- 2007 D.Phil., University of Bradford, UK
- 2002 MSc., University of Bradford, UK
- 1998 BA (honours), Memorial University, Canada
My research encompasses the fields of archaeological science, biomolecular archaeology and human skeletal biology. Specifically I focus on how culture, biological adaptations and climate change have influenced subsistence, settlement, migration and mobility patterns in the past. The primary analytical tool I use to address these issues is the analysis of stable and radiogenic isotopes (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and strontium) from biological tissues (bone, teeth and hair), which are complemented by traditional morphologic-based methods of analyzing skeletal remains. Other areas of my research include the development of isotope-based analytical methodologies and unraveling the complex nature of isotopic and morphological variability within and between animal species.
For more information, please visit the Memorial Applied Archaeological Sciences webpage here.
The Archaeology department has dedicated space for the chemical analysis of biological remains and comparative collections are available for osteoarchaeological research [read more on our facilities page].
ARCH 2430: Principles of Bioarchaeology
ARCH 4041: Human Palaeopathology
ARCH 2450: Principles of Archaeological Science
ARCH 3040: Human Osteology
ARCH 2495: Archaeological Frauds and Mysteries (Online Distance Course)
- Asta Rand (2013-present):
- Megan Bower (2011-present):
- Linda Melo (2012): Paleobiology, funerary practices and mobility of the Late Neolithic human remains exhumed from the funerary monuments of João da Horta 1 and 2. Co-supervisor with Ana-Maria Silva, University of Coimbra, Portugal
- Eric Guiry (Completed): Dogs as dietary analogues: assessing the cross-contextual validity of the canine surrogacy approach for stable isotope palaeodiet reconstructions.
- Courtney Merner (2010-present): Investigating mobility using biogeochemistry at the Chalcolithic necropolis of Camino del Molino, Murcia, Spain.
- Brittany Ellerbrok (Completed): Reconstructing the life history of individuals from a 17th century mass burial at Fortress Louisbourg using isotope analysis
- Kelly-Anne Pike (Completed): A study of kettle burial mortuary behaviour and skeletal biology in Eastern Canada [Co-supervisor with Dr. Michael Deal]
- Chandra-Young Boyle (2011-present): Unangan fish harvesting and changing climatic conditions: an analysis of otoliths from Kiska Island, the Western Aleutians, Alaska.
- Jess Munkittrick (2013-present)
- Alison Harris (2014-present)
- Caitlyn Hill (2009; completed): ChAe-13, The Bay Bulls Burial: an osteological analysis and possible historical context of unidentified human remains.
- Kendra Dawe (2011; completed) Reconstructing diet of the Beothuk: a biomolecular pilot study.
- Rae Desson (2011; completed): An osteological study of human remains from the 17th century fishing plantation site of Dos de Cheval, Newfoundland.
- Andrew Holmes (2012; completed): Reconstructing early modern human palaeoenvironments using stable isotope analysis of faunal remains at the site of El Miron, Spain
- Alison Harris (2013; completed)
Montgomery, J., Grimes, V., Buckberry, J., Evans, J.A., Richards, M.P., and Barrett, J.H. (In Press) Finding Vikings with isotope analysis – the view from wet and windy islands. Journal of the North Atlantic – Special Volume.
Raghavan, M., DeGiorgio, M., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., Skoglund, P., Korneliussen, T., Gronnøw, B., Appelt, M., Christian Gulløv, H., Friesen, M., Fitzhugh, W., Malmström, H., Rasmussen, S., Olsen, J., Melchior, L., Fuller, B., Fahrni, S., Stafford Jr, T., Grimes, V., +37 more. The Genetic Prehistory of the New World Arctic. (2014) Science 345(6200):1255832-1–9.
Grimes, V., Fuller, B. and Guiry, E.J. (2014) Reconstructing the diets and origin of Norse occupation at Hrísbrú, Mosfell Valley, Iceland: the carbon, nitrogen and strontium isotope evidence. In Zori, D. and Byock J. (Eds.) Viking Archaeology in Iceland: The Mosfell Archaeological Project. p. 105-116. Cursor Mundi 20.
Guiry, E.J., and Grimes, V. (2013) Domestic dog (Canis familiaris) diets among coastal Late Archaic groups of northeastern North America: A case study for the canine surrogacy approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 32:732-745.
Grimes, V., and Pellegrini, M. (2012) A comparison of pretreatment methods for the analysis of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios in bioapatite. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27:375-390.
Guiry, E.J., Noël, S., Tourigny, E., and Grimes, V. (2012) A stable isotope method for identifying transatlantic origin of pig (Sus scrofa) remains at French and English fishing stations in Newfoundland. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(7):2012-2022.
Richards, M.P., Grimes, V. and Blockley, S.M. (2012) Stable isotope analysis (C,N,O) of Lynford Quarry faunal samples. In Boisemeir, W., Coward F. and Gamble C. (Eds.) Neanderthals Among Mammoths: Excavations at Lynford Quarry, Norfolk. English Heritage.
Jay, M., Grimes, V. and Richards, M.P. (2012) Stable isotope analysis of animal bone from Pontnewydd Cave. In Aldhouse-Green, S., Peterson, R. and Walker, E. (Eds.). Neaderthals in Wales: Pontnewydd and the Elwy Valley Caves. 321-327. Cardiff, University of Wales Press.
Copeland, SR., Sponheimer, M., de Ruiter, DJ., Lee-Thorp, JA., Condron, D., le Roux, PJ., Grimes, V., Potze, S., Richards, MP. 2011. Strontium isotope evidence for landscape use by early hominin. Nature, 474:76-79.
Britton, K., Grimes, V., Niven, L., Steele, T., McPherron, S., Soressi, M., Kelly, T.E., Jaubert, J., Hublin, J.J., and Richards, M.P. 2011. Strontium isotope evidence for migration in late Pleistocene Rangifer: Implications for Neanderthal hunting strategies at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Jonzac, France. Journal of Human Evolution, 61:176-185.
Copeland, S.R., Sponheimer, M., Lee-Thorp, J.A., de Ruiter, D.J., le Roux, P.J., Grimes, V., Codron, D., Codron, J., Berger, L.R. and Richards, M.P. Using strontium isotopes to study site accumulation processes. Journal of Taphonomy 8(2-3):115-127.
Stallo, J. R., Shepartz, L.A., Grimes, V. and Richards, M.P. (2008) Strontium isotopes ratios and mobility reconstruction. In Amore, M.G. (Ed.) Necropolis of Apollonia. Tumulus 9. Tiranë: International Center for Albanian Archeology Monograph Series No. 2.
Richards, M., Grimes, V., Smith, C., Smith, T., Harvati, K., Hublin, J.J., Karkanas, P., and Panagopoulou, E. (2009) Response to Nowell and Horstwood (2009). Journal of Archaeological Science, 36:1657-1658
Briton, K., Grimes, V., Dau, J. and Richards, M.P. (2009) Reconstructing faunal mirgrations using intra-tooth sampling and strontium and oxygen isotope analyses: a case study of modern caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti). Journal of Archaeological Science, 36:1163-1172.
Copeland, S.R., Sponheimer, M., le Roux, P.J., Grimes, V., Lee-Throp, J.A., de Ruiter, D.J., and Richards, M.P. (2008) Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of tooth enamel: a comparison of solution and laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 22:3187-3194.
Richards, M.P., Harvati, K., Grimes, V., Smith, C., Smith, T., Hublin, J. J., Karkanas, P., and Panagopoulou, E. (2008) Strontium isotope evidence of Neanderthal mobility at the site of Lakonis, Greece using laser-ablation PIMMS. Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 35:1251-1256.
Richards, M.P., Montgomery, J., Nehlich, O., and Grimes, V. (2008) Isotopic analysis of humans and animals from Vedrovice. Anthropologie: International Journal of the Science of Man, 46:185-194.
Wilson, A.S., Taylor, T., Ceruti, M.A., Chavez, J.A., Reinhard, J. Grimes, V., Meier-Augenstein, W., Cartmell, L., Stern, B., Richards, M.P., Worobey, M. Barnes, I., and Gilbert, T.P. (2007) Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(42):16456-16461.
Dobney, K., Jaques, D., Barrett, J., Johnstone, C., Carrott, J., Hall, A., Herman, J., Nichols, C., Müldner, G. and Grimes, V. (2007) Exploitation of resources and procurement strategies. In Dobney, K., Jaques, D., Barrett, J. and Johnstone, C. (Eds.) Farmers Monks & Aristocrats. The environmental archaeology of an Anglo-Saxon estate centre at Flixborough, North Lincolnshire, U.K. 190-212. Oxford: Oxbow/English Heritage.
Jay, M., Grimes, V., Montgomery, J., Lakin, K. and Evans, J. (2007) Multi-isotope analysis, Chapter 8: Environmental Evidence. pp. 351-354. In Brown, F., Howard-Davis, C., Evans, T., O’Connor, S., Spence, A., Heawood, R. and Lupton, A. (Eds.) The archaeology of the A1 (M) Darrington to Dishforth DBFO Road Scheme. Lancaster, Oxford Archaeology North.
Grimes, V. and Fuller, B.T. (2014) Building a new chronology for prehistoric human occupations in Atlantic Canada. Radiocarbon and Diet: aquatic food resources and reservoir effects, 24-26 September, Kiel, Germany
Grimes, V. (2013) The Basques of ‘Butus’: life at a 16th century whaling enterprise in the New World. UK Archaeological Science Conference, 11-14 April, Cardiff, Wales, UK.
Grimes, V., Fuller, B.T., Fahrni, S.M., Guiry, E. and Smith, C. (2013) Re-dating the oldest burial mound in North America: the challenges of archaeological conservation for radiocarbon dating bone. UK Archaeological Science Conference, 11-14 April, Cardiff, Wales, UK.
Guiry, E.J., Smith, C., Salazar-García, D.C. and Grimes, V. (2013) Dogs as dietary proxies for humans in the Spanish Copper Age: A case study using bulk and compound specific stable carbon isotope analyses. 78th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, 3-7 April, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Guiry, E.J., Grimes, V., Smith, C., Noël, S. and Touriqny, E. (2012) Integrating bone chemistry and faunal analyses in historical archaeology: A review and case study from Newfoundland. 2012 Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology, 4-7 October, St. John’s, NL, Canada
Guiry, E.J., Noël, S., Dupont-Hébert, C. and Grimes, V. (2012) Understanding Meat Provisioning Practices among Historic North Atlantic Fisheries: Insights from Stable Isotope Analyses. 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association, 16-20 May, Montreal, Canada.
Guiry, E.J., Touriqny, E., Noël, S. and Grimes, V. (2012) Meat Provisioning in Colonial Fishing Stations: Integrating Zooarchaeology and Stable Isotope Analysis.’ La Trobe University Archaeology Postgraduate Conference, 16 March, Melbourne, Australia.
Grimes, V., Dawe, K., Poinar, H., Younghusband, B. and Marshall, I. (2011) Re-assessing the human occupation of Eastern Canada: diets and dates. UK Archaeological Sciences Conference, 15-18 September, Reading University. Reading, UK.
Guiry, E.J., Touriqny, E., Noël, S. and Grimes, V. (2011) Animal husbandry in New World colonial fishing stations: insights from stable isotope analysis.’ UK Archaeological Science Conference , 15-18 September, Reading University, Reading, UK.
Grimes, V. and Dawe, K. (2011) Biomolecular study into the lifeways and genetics of prehistoric people from Newfoundland and Labrador.’ Canadian Archaeology Association, Annual Meeting, 19-21 May, Halifax, Canada.
Copeland, S., Richards, M.P., Lee-Thorp, J.A., Neveling, J. Grimes, V. and Grine, F.E. (2010) Isotopic evidence for the geographic origins and diet of the 36,000 year-old-Hofmyer skull. American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 79th Annual Meeting, 14-17 April, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
Verna, C., Grimes, V., Toussaint, M., Hublin, J.-J. and Richards, M.P. (2010) Tracing Neanderthal movement and mobility using strontium isotope analysis: case studies from Belgium.’ Paleoanthropology Society, 2010 Annual Meeting, 13-14 April, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Grimes, V., Copeland, S.R., le Roux, P., Sponheimer, M., Lee-Thorp, J., de Ruiter, D. and Richards, M.P. (2008) Recent developments in micro-sampling techniques of modern and archaeological dental tissues for strontium isotope ratios.’ Canadian Association for Physical Anthropology, 5-8 November, Hamilton, Canada.
Research Funding and Grants
2013-2017 Understanding cultural resilience and climate change on the Bering Sea through Yup’ik Ecological Knowledge, Lifeways, Learning and Archaeology (ELLA)’ AHRC Research Grant – 4 years. (Role: Collaborator with PI Richard Knecht, Co-investigator Kate Britton, and Co-investigator Charlotta Hillerdal, University of Aberdeen, UK).
2013 A biomolecular archaeology study of prehistoric Native North Americans from Newfoundland and Labrador.’ Memorial University Office of Research Grant. (Role: PI)
2012 Compositional and isotopic characterization of complex organic mixture for the study of origin and preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers. Canada Foundation for Innovation – Leaders Opportunity Fund and Research and Development Corporation – Leverage R&D Program, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (Role: Co-PI with Penny Morrill, Department of Earth Sciences, MUN).
2012-2016 The Dorset Palaeoeskimo site of Phillip's Garden, northwestern Newfoundland: late phase occupation and site abandonment.’ SSHRC Insight Grant. (Role: Co-PI with M.A.P. Renouf and P. Wells, Department of Archaeology, MUN)
2012 Developing a new chronology for prehistoric human occupations of Newfoundland and Labrador.’ Memorial University Arts Research Initiative. (Role: PI)
2010 Establishment of the Memorial University biomolecular archaeology research group facility. Research and Development Corporation - IRIF program, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (Role: PI)
2009 Reconstructing diet and migration of the Beothuk: a multi-isotope biogeochemical pilot study. Provincial Archaeology Office and Community Economic Development Program, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. (Role: PI)