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Books at Memorial

Recent publications by writers and editors at Memorial University

Newfoundland and Labrador: A History
By Dr. Sean T. Cadigan

Published to coincide with the 60th anniversary of Newfoundland and Labrador joining Canada, Dr. Sean Cadigan has written the book that will surely become the definitive history of one of North America’s most distinct and beautiful regions.

The site of the first European settlement by Vikings 1,000 years ago, a former colony of England, and known at various times as Terra Nova and Newfoundland until its official name change to Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001, this easternmost point of the continent has had a fascinating history in part because of its long-held position as the gateway between North America and Europe. Examining the region from prehistoric times to the present, Newfoundland and Labrador is not only a comprehensive history of the province, but an illuminating portrait of the Atlantic world and European colonization of the Americas.

Dr. Cadigan, an associate professor in the Department of History, comprehensively details everything from the first European settlements, the displacement and extinction of the indigenous Beothuk by European settlers, the conflicts between settlers and imperial governance, to the Royal Newfoundland Regiment’s near annihilation at the Battle of the Somme, the rise of Newfoundland nationalism, Joey Smallwood’s case for confederation, and the modernization and economic disappointments instigated by joining Canada.

Paying particular attention to the ways in which Newfoundland and Labrador’s history has been shaped by its environment, this study considers how natural resources such as the Grand Banks, the disappearance of cod, and offshore oil have affected the region and its inhabitants.

Richly detailed, compelling, and written in an engaging and accessible style, Newfoundland and Labrador brings the rich and vibrant history of this remarkably interesting region to life.

Newfoundland and Labrador: A History is published by the University of Toronto Press.

Indigenous Tourism in North America

Edited by Dr. Katia Iankova

Indigenous Tourism in North America is the result of research carried out by professors, researchers and specialists in tourism, urban studies, anthropology, economy and geography. The participants are specialized in indigenous studies and combined have decades of experience in their field of research.

Published in 2008 by Paris' l’Harmattan Publishers, the contents highlight various facets of the 'French indigenous universe' in relation to the tourism industry of today and yesterday. The detailed description of tourist activities, in depth analyses, and discussion of communities place an exceptional value on these studies.

“Ever since the inception of tourism as a field of serious academic study,” said Dr. Katia Iankova, the editor, in her introduction, “researchers have addressed questions related to destination hosts — whether it is about the impacts that they must deal with, the type of hospitality that they extend or the level of control that they exert over this dimension of their community."

This book is the first of its kind to reflect tourism developments in indigenous French-speaking communities in North America. These are practically inaccessible territories for Anglophone researchers, as Prof. Tom Hinch, one of the contributors, underlines.

Therefore this book represents an important addition in international research on indigenous people around the world.

The ethnic diversity of the communities studied is another merit of the book. The case studies look at the Huron, Algonquin, Inuit, Innu and Abénaquis communities of Quebec and Nunavut and the Indigenous communities in Mexico. Some of the themes discussed are the indigenous point of view of the concepts of authenticity and heritage; cultural identity; economic policy; and sustainable development, tendencies and obstacles of development of tourism on indigenous territories. Thought academically researched and written, the book is accessible and reads almost like a novel.

Dr. Iankova is an assistant professor, Tourism Studies, at Sir Wilfred Grenfell College.

High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Stress in Their Work Environment

By Dr. Lynda Younghusband

For decades researchers have reported that the primary health problem of teachers is stress and that the causes are multiple and complex. Workplace stress has also been found to diminish teachers’ enthusiasm and distance them emotionally from their students, thereby lessening the teacher-student interaction. The incremental downloading of additional duties for teachers over the past several years has, in their perception, created unreasonable demands.

In High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Stress in Their Work Environment, Dr. Lynda Younghusband, an assistant professor with the Counselling Centre, explored the experiences of high school teachers in their work environment, particularly their experiences of stress hoping to learn more about the factors which contribute to high levels of stress and to gain an understanding of the separate and interactive effects of teacher stress.

Effective teachers constitute a valuable resource, one that needs to be supported and treasured. Instead, these teachers felt undervalued, and they worried about their effectiveness in the face of all the obstacles they perceived.

There was never enough time in their work day to accomplish everything that was expected of them. Their personal lives were eroded by the increasing demands of their job, which impacted their well being, forcing many of them to re-consider their desire to continue teaching.

This study identified the importance of administrative and collegial support, the value of effective communication, the need for adequate resources and professional development, and the necessity of recognizing the excessive workload and associated stress that teachers are feeling. The stigma associated with stress had prevented these teachers from speaking out until they were interviewed. The analysis provided new insight into the serious problem of teachers stress and will be helpful for university students in education programmes, educators and administrators at all levels.

High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Stress in Their Work Environment is published by VDM Verlag.

Camps of the Tundra

by Dr. Robert Paine

Camps of the Tundra, as with its precursor — Herds of the Tundra, is based on Dr. Robert Paine’s fieldwork in the early ‘60s with Saami reindeer pastoralists from northern Norway; perhaps a couple of hundred families.

Each spring, along with thousands of their reindeer, they leave the tundra hinterland on migration to the coast, and return in the fall.

The relation between the two books is the “journey” from ecological circumstances to sociological implications. The latter are embedded in the management and ownership of the reindeer; and the crucial point here is that whereas herding is a group responsibility, animals within a herd are individually owned and husbanded.

It is in the camps — whose compositions change with the seasons — that Dr. Paine finds politics. He stresses how the circumstances of pastoral life do not easily lend themselves to exclusive relationships (marriage aside); instead, more often than not, they present alternatives of equivalent value.

All the while each individual is attending to their reindeer as reproductive wealth (capital). Aside from the number of animals, their distribution respecting gender and age are important, and it is in the husbandry of living reindeer as capital (conversion to material goods is quite secondary) that pastoral reputations are earned.

Beyond the complementarity of pastoral relations, there are inequalities concerning both pastures and capital, and these can introduce strife.

Throughout Camps, then, one is aware of the crucial importance of knowledge in sustaining this society and its pastoral culture: knowledge of the animals and their pastures, knowledge of one’s fellow pastoralists. Every pastoralist prides her/him-self as knowledgeable; even so, intentionality and foreknowledge may be jeopardized through the unpredictables of this pastoral life — not least among which are the unforecasteable changes in tundra ecology.

Camps of the Tundra is published by the Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture in Oslo.

Dr. Paine is professor emeritus in the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology.