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MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND
REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 1961-1962

FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE

During the summer of 1961 the long awaited move to the new campus on Elizabeth Avenue took place. The University policy of imposing a quota upon first year enrolment because of limited facilities was dropped and the academic year 1961-62 began with an increased enrolment of over 600 more than the previous year. The novelty of the new surroundings and the unexpected increase in student enrolment led to problems of adjustment on the part of students and staff alike. The new campus brought greatly improved facilities in every department, but the rapid growth in student population foreshadows an early pressure on space, especially in the laboratories.

In general, the past academic year has been again rather a successful one, with an encouraging number of graduating students obtaining Canada Council Fellowships, National Research Council Bursaries and Fellowships, Rothermere Foundation Fellowships and other Fellowships enabling them to continue their studies. Although a larger number of very good students in the first year class did exceptionally well in all subjects, a disappointingly small percentage of the first year students in the Faculty successfully completed all courses in which they were registered.

As in the past, expansion continued to take place during the year in the courses offered by the various departments. An Institute of Social and Economic Research was established to promote research into the economic and social problems of the Province and a new diploma programme of Public Welfare was introduced. New Honours and Graduate Courses were offered to meet the increasing demands of students and an increasing number of students enrolled in these Courses. A special Committee of the National Research Council of Canada visited the Science Departments upon our invitation to examine our facilities and make recommendations for the promotion of Graduate Studies and research. The report of this Committee embodied recommendations of far reaching importance for the development of the University. The National Research Council of Canada awarded the University its first post-Doctoral Fellowship in the Department of Biology and its second N.R.C.-Nuffield Foundation Fellowship in the same Department. For the first time, with our expanded facilities, foreign students were admitted to the University and they contributed much to the enrichment of the life of the University.

The rapidly expanding student enrolment has, naturally, led to a large increase in staff. The demand for new staff in large numbers reveals the serious situation that exists with respect to the supply of good staff in all disciplines, a situation which from its very nature must, in future, deteriorate.

It is encouraging to note the large proportion of the Faculty active in research and participating in various activities connected with the University and with other agencies in the Province. The Faculty again participated widely in the programme of the Extension Service of the University. The success of the academic year was due, in large measure, to the willing co-operation and the unstinting support of the members of the Faculty.

The following is a brief report on the activities of the departments in the Faculty of Arts and Science.

Biology

New courses in the field of Marine Biology, in Wild Life Biology and Biochemistry were offered during the year. The first Graduate student received the M.Sc. Degree at the May Convocation in the field of Marine Biology, whose research has been carried on at the Biological Station, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, under the supervision of the Director of the Station. For the first time a Graduate student received a Canadian Industries Limited Wild Life Scholarship to pursue graduate studies in that field. Research was carried on during the year in the field of drug resistance and genetics of micro-organisms under the support of the National Research Council, and in support of this research the National Research Council of Canada awarded the first Post-Doctoral Fellowship for study at this University. Research was also initiated into the species replacement on estuarine waters of Newfoundland and in freshwater invertebrate animals with special reference to Bryozoa and Hirudinea. Research also continued on the biology of Rainbow trout in Murray's Pond and other studies in this area continued; Limnological studies, Plankton studies, bottom fauna,and native and brown trout biology. A study of Newfoundland smelt population continued and also the effect of Photoperiods on the behaviour patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon. During the year an Invertebrate Zoologist was added to the staff and authority was obtained for a second Invertebrate Zoologist as well as for a Marine Botanist.

Chemistry

The Department experienced a very large increase in student enrolment in elementary courses and the new facilities were pressed to capacity. During the preceding summer a special Concentrated Course in Chemistry 100 was offered with financial assistance from the International Nickel Co. Ltd. With the aid of Research Grants from the National Research Council of Canada, the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society and the Research Corporation of America, research continued to be carried out in the fields of Physical, Physical Organic, and Analytical and Organic Chemistry. The Department also supervised research in problems involved in fish drying at Valleyfield for the Development Branch of the Federal Department of Fisheries.

Classics

The enrolment in Classics continued its upward trend and it was necessary to teach the Latin 100 course in three groups. Classics in translation was taught again and seems to have established itself as one of the permanent offerings of the Department.

English Language and Literature

The new, expanded title of what was previously and baldly the Department of Engish was approved by the Senate during the year in recognition of the emphasis given in this University to both linguistic and literary studies. Newfoundland offers unique opportunities for research in linguistics and a steadily growing number of students is receiving instruction in this discipline. Interest shown by both Faculty and students in the papers and discussions of the recently created Linguistic Circle, a joint venture of this Department and the Department of Modern Languages, has been gratifying and augurs well for its future. In the struggle with an ever-increasing enrolment and its attendant problems of persons to teach and times and places to teach in, the Department has welcomed its increased accomodation in the new buildings and approval of the appointment of five new full-time members of the staff for next session. With these appointments, tuition especially in the First and Second Year classes should become increasingly efficient. The Department owes a debt of gratitude to the Visiting Lecturers, who, for many years, have given much-needed help in its work. Members of the Department have continued to be active in teaching, research and publication, in their services on University and extra-mural committees, and in the councils of the Learned Societies of Canada.

Geography

The Department had a successful year and witnessed a growing interest in geographical studies. Plans for an expansion of the Department were completed so that additional courses could be offered making it possible for students to Major in Geography. Approval was granted for certain courses in Geography to count as Science credits for the degree of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Arts (Education). Studies in land use survey, conservation and bogland reclamation were continued, and the Head of the Department presented a paper at the "Resources for Tomorrow" Conference in Montreal.

Geology

The move to the new campus gave the Department a welcome increase in space. Among the items of research equipment added on this occasion, an X-ray diffraction unit and an isodynamic mineral separator may be mentioned specially. One member of the staff left the Department in summer 1961. He was replaced by an experienced geologist and former graduate student of this University. The number of students taking the introductory geology course was again larger than in the preceding year. In the more advanced undergraduate courses little change was noticed. One graduate student was awarded the M.Sc. Degree; two others are well advanced in their programme of studies and research. A graduate course in Mineralogy and a course for advanced geology majors on History of Geology were given for the first time. The introduction of three new courses, one for majors and two for minors, was approved. Research of the staff was handicapped as the preparations for the move to the new campus absorbed the better part of the summer of 1961. Some studies, in the laboratory as well as in the field, could, however, be carried on. The Head of the Department visited, in addition, the research areas of the graduate students in several parts of Newfoundland and Labrador. In April 1962, one member presented a paper prepared in the Department at the annual meeting of the Geological Association of Canada.

History

During the year 1961-62 a new first-year course in twentieth-century world history with special reference to Canada and Newfoundland was offered. In order to cope with the large enrolment, two lectures a week were given in the University theatre, while on Saturday mornings tutorial groups were held in which seven instructors participated. For post-graduate students, courses in Historiography and in Eighteenth-Century Britain were also given for the first time. The Head of the Department was the recipient of a grant from the Canada Council in 1961 in aid of research in Newfoundland History, and continued to interest himself in this field. Along with some of his students, he conducted a series of seven broadcasts for the CBC Newfoundland network, under the auspices of the Extension Service, on Newfoundland History. As a member of the Humanities Research Council of Canada, he was delegated in December and January to visit all the universities in the Maritime Provinces to encourage their research activities and report on their needs. Other members of the Department carried on their special duties in Indian History, German History, Canadian History, and International Relations, respectively. A grant was received from the Canada Council for the purchase of books in the field of Asiatic Studies (mainly relating to the History of India). Three members of the Department attended the annual meeting of the Canadian Historical Association in Montreal in 1961.

Mathematics

The Department experienced a very large increase in the number of students enrolled in the First and Second Year courses. One new course was added, an essential basic course for Honours students. During the past few years most attention has been given to establishing the most desirable pattern of topics for Mathematics 101 and 201. With the changes taking place this year in the Mathematics syllabus for Matriculation, it will be necessary to effect corresponding changes to improve the programme in the terminal Mathematics course, Mathematics 102. The staff has prepared in mimeograph form a text for Mathematics 101, which is proving very helpful, and for part of the course in Mathematics 301. The members of the Department have cooperated in many activities concerned with the improvement of High School Mathematics programme for the Province and, in particular, assisted in a very succesful Mathematics Competition sponsored by the Canadian Mathematical Congress. With the help of grants from Foundations, members of the Faculty attended the Summer Institute in Analysis at Florida State University and at the Institute in Topology at the University of Rochester. Research also continued in the field of geometric number theory and related problems, as well as Tensor Analysis. The Department continued to hold its weekly seminar, which was also attended by senior Mathematics students. A series of papers was read and discussed.

Modern Languages

A new Honours programme in French was introduced this year and additional courses in German and Spanish. For the first time, the Department had a modern Language Laboratory at its disposal and two hours' laboratory work was compulsory for students in basic French courses. Many students, however, spent much more time in the laboratory and made amazing progress. Members of the Department continued research on Anglo-Norman Syntax, Helvetius, German and French Theatre.

Philosophy

The enrolment and work of the Department of Philosophy during the year followed fairly closely the pattern of recent years. The general level of grades gained showed a marked rise which seemed to reflect, among other things, an improvement in the standard of literacy and the power of self-expression. One innovation was the attempt to link the courses in the Philosophy of Mind more closely with the work of students reading Psychology. The purpose of the experiment was to bridge the gap (one of many such which exist in the modern world) between contemporary and traditional philosophical discussions on the one hand and the language and approach of scientific psychology on the other, and to stimulate in the students the power of criticizing assumptions in other subjects. The course proved to be well worthwhile, but reflection on it suggests that such studies are best confined to students who already have a good background training both in philosophy and in the other subjects concerned. It is hoped that when the resources of the Department, and its consequent breadth of offerings, can be increased, such inter-disciplinary courses may form an increasing part of the programme, and it is also the hope of the Department that the implicit and wider problem of the function of philosophy in a university course, which in one form or another is attracting attention in many universities besides our own, may shortly receive cooperative consideration and solution. We have not yet succeeded in eliminating the paradox that whereas a philosophical approach to learning is widely admitted to be an essential aspect of a University education, courses in philosophy are equally widely regarded as luxury options with a low yield of practical utility or vocational relevance.

Physics

Although the Department of Physics was well prepared in September to start the academic year, especially with courses of the first two years, the unexpectedly large influx of first year students created special problems and it was necessary to accommodate larger classes in the first year Physics Laboratory than it was originally planned to do. Modifications have now been made to this Laboratory to facilitate the accommodation of a larger number of students at one time. Installation of the Philips' air-liquifier greatly assisted research in molecular spectroscopy. Although the move to the new campus interfered considerably during the summer months with the research projects, much was accomplished during the period under review. Research continued to be carried on into the pressure induced spectrum of halogens, spectroscopic study of paramagnetic gases, Strontium-90 level measurement and atmospheric electricity. Three new courses were offered at the graduate level to accommodate the three graduate students working for the Master's degree, and a new course for second year students. Academic results in all courses in Physics were better than in the past. It is to the credit of the Department that it was able to offer the second half of the summer school physics course in the new laboratory which had been outfitted with equipment in time for the summer school session. An important feature of the year's activity was the establishment of a Technical Service Branch within the Department of Physics, to be responsible for mechanical, electrical and electronic instrument repair, maintenance and fabrication, as well as general machineshop work for the Science Departments of the University. Suitable space facilities have also been provided for the establishment of an electronics section of this branch. The Department of Mines and Technical Surveys negotiated with the University for the installation of a seismograph station on the University campus and it was to be the responsibility of the Department of Physics to operate this station on behalf of the University. Unfortunately, the installation has been postponed as a result of the austerity programme.

Psychology

During the year the number of courses offered by the subdepartment of Psychology was increased to four. Four students who have completed these courses have been accepted into the qualifying year of the Master's programme in Clinical Psychology at Dalhousie University. Research directed towards the establishment of local norms for two intelligence tests continued. Tests were administered in all areas of Newfoundland by school supervisors with the cooperation of the Provincial Department of Education and computations were completed at the University with the help of one research assistant. Newfoundland norms on one test are now ready for publication and it is proposed to continue research into these problems.

Social Studies

This Department is composed of four sections: Commerce, Economics, Political Science, Sociology and Anthropology.

A most encouraging feature was the year's graduating class of twelve in Commerce, one of whom was the first Honours graduate. Most of these graduates took the combined Bachelor of Arts-Bachelor of Commerce degree in accordance with the recommended five-year programme. All have since found employment in quite a wide field of government service and of commerce. In this connection, it is interesting to note that the positions were in Newfoundland and that the demand for our Commerce graduates exceeded the supply. The Department was fortunate in obtaining a "Commerce" Room on the new campus which was used as a seminar/study room on a more or less experimental basis. The room has been attractively furnished and has been one of the most useful "work-areas" on the campus, both for informal seminars and as a reading and study room. There was no change in the course offerings in Commerce and the work continued satisfactorily over the year.

The appointment of a third economist to the teaching staff in September 1961 allowed the Department to expand its offerings to nine courses. The expansion of course work included a first year introductory course based on the economic history of Europe and a course in economic fluctuations. An Honours programme was introduced two years ago and, at present, seven students are enrolled in this programme and two graduated at the May Convocation. A Master's degree programme in Economics has now been approved for the next academic year. An Economic Survey of Newfoundland prepared by the senior economist was published in December 1961. Research is at present in progress on an analysis of government assistance to the fishing industry and labour arbitration practice in Newfoundland.

The past year has seen considerable expansion and consolidation in the teaching of Sociology and Anthropology at this University. New courses were added and enrolment doubled. The first Honours degree in Sociology was awarded at the May Convocation and the recipient was also awarded a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship for post-graduate work at the University of Minnesota. Another graduate in Sociology was admitted to the University of Toronto for training leading to post-graduate degree in Social Work. With the help of grants from Canada Council, research continued into rural depopulation of Newfoundland and research was initiated in the work-attitudes of Newfoundlanders.

The work of the Political Science section continued according to the normal pattern.

During the year, an Institute of Social and Economic Research was instituted to undertake research into the economic and sociological problems of the Province. To be eligible for appointment as a Research Fellow at the Institute, a candidate must have completed the course work for the doctoral degree and be prepared to undertake a topic of research for his dissertation in a field approved by the Research Directors of the Institute. During the year under review one Research Fellow was appointed to carry out a community study in the Bale Verte Peninsula and another was appointed to undertake research into certain aspects of seasonal unemployment. Five other Research Fellows have been appointed to carry on research during the next academic year.

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