Office of the Registrar
Faculty of Science (2012/2013)
8.9 Physics and Physical Oceanography

Physics courses are designated by PHYS.

1020

Introductory Physics I

(F) & (W)

is a non-calculus based introduction to mechanics. This course may be completed by someone who has no physics background provided some extra effort is made.

CO: Mathematics 1090

CR: PHYS 1050

LH: 3; six laboratory sessions per semester

OR: tutorial sessions may be held on weeks when no laboratory is scheduled

PR: Level III Advanced Mathematics or Mathematics 1090. It is recommended that students have completed at least one of level II and level III high school physics courses

1021

Introductory Physics II

(F) & (W)

is a non-calculus based introduction to fluids, wave motion, light, optics, electricity and magnetism.

CO: Mathematics 1000

LH: 3; normally there will be six laboratory sessions per semester

OR: tutorial sessions may be held on weeks when no laboratory is scheduled

PR: PHYS 1020 or 1050 and Mathematics 1090 or 1000

1050

General Physics I: Mechanics

(F) & (W)

is a calculus based introduction to mechanics. The course will emphasize problem solving. For more details regarding PHYS 1050, see Note 4 under Physics and Physical Oceanography.

CO: Mathematics 1000

CR: PHYS 1020

LH: 3; normally there will be six laboratory sessions per semester

OR: tutorial sessions may be held on weeks when no laboratory is scheduled

PR: Mathematics 1000

1051

General Physics II: Oscillations, Waves, Electromagnetism (F) (W) & (S)

is a calculus based introduction to oscillations, wave motion, physical optics and electromagnetism.

CO: Mathematics 1001

LH: 3; normally there will be six laboratory sessions per semester

OR: tutorial sessions may be held on weeks when no laboratory is scheduled

PR: PHYS 1050, or 1021, or 1020 (with a minimum grade of 65%) and Mathematics 1001

2053

Fluids and Thermal Physics

(F)

examines elasticity, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, kinetic theory and statistical mechanics.

CO: Mathematics 1001 and PHYS 1051

LH: 3

PR: Mathematics 1001 and PHYS 1051

2055

Electricity and Magnetism

(W)

examines Gauss' Law, the electrostatic potential, capacitance, magnetic forces and the magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, magnetic materials, ac circuits, superconductivity, the displacement current and Maxwell's equations.

CO: Mathematics 2000

LH: 3

PR: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 1051

2151

Stellar Astronomy and Astrophysics

(F) & (W)

covers atomic structure and spectra. The sun: radiation, energetics, magnetic field. Stars: distance, velocity, size, atmospheres, interiors. Variable stars, multiple stars, clusters and stellar associations. Stellar evolution, interstellar matter, structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. Exterior galaxies, quasi-stellar objects, pulsars. Cosmology.

PR: 6 credit hours in Mathematics courses at the first year level

2750

Modern Physics

(W)

covers special relativity, quanta of light, atomic structure and spectral lines, quantum structure of atoms and molecules, nuclei and elementary particles.

CO: Mathematics 1001 and PHYS 1051

CR: PHYS 2056

PR: Mathematics 1001 and PHYS 1051

2820

Computational Mechanics

(F) & (W)

covers newtonian dynamics and celestial mechanics, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical solutions to mechanics problems, data and spectral analysis, Fourier series and normal modes, oscillations and vibrations, linear and non-linear oscillators, nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

CO: Mathematics 2000

LC: 5

LH: 5

PR: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 1051

3000

Physics of Device Materials

(F)

is structures of crystalline and amorphous solids. Excitations and transport in metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics; electronic band structures. Physics of multi-material devices including photodiodes, solid state lasers, and field-effect transistors.

PR: PHYS 2055 or registration in Academic Term 3 of the Electrical Engineering Program

3150

Astrophysics I

(W)

is a review of macroscopic and microscopic physics. The sun: luminosity, mass, spectrum, photosphere, corona, interior. Principles of stellar structure; radiative and convective transport of energy. The virial theorem. Thermonuclear fusion; temperature dependence; the solar neutrino problem. Nucleosynthesis; the curve of binding energy; the synthesis of heavy elements. White dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; degenerate electron and neutron gases; Chandrasekhar's Limit. Population I and Population II stars; the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram; relationships among luminosity, mass, and effective temperature for main sequence dwarfs. Evolution of post main sequence stars.

PR: PHYS 2053, 2750 (or 2056), and 2820

3151

Astrophysics II

covers stellar spectra and classification of stars. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram; equations of stellar structure for a star in equilibrium; temperature and density dependencies of nuclear processes. Formation and classification of binary stars; mass and energy transfer in binary star systems; semidetached binaries; cataclysmic variables, pulsars, etc. Galaxies and galactic structure; active galactic nuclei; cosmological redshift. Cosmology.

PR: PHYS 3150 and 3220

3220

Classical Mechanics I

(F)

covers kinematics and dynamics of a particle. Moving reference systems. Celestial mechanics. Systems of particles.

CO: PHYS 2820 and Mathematics 3260

PR: PHYS 2820 and Mathematics 3260

3230

Classical Mechanics II

(W)

covers rigid body motion. Lagrange's equations. Hamilton's equations. Vibrations. Special theory of relativity.

PR: PHYS 3220 and 3810 (or Mathematics 3202) and Mathematics 3260

3300

Introduction to Physical Oceanography

(F)

deals with the physics of processes in the ocean, but provides an integrated view of the whole field of oceanography. The importance of physical processes to other aspects of oceanography is treated.

PR: PHYS 2053 and Mathematics 2000

3340

Principles of Environmental Physics

will explore the basic physical principles of light, heat, energy and sound in the natural environment. Several key aspects of physics in the environment will be covered including climate and the physical evolution of the planet and the present role of the atmosphere and ocean spectroscopy in the atmosphere and measurement and observation of the atmosphere; principles of energy generation and pollution transport in the atmosphere and ocean.

PR: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 2053

3400

Thermodynamics

(F)

covers the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Entropy. Thermodynamics of real substances. Kinetic theory of matter. Introduction to statistical mechanics.

PR: Mathematics 2000, PHYS 2053 and PHYS 2750 or 2056

3500

Electromagnetic Fields I

(F)

examines electrostatic Field: field, potential, Poisson's equation, Laplace's equation, capacitance, dielectrics, polarization, electric displacement, boundary conditions. Magnetic Field: electric current and magnetic field, vector potential, Lorentz force and relativity, changing magnetic field, inductance, magnetic materials, magnetization. Maxwell's equations.

PR: PHYS 2055 and 3810 (or Mathematics 3202)

3550

Electric Circuits

(S)

covers circuit elements. Simple resistive circuits. Techniques of circuit analysis. Topology in circuit analysis. Operational amplifiers. Reactive circuit elements. Natural response and step response of RL, RC and RLC circuits. Circuits driven by sinusoidal sources. Mutual inductance. Series and parallel resonance. Laplace transforms in the analysis of frequency response.

CO: Mathematics 3260

CR: Engineering 3821

LC: 6

LH: 6

PR: Mathematics 2050, Mathematics 3260, PHYS 2055

3551

Analogue Electronics

- inactive course.

3600

Optics and Photonics I

(W)

covers geometrical Optics: thin lenses, mirrors, optical systems. Two-beam and multiple-beam interference phenomena. Fraunhofer Diffraction. Introduction to Maxwell's Theory: reflection, transmission, and polarization. Modulation of light waves. Fibre-optical light guides: intermodal dispersion, index profiles, loss mechanisms, single mode fibres. Optical communication systems: free space and fibre systems, emitters, detectors, amplifers, wavelength-division multiplexing, integrated optics.

PR: Mathematics 2000 and PHYS 2055

3750

Quantum Physics I

(F)

covers wave-particle duality of nature. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Schrödinger equation. One electron atoms. Quantum statistics.

CO: PHYS 3220 and 3810 or Mathematics 3202

PR: PHYS 2750 (or 2056), 3220 and 3810 (or Mathematics 3202)

3751

Quantum Physics II

(W)

covers multielectron atoms. Molecules. Solids - conductors and semiconductors. Superconductors. Magnetic properties. Nuclear models. Nuclear decay and nuclear reactions. Properties and interactions of elementary particles.

PR: PHYS 3750

3800

Computational Physics

is a project-based course intended to train students to become functional in computational methods, by writing and compiling computer code (C/Fortran) in a Unix environment to solve problems drawn from different areas of physics. Students will complete several projects selected from different areas of physics. Projects will introduce the students to a particular class of numerical methods. Lectures and tutorials will cover the theory that underlies the computational methods and background for code development and the application of the required numerical methods.

CO: Any two 2000-level Physics course plus at least one other 3000-level Physics course

LC: 5

LH: 5

PR: Computer Science 1510, PHYS 2820, Mathematics 3202, Mathematics 3260

3810

Mathematical Analysis

(F)

- inactive course.

3820

Mathematical Physics III

(F)

examines the functions of a complex variable; residue calculus. Introduction to Cartesian tensor analysis. Matrix eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Diagonalization of tensors. Matrix formulation of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical spin. Vector differential operators in curvilinear coordinate systems. Partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; derivation of the classical equations, separation of variables; Helmholtz equation in spherical polar coordinates.

PR: Mathematics 3260 and PHYS 3810 (or Mathematics 3202)

3900

Physics Laboratory I

(W)

is a selection of experiments based primarily on material covered in the third year courses.

LH: 6

PR: at least two of PHYS 2053, 2820, 2055, and PHYS 2750 (or 2056)

4000

Solid State Physics

covers crystal structure and binding, phonons and lattice vibrations, thermal properties of solids. Electrons in solids, energy bands, semi-conductors, superconductivity, dielectric properties. Magnetic properties of solids.

PR: PHYS 3400 and 3750 or waiver approved by the instructor

4200

Classical Mechanics III

- inactive course.

4205

Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

(same as Mathematics 4180) covers basic observations, mass conservation, vorticity, stress, hydrostatics, rate of strain, momentum conservation (Navier-Stokes equation), simple viscous and inviscid flows, Reynolds number, boundary layers, Bernoulli's and Kelvin's theorems, potential flows, water waves, thermodynamics.

CR: Mathematics 4180

PR: PHYS 3220 and either Mathematics 4160 or the former PHYS 3821 or waiver approved by the instructor

4210

Continuum Mechanics

- inactive course.

4220

Introduction to general Relativity

(Mathematics 4130) studies both the mathematical structure and physical content of Einstein’s theory of gravity. Topics include the geometric formulation of special relativity, curved spacetimes, metrics, geodesics, causal structure, gravity as spacetime curvature, the weak-field limit, geometry outside a spherical star, Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, Robertson-Walker cosmologies, gravitational waves, an instruction to tensor calculus, Einstein’s equations, and the stress-energy tensor.

CO: Mathematics 4230

CR: Mathematics 4130

PR: Mathematics 3202 and one of PHYS 3220, Mathematics 4230 or waiver approved by the instructor

4300

Advanced Physical Oceanography

(W)

covers fundamental properties of seawater and techniques of oceanographic measurement. The dynamical equations of oceanography are derived and solutions explored by comparison with oceanic observations. Properties of waves in rotating and non-rotating fluids. Linear and non-linear wave theory are developed.

PR: PHYS 3300 and 3820 or registration in Academic term 6 of the Ocean and Naval Architectural Engineering program, or waiver approved by the instructor

4330

Topics in Physical Oceanography

- inactive course.

4340

Modelling in Environmental Physics

covers the basic principles underlying environmental modelling will be developed and techniques for modelling presented and applied. Techniques for numerical modelling will be developed and simple numerical models will be developed for use in terrestrial, atmospheric and oceanic environments. Free and forced systems will be discussed and the transition to chaos and some aspects of chaotic dynamics.

PR: PHYS 3340 and PHYS 3820 or waiver approved by the instructor

4400

Statistical Mechanics

(W)

covers ensembles. Classical and quantum statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanics of phase transitions. Advanced topics in statistical mechanics.

CO: PHYS 3750

PR: PHYS 3400 and 3750

4500

Electromagnetic Fields II

covers multipole expansions, electrostatic fields as boundary value problems, polarizability of molecules in dielectric media, Clausius-Mossotti relation, gauges. Electromagnetic Waves: Poynting's theorem, reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves, cavity resonators, wave guides. Electromagnetic Radiation: dipoles, antennas, quantum mechanics and electro-magnetic interactions. Selected topics in electrodynamics and applied electromagnetism.

PR: PHYS 3500 and 3820 or waiver approved by the instructor

4600

Optics and Photonics II

is a review of basic topics in wave optics. Phase sensitive imaging. Electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media. Scattering of electromagnetic waves. The physics of light sources and applications. Non-linear optics and applications.

CO: PHYS 3751

PR: PHYS 3500, 3600, and PHYS 3751 or waiver approved by the instructor

4700

Atomic and Molecular Physics

- inactive course.

4710

Nuclear Physics

- inactive course.

4820

Mathematical Physics III

(W)

covers further topics on partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics and boundary value problems; Sturm-Liouville theory, Fourier series, generalized Fourier series, introduction to the theory of distributions, Dirac delta function, Green’s functions, Bessel functions, Legendre functions, spherical harmonics.

PR: PHYS 3820

4850

Quantum Mechanics

(F)

examines postulates of quantum mechanics. Operators and operator algebra. Matrix representations. Spin and magnetic fields. Approximation methods: WKB method, time independent perturbation theory, time dependent perturbation theory, variational methods. Elementary scattering theory.

PR: PHYS 3230, 3750, 3820 or waiver approved by the instructor

4851

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

(W)

covers general formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement theory and operators. Hilbert spaces. Advanced topics selected from: electron in a strong magnetic field and the Aharonov-Bohm effect; advanced scattering theory; systems of identical particles; Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics; relativistic quantum mechanics; second quantization; symmetry and group theory; density matrix and mixtures.

PR: PHYS 4850 and the former 3821 or waiver approved by the instructor

4900

Physics Laboratory II

(F)

is a selection of experiments at the senior level.

LH: 6

PR: PHYS 3900

490A/B

Honours Physics Thesis

is required of the Honours program.

6317

Underwater Acoustics

covers basic theory of sound, sound in the ocean environment, wave equation, ray tracing, sonar system operation, transducers, applications.

PR: PHYS 3810 (or the former Mathematics 3220) and 3220, or waiver approved by the instructor

6318

Ocean Climate Modelling

covers numerical techniques, finite difference, finite element and spectral methods. Introduction to the climate system. Ocean climate models. Box models. Variability on interdecadal, centennial and geological scales. Zonally averaged models. 3-D ocean modelling. Thermohaline circulation. General circulation models. Climate modelling and global warming.

PR: PHYS 3810 (or Mathematics 3202), PHYS 3300 and the completion of any 15 credit hours in core courses at the 3000 or 4000 level in the Faculty of Science or waiver approved by the instructor

AR = Attendance requirement; CH = Credit hours are 3 unless otherwise noted; CO = Co-requisite(s); CR = Credit can be retained for only one course from the set(s) consisting of the course being described and the course(s) listed; LC = Lecture hours per week are 3 unless otherwise noted; LH = Laboratory hours per week; OR = Other requirements of the course such as tutorials, practical sessions, or seminars; PR = Prerequisite(s); UL = Usage limitation(s).