Office of the Registrar
Grenfell Campus (2012/2013)
10.11 Environmental Science

For existing Memorial University of Newfoundland courses, the numbers remain the same. For new courses in Environmental Science, the following four-digit scheme is used:

1st digit = Year

2nd digit = Parent Discipline:

  • 0 = Multidisciplinary
  • 1 = Biology
  • 2 = Chemistry
  • 3 = Earth Science
  • 4 = Physics
  • 9 = Project

3rd digit = Subdiscipline:

  • (Biology): 1 = Botany 1 = Analytical 5 = Research
  • (Chemistry): 2 = Zoology 2 = Inorganic 8 = Science Writing
  • (Multidisciplinary): 3 = Ecology 3 = Physical 6 = Environmental 4 = Organic

4th digit = Numerical Sequence.

Courses specifically designed for the environmental science program(s) are given the designation "Envs". Thus, for example, in the Winter semester of the 2nd year, Environmental Chemistry is offered, with a course number = Envs 2261.

Environmental Science courses are designated by ENVS.

10.11.1 Environmental Biology

3110

Taxonomy of Flowering Plants

is a study of the biodiversity of flowering vascular plants (Magnoliophyta) through the practical identification of Newfoundland families, genera, and species. Related taxonomic and biogeographical principles will be stressed.

CR: Biology 3041

LH: 3 laboratory periods of integrated practice and theory

OR: Students must submit a collection of flowering plants identified to the species level. Detailed instructions should be obtained from the instructor in the spring/summer prior to the commencement of this course.

PR: Biology 2010 or equivalent

3130

Freshwater Ecology

is the study of freshwater ecosystems (lakes, rivers, streams, peatlands). Included are abiotic components, community structures, energy flow, biogeochemical cycles, and the evolution of natural and altered aquatic ecosystems. Emphasis will be placed on field and laboratory studies of the ecology of freshwater organisms and systems in western Newfoundland.

LH: 3

PR: Biology 2010, Biology 2122, Biology 2600; one of Chemistry 1001 or Chemistry 1011

3131

Impacted Terrestrial Ecosystems

is an examination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms in terrestrial ecosystems to human-derived and natural perturbations. Advanced conceptual, empirical and experimental approaches will be used, with an emphasis on sampling local habitats.

CR: Biology 3610

LH: 3

PR: Biology 2600; and two of Biology 2010, Biology 2122, Biology 2210 or the permission of the instructor and Program Chair

4132

Analytical Ecology

states that the assessment of environmental impacts on higher-level ecological systems requires a critical analysis of scientific reports, along with the ability to evaluate ecological terminology and concepts and associated statistical methodologies. Students in this course will critically read and analyse recent scientific literature in Environmental Biology, with selected topics at the community, ecosystem and landscape level, and examine related univariate and multivariate statistical procedures

LH: three-hour laboratory/discussion group

PR: Biology 2600, Statistics 2550 (or equivalent), with 6 credit hours from clause c. of the Environmental Science Core. It is recommended that students complete at least 80 credit hours before registering for this course.

4133

Conservation Biology

will bring together the principles of ecology and conservation Biology at an advanced level. Current issues and techniques will be discussed with an aim towards understanding how populations of native flora and fauna can be managed for long-term conservation in the face of habitat degradation and loss.

CR: Biology 4650 and Geography 4650

LH: three-hour laboratory/discussion group

PR: two of ENVS 3110, 3130, and 3131; or permission of instructor

4140

Environmental Science Field Course

is a course providing practical experience in the observation, collection, identification and quantification of organisms and the various environmental parameters which affect them in pristine and disturbed habitats. Combinations of freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats will be studied using techniques from various scientific disciplines. The actual combination of habitats, organisms, and techniques will vary from year to year.

PR: Biology 2600, Statistics 2550, with a minimum of 80 credit hours from Environmental Science Program (or equivalent) and permission of the instructor and Program Chair.

AR = Attendance requirement; CH = Credit hours are 3 unless otherwise noted; CO = Co-requisite(s); CR = Credit can be retained for only one course from the set(s) consisting of the course being described and the course(s) listed; LC = Lecture hours per week are 3 unless otherwise noted; LH = Laboratory hours per week; OR = Other requirements of the course such as tutorials, practical sessions, or seminars; PR = Prerequisite(s); UL = Usage limitation(s).
10.11.2 Environmental Chemistry

2261

Survey of Environmental Chemistry

is an introduction to environmental problems, underlying chemistry and approaches to pollution prevention. Stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer. Ground level air pollution. Global warming and the Greenhouse Effect. Toxic organic chemicals (TOCs), including herbicides, pesticides. Toxicology of PCBs, dioxins and furans. Chemistry of natural waters. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Energy production and its impact on the environment, including nuclear energy, fossil fuels, hydrogen.

PR: Chemistry 1001 or Chemistry 1031 or Chemistry 1051 or Chemistry 2440 or the permission of the instructor and Program Chair

3210

Environmental Analytical Chemistry I

is treatment of data, error analysis, wet methods of analysis of laboratory and field samples. Volumetric methods for acidity, alkalinity and hardness; chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD). Gravimetric methods for sulphate and phosphates. Theory and application of specific ion electrodes analysis of metal ions, dissolved gases and halide ions. Turbidimetric and nephelometric measures of water quality. Spectrophotometric analysis of trace metal ions.

LC: not more than seven hours per week

LH: not more than seven hours per week

PR: Chemistry 2300 (or 2301) and Chemistry 2210

3211

Environmental Analytical Chemistry II

is theory and application of spectroscopic methods of analysis (including error analysis) of environmentally important compounds. Spectrophotometric, FTIR, light scattering, chromatographic (GC, GC/MS, HPLC), fluorescence, phosphorescence, atomic absorption and electroanalytical methods will be studied. Synthetic laboratory samples and field samples will be examined by these techniques.

LC: Not more than seven hours per week

LH: Not more than seven hours per week

PR: ENVS 3210 (or equivalent)

3260

Industrial Chemistry

is chemical principles used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic chemical products; electrochemical, petrochemical, polymer, pulp and paper, agricultural, cement, cosmetics, detergent and paint industries. Processes, specific pollutants of current interest: inorganic (e.g. mercury, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides gases, lead etc.) and organic (e.g. PCBs, chlorinated hydrocarbons, freons, pesticides/herbicides). Industrial sources and analytical methods of detection will be studied.

PR: Chemistry 2210, Chemistry 2401, and ENVS 2261 (ENVS 2261 may be taken concurrently) or permission of the instructor and Program Chair

3261

Atmospheric Chemistry

is electronic, vibrational and rotational spectroscopy. Rates and mechanisms of gas phase reactions (particularly photochemical). Thermodynamics of the atmosphere. Formation, evolution and structure of the Earth's atmosphere. Chemical and physical properties of the atmospheric gases. Global element cycles. The stratosphere and ozone variability. The iono-sphere. Atmospheric pollutants. Problems of the "greenhouse" gases. Aerosol chemistry. Wet and dry deposition.

PR: Chemistry 2300 (or 2301), Chemistry 2210 or the permission of the instructor and Program Chair

4230

Aquatic Chemistry I

is thermodynamics and kinetics of model systems. Acids and bases (including buffer intensity and neutralizing capacity), dissolved gases, precipitation and dissolution. Metal ions in aqueous solution. Redox control in natural waters. Pourbaix diagrams. Regulation of chemical composition of natural waters, pollution and water quality.

LC: not more than seven hours per week

LC: not more than seven hours per week

PR: ENVS 3211 and one of Chemistry 2400 or Chemistry 2440 or permission of the instructor and Program Chair

4239

Aquatic Chemistry II

- inactive course.

4240

Organic Chemistry of Biomolecules

is structure and properties of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, steroids, DNA and RNA. The chemistry of the cell in relation to its toxicology; effects of bioactive agents on cells, organelles, tissues and whole organisms. Natural products including those from the rain forest and marine environments. The role of metal ions in biomolecules. Examples of biosynthesis. Chemistry and mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

PR: Chemistry 2401 or Chemistry 2440 or permission of the instructor and Program Chair

4249

Environmental Organic Chemistry

focuses on anthropogenic sources of organic chemicals and pollutants in the environment. Concepts of organic chemistry (synthesis, structure, physical properties, chirality, industrial organic processes), biological chemistry (enzymes, oxidative pathways) and physical chemistry (equilibria, partitioning) extended and applied to mass transport through soil, water and air. Kinetics and mechanisms of chemical, photochemical and biological degradation and conversion of organics. Structure-reactivity relationships for organic chemicals and degradation intermediates in the environment.

PR: ENVS 4240, ENVS 3261, ENVS 4230 or the permission of the instructor and Program Chair

AR = Attendance requirement; CH = Credit hours are 3 unless otherwise noted; CO = Co-requisite(s); CR = Credit can be retained for only one course from the set(s) consisting of the course being described and the course(s) listed; LC = Lecture hours per week are 3 unless otherwise noted; LH = Laboratory hours per week; OR = Other requirements of the course such as tutorials, practical sessions, or seminars; PR = Prerequisite(s); UL = Usage limitation(s).
10.11.3 Other Environmental Science

1000

Introduction to Environmental Science

is an introduction to the study of the environment. Environmental principles, issues and problems will be described and placed in a historical and societal context.

2360

Geological Hazards and Natural Disasters

will introduce students to the geological aspects of the natural environment and the impacts that natural geological processes and phenomena may have on humanity. The impact of geological hazards and natural disasters on human society and behaviour will be examined through case studies.

PR: 15 credit hours or more

2369

Introduction to Soils

provides a broad background knowledge about soils. Topics covered include: the origin of soils; physical, biochemical, and engineering aspects of soils; influence on humans and their food production; soil pollution and degradation; and management and conservation of soils.

PR: Earth Science 1000 or Geography 1000

2370

Global Environmental Change

is a survey of the Earth as a dynamic system. Discussion of interacting cycles that define the Earth's environment. Material cycles and energy concepts. Evolution of the atmosphere in response to lithospheric, biospheric and hydrospheric changes. Major global environmental changes from Earth's formation to present. Emphasis on self-regulating ability of the Earth system.

PR: 30 credit hours or more

2371

Oceanography

is historical review of science of oceanography. Earth and Earth systems (including plate tectonics). Marine sediments and sedimentary environments. Chemical and physical properties of seawater. The atmosphere and the oceans, ocean circulation. Waves and tides, coastal environments, distribution of organisms. Applied oceanography.

PR: 30 credit hours or more

2430

Energy and the Environment

considers energy, energy conversion, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, nuclear processes and radiation. Practical problems such as the energy shortage, human influences on climate, resource extraction, nuclear power etc. will be discussed.

PR: Mathematics 1081 or Mathematics 1000; Physics 1021 or co-requisite Physics 1051

2450

Meteorology

is an application of physics and mathematics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric motion on the global, synoptic, meso- and micro-scales. An introduction to atmospheric radiation and thermodynamics, clouds and precipitation. Vertical soundings and the analysis and interpretation of surface and upper-air weather maps.

CO: Physics 1051 or prerequisite Physics 1021

PR: Physics 1021 or co-requisite Physics 1051

3072

Comparative Marine Environments

will investigate the physical, chemical, geological and biological characteristics of the major marine environments from the coastal zone to the abyss and from the equator to the poles. The objective of the course will be an integrated study of the parameters that define the various environments. Emphasis will be placed on the interaction of organism and environment. The influence of the environment on the form, function and behaviour or organisms and the influence of the organism in modification of the physical environment will be stressed.

PR: ENVS 2371

3470

Transport Phenomena

is fundamentals of fluid flow. Conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. Dimensional analysis. Turbulence. Confined fluid flows. Fundamentals of heat transfer. Conduction, convention, and radiation. Diffusion, dispersion, and osmosis. Applications to transport of pollutants at the microscopic and macroscopic scale.

PR: Mathematics 1001, Physics 1020 and Physics 1021 or Physics 1050 and Physics 1051

4000

Environmental Science Seminar

reviews current topics in environmental science and discusses in a seminar format. Seminars will be presented on current research and environmental issues by faculty, students and guest speakers from universities, government and industry.

PR: Environmental Science students who have completed 80 credit hours or more, to include Biology 2600, Statistics 2550 and one of Chemistry 2440, Chemistry 2401, Chemistry 2210, or Chemistry 2300 (or 2301).

4069

Fundamentals of Soil Systems

is the physics, chemistry and Biology of soil, including inorganic soil components, chemistry of organic soil matter, soil equilibria, sorption phenomena on soils, ion exchange processes, kinetics of soil processes, redox chemistry of soils, soil acidity, saline and sodic soils, organic pollutants, trace and toxic elements in soils, soil organisms, organic matter cycling, nutrient cycling and fertility, soil conservation and sustainable agriculture.

LC: not more than six hours per week

LH: not more than six hours per week. The laboratory will cover a number of key physical, chemical and biological properties and procedures used in soil analyses. One or more field trips will be scheduled during laboratory sessions

PR: Biology 2600, Earth Sciences 1000, one of Chemistry 2210, Chemistry 2300, Chemistry 2301, Chemistry 2401, or Chemistry 2440, and 6 credit hours selected from ENVS 2261, 2360, 2370, 2371, 2430, 2450, 3072, 3470, or Environmental Studies 2000. It is recommended that students complete at least 80 credit hours before registering for this course.

4131

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

focuses on procedures aimed at restoring and rehabilitating ecosystems, with an examination of the interdisciplinary scientific basis underlying these procedures. The efficacy of management options, e.g. biomanipulation, microbial degradation and chemical treatments, involved in restoration and waste management will be evaluated. Applications and practical case studies of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems will be covered.

PR: Biology 2600, one of Chemistry 2210, Chemistry 2300, Chemistry 2301, Chemistry 2401, or Chemistry 2440, and 6 credit hours selected from ENVS 2261, 2360, 2370, 2371, 2430, 2450, 3072, 3470, or Environmental Studies 2000. It is recommended that students complete at least 80 credit hours before registering for this course.

4479

Groundwater Flow

is groundwater in the hydrologic cycle. Principles of fluid flow through permeable media. Hydraulic properties of soil and rock formations. Groundwater at the local and regional scale. The unit basin model. Groundwater as a transport agent of chemicals and microbes. Groundwater resources, reservoir characterisation, and quality assessment. Groundwater contamination.

PR: ENVS 3470 or the permission of the instructor and Program Chair

4910-4930

Special Topics in Environmental Science

are special topics courses in Environmental Science normally taken by students beyond the second year.

4950

Research Project in Environmental Science

is a course, with the guidance of a faculty member, where students will conduct a scientific study based upon original research or a critical review of extant data in an appropriate area. Students are required to submit a report and give a presentation. This project fulfils the Core requirement for a fourth-year individual project in the area of specialization.

PR: permission of Program Chair

4951

Honours Project in Environmental Science I

is a course, under the guidance of a designated supervisor (or supervisors), where the student will prepare a thesis proposal including a comprehensive literature review of the subject of their Honours thesis. Students will present the results of their work in both written and oral form.

PR: restricted to Environmental Science students who have been accepted into the Honours option

4959

Honours Research Project in Environmental Science II

is a continuation of ENVS 4951 specifically for Honours students. Under the supervision of faculty member(s), students will carry out an original research project in environmental science. Students will present both a thesis and seminar on their research.

PR: ENVS 4951 and admission to the honours program

AR = Attendance requirement; CH = Credit hours are 3 unless otherwise noted; CO = Co-requisite(s); CR = Credit can be retained for only one course from the set(s) consisting of the course being described and the course(s) listed; LC = Lecture hours per week are 3 unless otherwise noted; LH = Laboratory hours per week; OR = Other requirements of the course such as tutorials, practical sessions, or seminars; PR = Prerequisite(s); UL = Usage limitation(s).