In accordance with Senate's Policy Regarding Inactive Courses, courses which have not been offered in the previous three academic years and which are not scheduled to be offered in the current academic year have been removed from the following listing. For information about any of these inactive courses, please contact the Head of the Department.

NOTE: S/A course descriptions may be found in this Calendar under the Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.

A/P 1030. Introduction to Archaeology and Physical Anthropology. A broad overview of Archaeology and Physical Anthropology introducing the concepts of human biological and cultural evolution and the methods and techniques by which these are investigated. The course is designed to provide the basis for further study in the disciplines. Credit may not be obtained for both Anthropology 1030 and the former Anthropology 1000 or 2000.

S/C 1031. Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology. A general introduction to Anthropology emphasizing different forms of society and culture. Cultures within and outside the Western tradition will be examined, ranging from small-scale to more complex pre-industrial societies. Credit may not be obtained for both Anthropology 1031 and the former Anthropology 1000 or 2000.

S/A 2200. Communities. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 2210. Communication and Culture. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 2220. Labrador Society and Culture. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 2230. Newfoundland Society and Culture. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program). Cross-listed with Folklore 2230.

S/A 2260. War and Aggression. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 2270. Families. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 2280. The City. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.)

S/C 2300. Newfoundland Folklore. (Same as Folklore 2300.)

S/A 2350. Religious Institutions. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.) Cross-listed with Religious Studies 2350.

S/C 2410. Classics in Social and Cultural Anthropology. An examination of selected milestone monographs, ground-breaking studies for subdisciplinary specialties, and major syntheses. This course qualifies as a Research/Writing course.

S/C 2411. Anthropologists in the Field. Anthropologists base many of their ideas on experiences they have while living in other cultures. This course examines the human relationships through which anthropologists explore cultures and how in turn these relationships affect the anthropologists and the development of their discipline.

S/C 2412. Threatened Peoples. An examination of key social and cultural factors involved in the global extinction of small-scale societies; the intrusive influences that jeopardize small-scale societies, such as disease; economic and military incursion; the role of international non- governmental agencies in aid of threatened peoples; and the role of the anthropologist in this human crisis.

S/C 2413. Modern World Cultures. An examination of significant studies of 20th century populations and their implications for understanding the human condition.

S/C 2414. Regional Studies: North American Indians and Inuit. This is a survey course dealing with the various tribal and band societies of North America, with special emphasis on the northern portion. The student will be introduced to the cultural history and language distribution of the area along with an examination of the major regional divisions. Several societies will be studied in more detail as case studies in the ethnographic analysis of specific cultural situations. The course will also deal with the effect on these cultures, through the historic period, of European trade, conquest, and settlement, again with special emphasis on the Canadian region.
NOTE: Credit may not be obtained for S/C 2414 and the former S/C 3281.

A/P 2430. Physical Anthropology: The Human Animal. Physical Anthropology investigates the human animal as we exist now and as we developed through time. Students will discover how the study of fossil remains, living and extinct primates, and the applications of the principles of genetics, adaptation and variation of human evolution help to provide an understanding of how biology and culture have interacted to produce modern humans.
Prerequisite: A/P 1030.

A/P 2480. Archaeology: Discovering our Past. An introduction to archaeological techniques, methodology and theory. Lectures cover the development of the discipline, techniques of survey and excavation, methods of analysis and the interpretation of prehistory.
Prerequisite: A/P 1030.

A/P 2492. Forensic Anthropology. An examination of procedures and techniques used by physical anthropologists and archaeologists to obtain data pertinent to investigations by law enforcement and medical authorities: evidence concerning the identification of human remains and the cause, time and manner of death.

S/C 2500. Folk Literature. (Same as Folklore 2500.)

A/P 3020. What is Human?. Humans have long considered themselves unique. Through readings, discussions and presentations this seminar will explore exactly how distinctive humans are in their physical, behavioural, and intellectual traits and whether there is, in fact, something which sets us apart from all other creatures.

A/P 3040. The Human Skeleton. The human skeleton reflects genetic, environmental and cultural influence. This course, emphasizing identification of individual bones in the skeleton, techniques for obtaining size and shape differences in individual bones and the entire skeleton, estimation of group numbers and death rates, and diagnosis of disease and other abnormal conditions, provides a means of assessing all of these influences on past human populations.

S/C 3050. Ecology and Culture. A survey of the basic principles and perspectives of human and cultural ecology and ecological anthropology. Emphasis will be placed on the evolutionary development of basic ecological adaptations: foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture and industrialism. Major ecosystems and human adaptative adjustments to them will also be surveyed, especially arctic, mountain, desert, grassland and tropical rainforest ecosystems.

S/C 3054. Play and Culture. An examination of the phenomenon of play in a variety of human cultures, and in such forms of activity as religion, politics, festival, speech, performance, and artistic creation. Principal themes are the functional role of play in social relations, and the meaningful role of play in social thought.

S/C 3058. Urban Anthropology. An examination of anthropological studies of urban populations and population segments, such as ethnic groups and categories, occupations, neighborhoods, etc.

S/C 3061. Culture and Social Inequality. The role of culture in mediating different forms of social inequality, exploring the idea that culture is not only a way of life but also a way of managing power between unequals, from individuals to social classes. Readings in the course concentrate on cultural techniques of social control.

S/C 3082. Bandits, Rebels, and Revolutions. Types of social conflict specific to different kinds of class-based society, including social banditry, primitive rebellions, and peasant revolutions. More generally, social conflict is used to explore the variety of ways that pre-industrial societies have been made part of the modern world economy.

S/C 3083. Cultural Crises and the Environment. An examination of social and cultural aspects of dilemmas in the use of renewable and non-renewable resources such as animals, arable land, forests, fisheries, air, water, fossil fuel, and nuclear energy. Special attention to Third World and marginal populations.

S/A 3100. Dominance and Power. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3140. Social Movements. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3210. Persistence and Change in Rural Society. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3220. Work and Society. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3240. Regional Studies: Contemporary Native Peoples of Canada. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3241. Regional Studies: The Atlantic. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3254-57. Regional Studies. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 3260. Social and Economic Development. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/C 3280. Regional Studies: The Arctic. Studies of cultural, ecologic, economic and social systems in the northern circumpolar regions.

A/P 3290. Newfoundland and Labrador Prehistory. A seminar and reading course on the culture history of Newfoundland and Labrador from about 9,000 years ago until the time of European settlement. Particular attention will be paid to the interactions among the several ethnic and cultural groups upon whose history this course focusses.

A/P 3291. Maritime Provinces Prehistory. Cultural developments in the area which today includes the Maritime Provinces and northern Maine, from the entry of humans into the region until the time of European contact. Emphasis is placed on cultural adaptations to a changing regional environment and the evidence for intercultural contact.

S/C 3305. The Anthropology of Gender. The aim of this course is to provide students with a comprehensive introduction to the major research questions that have been addressed by anthropologists concerned with the study of gender. A variety of empirical examples are used to demonstrate the variation in what it means to be 'female' or 'male' across disparate time periods and cultural contexts.

S/A 3314. Gender and Society. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

S/A 3317. Oil and Society. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

S/A 3318. Culture and Aging. An introduction to the study of aging from a social and cultural perspective. Distinctions between the biological and social elements of the aging process will be examined. The overview of social and cultural gerontology includes social, economic and political influences on later life, as well as the culture-based needs and aspirations of the aged.

S/A 3320. Terrorism and Society. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

S/C 3384-3389. Regional Studies in Anthropology.

S/C 3402-3409. Anthropological Specialties. A topic of current interest and importance announced by the Department for each term.
Prerequisites: Six credit hours in Anthropology.

A/P 3500. Prehistory of Africa, Asia and Europe I. The early stages of cultural evolution in the Old World. Topics include: earliest human origins in Africa; the dispersal of humans throughout the Old World; the appearance of modern-type humans during the last ice age.

A/P 3505. Prehistory of Africa, Asia and Europe II. A survey of the more recent stages of human cultural evolution in the Old World. Topics include: complex behaviour of modern-type hunter-gatherers of the last ice age; the domestication of plants and animals in early farming communities.
Prerequisites: A/P 2480 and A/P 3500.

A/P 3510. Prehistory of the New World. A survey of cultural development in the Americas from the entry of humans until the time of European contact. Topics include: the earliest human migrations and the dispersal of human groups throughout the New World; the development of complex hunting-gathering societies; the origins of agriculture and sedentism.

A/P 3515*. Prehistory of Mesoamerica. (Same as History 3515). When the Spanish explorers arrived in Mesoamerica i.e.,Mexico and Guatemala of today) they discovered rich and complex civilizations that had developed independently of European or Asian influence. This course traces the development of Mesoamerican civilizations from their known origins to the point at which growth was terminated by Spanish intervention.

A/P 3520. The Early Ethnohistory of North America's Native People. (Same as History 3520). The North American native response to early European contact and initial settlement. Particular attention will be paid to cultural change resulting from the adoption of European goods, participation in the fur trade, the introduction of European disease, and the adaptation to a permanent European presence.

A/P 3525. The Later Ethnohistory of North America's Native People. (Same as History 3525). Indian and Inuit cultural history of the 18th and 19th centuries, including the fur trade, resistance and accommodation to European expansion, the emergence of revitalization movements, demographic changes, and population shifts. Special emphasis will be placed on the ethnohistory of the native peoples of what is now Canada and northern United States.

A/P 3580. Bronze Age Archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean. (Same as Classics 3580). This course examines the archaeological (material) evidence that underlies the current reconstruction of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, the Bronze Age of the Aegean and the island of Cyprus is essentially prehistoric and inaccessible except through the methods of archaeology. These methods are as diverse as physical dating techniques, geoarchaeology, residue studies, palaeoethnobotany, zooarchaeology, forensic anthropology, underwater archaeology and cultural resource management. Emphasis is placed on the role of Cyprus as a physical and cultural link between peoples of the Aegean and the Near East during the Middle and Late Bronze Age.

A/P 3582. Historical Archaeology. The course will introduce students to historical archaeology, with special reference to the North Atlantic, 1000 to 1900 AD. The archaeology of specific historic sites, including Newfoundland sites, will be examined in order to raise theoretical issues and to give practical examples of methodology. Students will be introduced to the methodological challenges of palaeography, analysis of historic maps, survey, excavation and analysis of complex sites, underwater archaeology, documentary archaeology, material culture and subsistence studies, interpretation, conservation and cultural resource management. The course will consider theoretical approaches including historical anthropology, ethnohistory, world systems and consumer studies.

A/P or S/C 3584. Historical Anthropology. This course will explore selected issues in historical anthropology, with special reference to the Mediterranean and North Atlantic worlds. Students will read specific case studies in order to explore the theoretical issues raised by the attempt to understand historically-documented past cultures. In order to give practical examples of methodology classes will analyse primary source material. Students will be introduced to the textual analysis of myth and legal records, to the interpretation of images and to the analysis of patterns in material culture. The course will consider specific current interpretive issues, particularly the rise of individualism, the consumer revolution and the cultural construction of gender.

A/P 3585-3586. Practicum in Archaeology. The practicum offers students practical introductions to archaeological fieldwork (A/P 3585) and laboratory techniques (A/P 3586). These courses provide instruction and experience in site mapping, sampling strategies, the recovery and conservation of archaeological materials (i.e., artifacts and ecofacts) and the cleaning, cataloguing and cultural interpretation of artifacts and features. The students will also receive an introduction to archaeological research concerning prehistoric and/or historic cultures of a selected region.

A/P 3587. Archaeological Conservation: Method and Theory. An introduction to principles and techniques for the preservation of archaeological materials, with an emphasis on conservation in the field.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 2480 or equivalent.

A/P 3588. Arctic Prehistory. Lectures and discussion will cover cultural developments in the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and Alaska from the time of initial human occupation to the historic period, with particular emphasis on the eastern Canadian Arctic. Culture history is presented in the context of theoretical and methodological issues and emphasis is placed on culture adaptations to changing environments.

A/P 3589. Art, Architecture and Medieval Life. (Same as Medieval Studies 3001, History 3020, Folklore 3001). An examination of the development of medieval art and architecture and of the ways in which they mirror various aspects of life in the Middle Ages. This course will include a discussion of art and architecture in the countryside, in the town, in the castle, in the cathedral and in the cloister.
NOTE: It is recommended, but not obligatory, that students should have successfully completed one of the following courses: Anthropology 2480, Folklore 1000 or 2000*, History 2320/MST 2001, History 2330/MST 2002, MST 2000.

A/P or S/C 3590. Hunter-Gatherer Studies. Past and present hunting and gathering societies from various areas of the world, both from an ethnographic and an archaeological perspective.
Prerequisites: A/P 1030 and S/C 1031.

A/P 3591. Collections Management. (Same as Folklore 3591). This course will introduce students to the problems of collections storage with respect to environment, materials and artifact access. Students will become familiar with the materials encountered in archaeological and ethnographic collections. The storage of specific historic and prehistoric collections from Newfoundland and Labrador will be examined with the purpose of providing practical examples of methodology.

S/A 3600. The Use of Theory in Sociology and Anthropology. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

A/P 3680-3689. Studies in Archaeology and Prehistory. Special topics in archaeology and prehistory, including the consideration of current developments in methods, techniques and theory as applied to selected areas of the world.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 2480 or equivalent.

S/A 3700*. Social and Cultural Change. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

A/P 3710. Museums and Historic Sites. (Same as Folklore 3700). An introduction to museums and historic sites, their work, and their role in societies past and present. Various types of museums and historic sites will be discussed using local, national and international examples, looking at their collections and exhibitions policies. Practical issues will also be discussed; these include museum exhibit display techniques, public programming, virtual museums, and the museum profession.

A/P 3850. Material Culture. (See Folklore 3850.)

A/P 3860. Vernacular Architecture. (See Folklore 3860 and History 3860.)

S/A 4000. Society and Culture. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

A/P 4015. Cultural Resource Management. (Same as Folklore 4015 and Geography 4015). This course is a study of cultural resource management: the definition and recognition of cultural resources, the application of policy in managing cultural resources, and the identification and consideration of contemporary issues in cultural resource management.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of seminar per week.

A/P 4041. Palaeopathology. Disease, diet, genetics, accidents and maternal health factors all contribute to variations in the human skeleton. In this course these factors are diagnosed from bones, and aspects of the culture, health, economy and environment of the skeletal individuals are examined.
Prerequisites: A/P 2430 and A/P 3040.

A/P 4050-4059. Special Projects in Physical Anthropology. Directed reading, seminars and lab analysis of various skeletal collections. Topics to be covered may include primate behaviour, forensic anthropology, and various aspects of human evolution.

S/A 4070. Aboriginal Self-Governance. An advanced course on contemporary issues on the development of, and barriers to, self-government among Canadian aboriginal peoples. The focus will be on topics such as land claims and claims settlements, self-government agreements and proposed agreements, economic development, environmental and social impact of industrial developments, and cultural and religious revival.
Prerequisite: S/A 3240.

S/A 4071. Social and Cultural Aspects of Health and Illness. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

S/A 4072. Social and Cultural Aspects of Death. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.)

S/A 4073. Studies in Underclass Life. A critical inquiry into the social sources of human misery and suffering that characterize life in the underclass.

S/A 4091. Oil and Development. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program.)

S/A 4092. Gender and Social Theory.

S/A 4140-4149. Advanced Interdisciplinary Specialties. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

A/P 4150. Environmental Change and Quaternary Geography. (Same as Geography 4150). Methods of reconstructing Quaternary environments, effects of Quaternary environmental changes on landform, with special reference to North America, development and characteristics of glacial and non-glacial climates.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week.
Prerequisites: Geography 3110, 3150 or permission of Head of Department.

A/P 4151. Paleoethnobotany. A combined directed readings/laboratory course on palaeoethnobotany. Paleoethnobotany concerns the recovery and analysis of archaeological plant remains as a basis for understanding human and plant interactions in the archaeological record. This course focuses on recent palaeobotanical research in northeastern North America.
Prerequisites: A/P 2480 and the permission of the instructor.

A/P 4160-4169. Special Projects in Archaeology. The following are courses which may be offered from time to time as demand arises. They may involve readings, seminars and actual analysis of archaeological collections on, for example: The Neolithic of Western Asia; The Rise of Civilization in Western Asia; Scandinavian Prehistory; Palaeoethnobotany; and Technology and Material Culture.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 2480.

A/P 4182. History of Archaeology. An intensive study of the emergence and maturation of archaeology as a discipline within the social sciences, particularly in Western Europe and North America, during the 19th and 20th centuries.

A/P 4190-4199. Selected Topics in Archaeology and Prehistory. Consideration of recent developments in archaeology and prehistory.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 2480 or equivalent.

S/C 4200-4209. Special Areas in Anthropology. A series of individual or small group tutorials and reading courses on topics of special or current interest.
Prerequisite: Departmental permission.

S/C 4370. Culture and Traditions of Ireland. (Same as Folklore 4370).

S/C 4410. History of Social and Cultural Anthropology. A detailed examination of critical issues in the history of anthropology and its various subdisciplines from ancient times to the formation of schools of thought in the late 19th and 20th centuries.
Prerequisite: At least fourth-year standing in an Arts degree program, including 24 credit hours in Anthropology courses.

A/P 4411. Theory and Method in Archaeology and Prehistory. A seminar course focussing on recent theoretical and methodological developments in archaeological research.
Prerequisite: A/P 2480 and A/P 4182.

S/C 4412. Modern Cultural Theory. Evaluation of current approaches to culture through psychological, social-structural, critical, and symbolic Anthropology. Emphasis on major works, schools, and personages.

S/C 4440. Music and Culture. (Same as Folklore 4440 and Music 4440).

A/P 4500. Special Topic in Historical Archaeology. Consideration of current developments in methods, techniques, and theory in Historical Archaeology.
Prerequisite: A/P 2480 or permission of instructor.

S/A 4990. S/A Honours Essay. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program)

S/A 4991. S/A Comprehensive Examination. (See Sociology/Anthropology Interdepartmental Studies Program).

A/P or S/C 4995. Honours Essay.

A/P or S/C 4996*. Comprehensive Examination.

* Inactive Course

Last modified on June 4, 2003 by R. Bruce

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