"A Hawaiian term for an "island" of land completely surrounded by one or more younger lava flows. A kipuka forms when lava encircles a hill or a slight rise in the ground as it moves downslope or across relatively flat ground. Because they are surrounded by more recent flows, kipukas are often covered with mature vegetation." The photo at left shows a kipuka surrounded by a 1955 lava flow on the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island. The whitish color is due to lichen growing on them. The road passing through the kipuka gives an idea of scale. The photo below shows a more recent kipuka formed during the Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption on the east rift zone of Kilauea. Note the steam vents center right that indicate continued volcanic activity.