Researchers at Memorial Universitys Faculty of Medicine have collaborated with B.C. Cancer Agency scientists to solve the genetic mystery of a disease affecting a local family. The research, published online in The Journal of Pathology, is an inspiring example of how new genomics tools may change the way families with rare genetic conditions can be managed clinically.
A significant number of distantly related individuals from a single family in Newfoundland and Labrador appeared to be affected by two distinct diseases, exhibiting numerous rare symptoms that were challenging to diagnose. A collaboration of researchers at Memorial University and at the B.C. Cancer Agency was able to utilize next generation sequencing of the whole protein-coding region of the genome, called the exome, to identify a specific gene mutation. The discovery clarified that what had appeared to be two diseases was one caused by a single genetic mutation.
Our close ties to the people in communities throughout Newfoundland and Labrador allows us to accurately characterize rare diseases, and to identify the genealogical connections that are necessary before next generation sequencing techniques can be used, said Dr. Jane Green, professor in the Discipline of Genetics, Memorial University. Combining the expertise in Newfoundland and Labrador with the expertise of our colleagues in B.C. has allowed an accurate diagnosis for the family.
Dr. David Huntsman, B.C. Cancer Agency, said, Through a lovely collaboration with the team at Memorial University of Newfoundlands Faculty of Medicine, weve provided a first-rate example of integrating next generation sequencing into clinical practice resulting in a faster diagnosis, rapid expansion of disease phenotypes and better clinical management for the patients future.
Dr. Intan Schrader, co-first author and a graduate student of the Medical Genetics residency at the University of British Columbia, said: Through our confirmation that a specific genetic mutation is the basis of this familys medical issues, we are thrilled to provide clarity that will lead to improved medical management for an entire extended family. Weve also demonstrated the clinical utility of next-generation sequencing to diagnose rare genetic diseases.
Dr. Schrader added, We are now embarking on a new era of medical genetics where we can rapidly identify the causative gene in families with rare genetic diseases.
Dr. Green said because of the specific genetic diagnosis, new investigations are recommended for monitoring family members and these are now being scheduled. The information gathered through whole genome sequencing leads us to answers about why certain families have certain diseases. With clear information about the source of disease there may be improvements in clinical care.
Dr. Schrader noted that the methods of using next generation sequencing to identify a genetic condition will have major implications when we expand into other areas of research, for example, when we are interested in identifying novel disease genes in families with hereditary cancer. This advanced technology allows researchers and clinicians to collaborate by identifying families or patients with distinct conditions and comparing their genes to identify underlying genetic cause.
About the B.C. Cancer Agency
The B.C. Cancer Agency, an agency of the Provincial Health Services Authority, is committed to reducing the incidence of cancer, reducing the mortality from cancer, and improving the quality of life of those living with cancer. It provides a comprehensive cancer control program for the people of British Columbia by working with community partners to deliver a range of oncology services, including prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment, research, education, supportive care, rehabilitation and palliative care. Visit www.bccancer.ca for more information. The B.C. Cancer Foundation (www.bccancerfoundation.com) is the funding partner of the B.C. Cancer Agency and raises funds to support research and enhancements to patient care at the B.C. Cancer Agency.
About Memorial University of Newfoundlands Faculty of Medicine
Memorial University of Newfoundlands Faculty of Medicine is committed to doing research that makes a difference. Research in the Faculty of Medicine at Memorial is responding to the needs of the people of Newfoundland and Labrador, particularly in the area of human genetics. A major expansion is currently underway and three floors of a new six-storey building will be devoted to the expansion of genetics and genomics research. Visit www.mun.med.ca for more information