamine transporter gene associated with appetite suppression to methylphenidate in a case-control study of binge eating disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 2199-2206.

Walsh, B.T., Kaplan, A.S., Attia, E., Olmsted, M.P., Parides, M., Carter, J.C. et al. (2006) Fluoxetine after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295 (22), 2605-2612.

Carter, J.C., Bewell, C., Blackmore, E., & Woodside, D.B. (2006). The impact of childhood sexual abuse in anorexia nervosa. Child Abuse and Neglect, 30, 257-269.

Woodside, D.B., Carter, J.C., & Blackmore, E. (2004). Predictors of premature termination of inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 2277-2281.

Carter, J.C., Blackmore, E., Sutandar-Pinnock, K., & Woodside, D.B. (2004). Relapse in anorexia nervosa: A survival analysis. Psychological Medicine 34, 671-679.

Carter, J.C., Olmsted, M.P., Kaplan, A.S., McCabe, R.E., Mills, J., & Aime, A. (2003). Self-help for bulimia nervosa: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 973-978.

Sutandar-Pinnock, K., Woodside, D.B., & Carter, J.C. (2003). Perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: A 6-24 month follow-up study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 225-229.

Carter, J.C., Aimee, A., & Mills, J. (2001). Assessment of bulimia nervosa: A comparison of interview and self-report questionnaire methods. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30, 187-192.

Carter, J.C., Stewart, D.A., & Fairburn, C.G. (2001). Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: Norms for young adolescent girls. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 625-632.

Stewart, D.A., Carter, J.C., Hainsworth, J., Drinkwater, J., & Fairburn, C.G. (2001). Modification of eating attitudes and behaviour in adolescent girls: A controlled study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 107-118.

Feld, R., Woodside, D.B., Kaplan, A.S., Olmsted, M.P., & Carter, J.C. (2001). Pre-treatment motivational enhancement therapy for eating disorders: A pilot study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 393-400.

Kaplan, A.S., Olmsted, M.P., Carter, J.C., & Woodside, D.B. (2001). Matching patient variables to treatment intensity: The continuum of care. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(2), 281-292.

Gregoriadis, S., Kaplan, A.S., Carter, J.C., & Woodside, D.B. (2001). What treatments patients seek after inpatient care: A follow-up of 24 patients with anorexia nervosa. Eating and Weight Disorders, 6, 115-120.

Book Chapters

Olmsted, M.P., Carter, J.C. & Pike, K.M. (2011). Relapse prevention. Chapter in J. Alexander and J. Treasure (Eds.), A Collaborative Approach to Eating Disorders. London: Routledge.

Carter, J.C. & Davis, C. (2010). An addiction model of binge eating disorder. Chapter in B.A. Johnson (Ed.), Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice. New York: Springer.

Pike, K.M., Carter, J.C. & Olmsted, M.P. (2010). Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa. Chapter in C. Grilos & J. Mitchell (Eds), Treatment of Eating Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Olmsted, M.P., McFarlane, T.L., Carter, J.C. et al. (2009). Inpatient and Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa. Chapter in C. Grilos & J. Mitchell (Eds), Treatment of Eating Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Olmsted, M.P., McFarlane, T.L., Carter, J.C. and Trottier, K. (2007). Assessment of eating disorders. Chapter in S. Wonderlich, J. Mitchell, M. deZwaan & H. Steiger (Eds.), Eating Disorders Review: Part II. Oxford: Radcliffe.

Olmsted, M.P., Woodside, D.B., Carter, J.C. et al. (2007). Intensive treatments for eating disorders. Chapter in Gabbard's Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: New Revised Edition. Washington: American Psychiatric Press.

Woodside, D.B., Sonnenberg, S., Jonas, D., Young, K., Carter, J.C. et al. (2006). Inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa. Chapter in P.J. Cooper & A. Stein (Eds.), Childhood Feeding Problems and Adolescent Eating Disorders. London: Routledge.

McFarlane, T.L., Carter, J.C., & Olmsted, M.P. (2005). Eating disorders. Chapter in M.M. Antony, D.A. Roth, & R.G. Heimberg (Eds.), Improving Outcomes and Preventing Relapse Following Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Clinical Handbook. New York: Guilford Press.

Carter, J.C., McFarlane, T.L., & Olmsted, M.P. (2004). Psychometric assessment of eating disorders. Chapter in T.D. Brewerton (Ed.), Clinical Handbook of Eating Disorders. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Carter, J.C. (2001). Self-help in the treatment of eating disorders. Chapter in C.G. Fairburn & K.D. Brownell (Eds.), Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook, Second Edition. New York: Guilford Press.

Fairburn, C.G., & Carter, J.C. (1997). Self-help and guided self-help for binge eating problems. Chapter in D.M. Garner & P.E. Garfinkel (Eds.), Handbook of Treatment for Eating Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.