Lively, C. J., Fallon, L., Snook, B., & Fahmy, W. (minor revisions). Objection, your honour!: An examination of the questioning practices of Canadian judges. Psychology, Crime and Law.

Fallon, L., & Snook, B. (in press). Minimization, the trojan horse of interviewing: Measuring perceptions of witness interviewing strategies. Criminal Justice and Behavior.

Chenier, K., Milne, R., Smith, K., & Snook, B. (in press). Interviewing adult complainants in sexual assault cases. In N. Deslaurier-Varin, & C. Bennell, (Eds.), Criminal investigations of sexual offenses: Investigational techniques and operational challenges. Springer.

Fallon, L., Snook, B., Barron, T., Baker, A., Notte, A., Stephenson, J., & Trottier, D. (in press). Evaluating the Vermont State Police’s PEACE Model training program: Phase 1. Psychology, Crime, and Law.


Chenier, K., Milne, R., Shawyer, A., & Snook, B. (2020). Police victim and witness interviewing in a northern Canadian territory: Measuring perceptions and practice. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s11896-020-09417-8 [PDF]

Button, C. M., Snook, B., & Grant, M. J. (in press). Inter-rater agreement, data reliability, and the crisis of confidence in psychological research. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 16(5), 467-471. doi:10.20982/tqmp.16.5.p467

Snook, B., Barron, T., Fallon, L., Kassin, S. M., Kleinman, S., Leo, R. A., Meissner, C. A., Morello, L., Nirider, L. H., Redlich, A. D., & Trainum, J. L. (2020). Urgent issues and prospects in reforming interrogation practices in the United States and Canada. Legal and Criminological Psychology. doi:10.1111/lcrp.12178 [PDF]

Snook, B., Fahmy, W., Fallon, L., Lively, C. J., Luther, K., Messiner, C. M., Barron, T., & House, J. C. (2020). Challenges of a “toolbox” approach to investigative interviewing: A critical analysis of the RCMP’s phased interview model. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. doi:10.1037/law0000245 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Lively, C. J., Snook, B., Snow, M. (2020). Quality vs. quantity: The effect of relationship and number of corroborators on alibi assessments. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law. doi:10.1080/13218719.2020.1754956 [PDF]

McCardle, M. I., Luther, K., & Snook, B. (2020). Examining the administration of youth interrogation rights: A field study of Canadian police practices. Youth Justice. [PDF]

Lively, C. J., Fallon, L., Snook, B., & Fahmy, W. (2020). Seeking or controlling the truth? An examination of courtroom questioning practices by Canadian lawyers. Psychology, Crime and Law, 26, 343-366. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2019.1669595 [PDF] [Media Interest: CHMR Radio Interview]


Fallon, L., & Snook, B. (2019). Beyond Common Sense and Human Experience: Lay Perceptions of Witness Coercion. Criminal Justice and Behaviour. doi: 10.1177/0093854819892654 [PDF]

Fallon, L., & Snook, B. (2019). Criminal profiling. In N. Brewer, & A. Bradfield-Douglass (Eds.), Psychological science and the law (pp. 7-29). New York, NY: Guilford.

Fahmy, W., Snook, B., Luther, K., & McCardle, M. I. (2019). Unveiling the truth: the effect of face covering and Muslim veils on the perceived credibility of a sexual assault victim’s court testimony. The Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 51, 53-60. doi:10.1037/cbs0000116 [PDF]

  • For an additional resource, see Hollett, K. B., Fahmy, W., & Snook, B (2018). The quest for a fair trial: Revisting the effects of muslim garments and face covering on the perception of witness credibility (unpublished honours thesis). Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada. [PDF]

Eastwood, J. Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2019). Establishing the most effective way to deliver the sketch procedure to enhance interviewee free recall. Psychology, Crime and Law, 25, 482-493. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2018.1538416 [PDF]


Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2018). Measuring the effectiveness of the sketch procedure for recalling details of a live interactive event. Applied Cognitive Psychology32, 747-752. doi:10.1002/acp.3454 [PDF]

Fallon, L., Fahmy, W., & Snook, B. (2018). Assessing the treatment of confession evidence in court: The Confessions Rule and the case of R. v. Oickle. Canadian Criminal Law Review23, 233-264. [PDF]


MacDonald, S., Keeping, Z., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2017). Do not lie to me, or else: The effect of a turncoat warning and rapport building on perceptions of police interviewers. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32, 263-277. doi:10.1007/s11896-016-9219-4 [PDF]

Snook, B., McCardle, M. I., Fahmy, W., & House, J. C. (2017). Assessing truthfulness on the witness stand: Eradicating deeply rooted pseudoscientific beliefs about credibility assessment by triers of fact. Canadian Criminal Law Review, 22(3), 305-313. [PDF]

Keeping, Z., Eastwood, J., Lively, C. J., & Snook, B. (2017). Don’t stop believing: The relative impact of internal alibi details on judgments of veracity. Psychology, Crime and Law, 23, 899-913. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2017.1338700 [PDF]

Grant, M. J., Button, C. M., & Snook, B. (2017). An evaluation of inter-rater reliability measures on binary tasks using d-Prime. Applied Psychological Measurement,41, 264-276. doi:10.1177/0146621616684584 [PDF]


Luther, K. & Snook, B. (2016). Putting the Mr. Big technique back on trial: A re-examination of probative value and abuse of process through a scientific lens. Journal of Forensic Practice, 18(2), 131-142. doi 10.1108/JFP-01-2015-0004 [PDF]

MacDonald. S., Snook, B., & Milne. R. (2016). Witness interview training: A field evaluation. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s11896-016-9197-6 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Snook, B., Luther, K., & Freedman, S. (2016). Engineering comprehensible youth interrogation rights. New Criminal Law Review, 19, 42–62. doi: 10.1525/nclr.2016.19.1.42 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Au, D. (2016). Safety in numbers: A policy-capturing study of the alibi assessment process. Applied Cognitive Psychology. doi: 10.1002/acp.3200 [PDF]


Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2015). Measuring the reading complexity and oral comprehension of Canadian youth waiver forms. Crime and Delinquency, 61, 798-828. doi:10.1177/0011128712453689 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Snook, B., Moore, T. E., & Fitzsimmons, C. L. (in press). Improving the comprehension of detainees’ legal rights: A review of two Canadian programs of research. Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice.

Luther, K., Snook, B., Barron, T., & Lamb, M. E. (2015). Child interviewing practices in Canada: A box score from field observations. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 30, 204-212. doi:10.1007/s11896-014-9149-y [PDF] | [National Post News Article]

Luther, K., Snook, B., MacDonald, S., Barron, T. (2015). Securing the admissibility of witness statements: An estimation of the complexity and comprehension of Canadian "KGB Warnings". Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 30, 166-175. doi:10.1007/s11896-014-9147-0 [PDF]

Snook, B., Brooks, D., & Bull, R. (2015). A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation. Criminal Justice and Behavior. [PDF] doi:10.1177/0093854815604179

Snook, B., Luther, K., & Barron, T. (2015). Interviewing suspects in Canada. In D. Walsh, G. Oxburgh, A. Redlich, & T. Myklebust (Eds.), Contemporary developments and practices in investigative interviewing and interrogation: An International perspective (pp. 229-239). Oxford: Routledge Press


Chaulk, S. J., Eastwood, J., & Snook, B. (2014). Measuring and predicting police caution comprehension in adult offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 56, 323-340. doi:10.3138/CJCCJ.2013.E02 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2014). On the need to ensure better comprehension of interrogation rights. Canadian Criminal Law Review, 18, 171-181. [PDF]

Freedman, S., Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2014). Safeguarding youth interrogation rights: The effect of grade level and reading complexity of youth waiver forms on the comprehension of legal rights. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 427-431. doi:10.1002/acp.3001 [PDF]

Luther, K., Snook, B., & Luther, E. (2014). Mesure de la complexité de lecture des formulaires de déclaration et renonciation aux droits pour adolescents québécois. Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale. [PDF]

Snook, B., Luther K., Eastwood, J., Collins, R., & Evans, S. (2014). Advancing legal literacy: The effect of listenability on the comprehension of interrogation rights. Legal and Criminological Psychology. [PDF]

Snook, B., Eastwood, J., & Barron. T. (2014). The next stage in the evolution of interrogations: The PEACE model. Canadian Criminal Law Review. [PDF]

Snook, B., Luther, K., & MacDonald, S. (2014). Linking crimes with spatial behaviour: A need to tackle some remaining methodological concerns. In C. Bennell & J. Woodhams (Eds.), Crime linkage: Theory, research, and practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


Richardson, B. H. Taylor, P. J., Snook, B., Conchie, S. M., & Bennell, C. (2013). Language style matching and police interrogation outcome. Law and Human Behavior. [PDF]

Taylor, P. J., Snook, B., Bennell, C., & Porter, L. (forthcoming). Investigative psychology. In B. L. Cutler & P. A. Zapf (Eds.), APA Handbook for Forensic Psychology.


Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Luther, K. (2012). What people want from their professionals: Attitudes toward decision making strategies. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25, 458-468. doi:10.1002/bdm.741 [PDF]

Eastwood, J., & Snook, B. (2012). The effect of listenability factors on the comprehension of police cautions. Law and Human Behavior, 36, 117-183. doi: 10.1007/s10979-011-9275-3 [PDF]

Snook, B., Luther, K., Quinlan, H., & Milne, R. (2012). Let 'em talk! A field study of police questioning practices of suspects and accused persons. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 1328-1339. doi:10.1177/0093854812449216 [PDF]

  • Reprinted in Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2015). Current perspectives in forensic psychology and criminal behavior (Fourth Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Snook, B., Luther, K., House, J. C., & Bennell, C., & Taylor, P. J. (2012). Violent crime linkage analysis system: A test of inter-rater reliability. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 607-619. doi:10.1177/0093854811435208 [PDF] [CJB Interview]

Bennell, C., Snook, MacDonald, S., House, J., & Taylor, P. J., (2012). Computerized crime linkage systems : A critical review and research agenda. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 620-637. doi:10.1177/0093854811435210 [PDF]

Snook, B., House, J.C., MacDonald, S., & Eastwood, J. (2012). Police witness interview training, supervision, and feedback: A survey of Canadian police officers. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54, 363-372. doi:10.3138/cjccj.2011.E.13 [PDF]


Snook, B., & Keating, K. (2011). A field study of adult witness interviewing practices in a Canadian police organization. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 16, 160-172. doi: 10.1348/135532510X497258 [PDF]


Snook, B., Dhami, M. K., Kavanagh, J. M. (2010). Simply criminal: Predicting burglars' occupancy decisions with a simple heuristic. Law and Human Behavior, [PDF]

Snook, B., Eastwood, J., & MacDonald, S. (2010). A descriptive analysis of how Canadian police officers administer the right-to-silence and right-to-legal counsel cautions. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 52(5), 545-560. [PDF]

Bennell, C., Bloomfield, S., Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., & Barnes. C. (2010). Linkage analysis in cases of serial burglary: Comparing the performance of university students, police professionals, and a logistic regression model. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 16, 507-524. doi: 10.1080/10683160902971030 [PDF]

Snook, B., Eastwood, J., Gendreau, P., & Bennell, C. (2010). The importance of knowledge cumulation and the search for hidden agendas: A reply to Kocsis, Middledorp, and Karpin (2008). Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 10 (3), 214-223. doi: 10.1080/15228930903550541 [PDF]

Bennell, C, Emeno, K., Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., & Goodwill, A. M. (2010). The precision, accuracy, and efficiency of geographic profiling predictions: A simple heuristic versus mathematical algorithms. Crime mapping: A journal of research and practice, 1, 65-84. [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Snook, B., & Chaulk, S. J. (2010). Measuring reading complexity and listening comprehension of Canadian police cautions. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(4), 453-471. doi:10.1177/0093854810362053 [PDF]

Snook, B., Eastwood, J., Stinson, M., Tedeschini, J., & House, J. C. (2010). Reforming investigative interviewing in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 52(2), 203-217. [PDF] Media Interest: CBC - The Current; CanWest

Snook, B., & Mercer, J. C. (2010). Modelling police officers' judgments of the veracity of suicide notes. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 52(1), 79-95. [PDF] Media Interest: CanWest, Maclean's Magazine


Eastwood, J., & Snook, B. (2009). Comprehending Canadian police cautions: Are the rights to silence and legal counsel understandable? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 366-377. doi:10.1002/bsl.898 [PDF]

Snook, B., Grant, M. J., Button, C. M. (2009). A judgment analysis of social perceptions of attitudes and abilities. Thinking and Reasoning, 15, 319-336.[PDF]

Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., Gendreau, P., & Bennell, C. (2009). On the need for scientific experimentation in the criminal profiling field: A reply to Dern et al. (2009). Criminal Justice and Behavior, 10, 1091-1094. [PDF]

King, L., & Snook, B. (2009). Peering inside the Canadian interrogation room: An examination of the Reid model of interrogation, influence tactics, and coercive strategies. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 674-694. [PDF]

Snook, B., Doan, B., Cullen, R. M., Kavanagh, J., & Eastwood, J. (2009). Research and publication trends in police psychology: A review of five forensic psychology journals. The Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 24, 45-50. [PDF]


House, J. C., Eastwood, J., & Snook, B. (2008). Reducing investigative failures through effective major case leadership. In K. D. Rossmo (Ed.), Criminal investigative failures (pp. 293-324). Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Snook, B., & Cullen, R. M. (2008). Bounded rationality and criminal investigations: Has tunnel vision been wrongfully convicted? In K. D. Rossmo (Ed.), Criminal investigative failures (pp 69-96).Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis. [PDF]

Doan, B., & Snook, B. (2008). A failure to find empirical support for the homology assumption in criminal profiling. The Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 23, 61-70. [PDF]

Snook, B. (2008). Introduction to special issue: Pseudoscientific policing practices and beliefs. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35 (10), 1211-1214. [PDF]

Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., & Gendreau, P. (2008). The criminal profiling illusion: What’s behind the smoke and mirrors? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35 (10), 1257-1276. [PDF]

  • This paper prompted the following response: Dern, H., Dern, C., Horn, A., & Horn, U. (2009). The fire behind the smoke: A reply to Snook and colleagues. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(10), 1085-1090. [see our counter reply above]

Taylor, P. J., Bennell, C., & Snook, B. (2008). The bounds of cognitive heuristic performance on the geographic profiling task. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 410 -430. [PDF]

Snook, B., Gendreau, P., Bennell, C., & Taylor, P. J. (2008). Criminal profiling: Granfalloons and gobbledygook. Skeptic, 14(2), 36-41. [PDF]


Bennell, C., Taylor , P. J., & Snook, B. (2007). Clinical versus actuarial geographic profiling approaches: A review of the research. Police Practice and Research, 8, 335-345. [PDF]

Bennell, C., Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., Corey, S., & Keyton, J. (2007). It's no riddle, choose the middle: The effect of number of crimes and topographical detail on police officer predictions of serial burglars' home locations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 119-132. [PDF]

Snook, B., Eastwood, J., Gendreau, P., Goggin, C., & Cullen, R. M. (2007). Taking stock of criminal profiling: A narrative review and meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 437-453. [PDF]

  • Reprinted in Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2008). Current perspectives in forensic psychology and criminal behavior (pp. 49-54). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Snook, B., Haines, A., Taylor, P. J., & Bennell, C. (2007). Criminal profiling belief and use: A survey of Canadian police officer opinion. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 5, 169-179. [PDF]


Bennell, C., Jones, N., Taylor, P. J., & Snook, B. (2006). Validities and abilities in criminal profiling: A critique of the studies conducted by Richard Kocsis and his colleagues. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50, 344-360. [PDF]

Eastwood, J., Cullen, R. M., Kavanagh, J., & Snook, B. (2006). A review of the validity of criminal profiling. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services 4, 118-124. [PDF]

House, J. C., Cullen, R. M., Snook, B., & Noble, P. (2006). Improving the effectiveness of the National DNA Data Bank: A consideration of the criminal antecedents of predatory sexual offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48, 61-76. [PDF]

Snook, B., & Cullen, R. M. (2006). Recognizing national hockey league greatness with an ignorance-based heuristic. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 33-43.[PDF]

Cullen, R., Snook, B. Rideout, K., Eastwood, J., & House, J. C. (2006). Using local police data to inform investigative decision-making: A study of commerical robbers' spatial decisions. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 4(4), 193-204. [PDF]


Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Mokros, A., & Harbort, S. (2005). Serial murderers spatial decisions: Factors that influence crime location choice. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 2, 147-164. [PDF]

Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., & Bennell, C. (2005). Shortcuts to geographic profiling success: A reply to Rossmo (2005). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1-7.[PDF]

Snook, B., Zito, M., Bennell, C., & Taylor, P. J. (2005). On the complexity and accuracy of geographic profiling strategies. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 21, 1-26. [PDF]


Snook, B. (2004). Individual differences in distance travelled by serial burglars. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 1, 53-66. [PDF]

Snook, B., Taylor, P. J., & Bennell, C. (2004). Geographic profiling: the fast, frugal, and accurate way. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 105-121. [PDF]

  • Reprinted In Gigerenzer, G., Hertwig, R., & Pachur, T. (Eds.). (2011). Heuristics: The foundations of adaptive behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • This paper prompted two responses: (i) Rossmo, K. (2005). Geographic Heuristics or Shortcuts to Failure?: Response to Snook et al. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 651-654.; and (ii) Canter, D. (2005). Confusing Operational Predicaments and Cognitive Explorations: Comments on Rossmo and Snook et al. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 663-668.


Snook, B., Canter, D. V., & Bennell, C. (2002). Predicting the home location of serial offenders: A preliminary comparison of the accuracy of human judges with a geographic profiling system. Behavioural Sciences and The Law, 20, 109-118. [PDF]

  • Reprinted In Canter, D. V., & Youngs D. (2008). Applications of geographical offender profiling (pp. 207-218). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Taylor, P. J., Bennell, C., & Snook, B. (2002). Problems of classification in investigative psychology. In K. Jajugar, A. Sokolowski, & H. H. Bock (Eds.), Classification, clustering, and data analysis: Recent advances and applications (pp. 479-487). Heidelberg: Springer. [PDF]


Alison, L. J., Snook, B., & Stein, K. L. (2001). Unobtrusive measures: Using police information for forensic research. Qualitative Research, 1, 241-254. [PDF]



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