7: INSTITUTIONS

    7.1 General
    7.2 The European Council
    7.3 The Commission
    7.4 The Council of the EU (formerly, of Ministers) and the Co.Re.Per.
    7.5 The European Court of Justice
    7.6 The European Parliament and its elections
    7.7 The Economic and Social Committee
    7.8 The European Central Bank and the Euro

7.1 General

AUER, Astrid, Christopher DENMKE and Robert POLET. Civil Services in the Europe of Fifteen, Maastricht: EIPA, 1996.

BEE, Cristiano and Emanuela BOZZINI. Mapping the European Public Sphere. Institutions, Media and Civil Society, Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

BEST, E., T. CHRISTIANSEN and P. SETTEMBRI (eds.), The institutions of the enlarged European Union: continuity and change, Northampton: E. Elgar, 2008.

CROMBEZ, C. "The co-decision procedure in the European Union", Legislative Studies, 22 (1997): 97-119.

CURTIN Deirdre and Ton HEUKELS (eds.). Institutional dynamics of European integration. Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1994.

CURTIN, Deirdre and Morten EGEBERG (eds), Towards a New Executive Order in Europe?, Abingdon: Routledge, 2009.

DAVIES, M.D.V. The Administration of International Organisations: Top Down and Bottom Up. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.

DEHOUSSE, Renaud. "Constitutional reform in the European community: are there alternatives to the majoritarian avenue?" West European Politics 18, 3 (1995): 118-136.

DEVUYST, Youri. The European Union at the crossroads: an introduction to the EU's institutional evolution Bern: Peter Lang, 2002.

DOGAN, R. "Comitology: little procedures with big implications", West European Politics, 20 (1997): 31-60.

DOUTRIAUX, Yves et Christian LEQUESNE. Les institutions de l'Union européenne. Paris: La documentation française, 2000.

EICHENGREEN, Barry, Jeffry FRIEDEN and Jürgen VON HAGEN (eds.). Politics and institutions in an integrated Europe. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

EUSEPI, Giuseppe and Friedrich SCHNEIDER (eds.). Changing Institutions in the European Union. A Public Choice Perspective. Northampton: E. Elgar, 2004.

FONTAINE, Pascal et Henri MALOSSE. Les institutions européennes. Paris: Retz, 1992.

GEORGAKAKIS, Didier (ed.). Les métiers de l'Europe politique. Acteurs et professionalisations de l'Union européenne, Strasbourg: PUS, 2002.

HARDACRE, Alan. How the EU institutions work and ... how to work with EU institutions, London: John Harper Publishing, 2011.

HENIG, Stanley. Power and decision in Europe: the political institutions of the European Community. London: Europotential Press, 1980.

KOURTIKAKIS, Kostas. "Imitation and supranational politics: some lessons from the European Ombudsman and the European Court of Auditors", European Political Science Review, 2, 1 (2010): 27-48.

KOVAR, Robert (dir.). Les institutions de la communauté au seuil des années 1980: à la recherche de nouveaux équilibres / The community institutions on the threshold of the 1980's: in search of a new balance. Bruges: De Tempel, 1981.

JUPILLE, Joseph. Procedural politics: issues, influence, and institutional choice in the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004

LANDAU, Alice and Richard G. WHITMAN (eds.). Rethinking the European Union: institutions, interests and identities, New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

LAVDAS, K.A. and D.N. CHRYSSOCHOU. A Republic of Europeans: Civic potential in a liberal milieu, Cheltenham: E. Elgar, 2011.

LOUIS, Jean-Victor. L'Union européenne et l'avenir de ses institutions. Bruxelles: Presses interuniversitaires européennes, 1996.

MAYNE, Richard J. The institutions of the European Community. London: Chatham House, 1968.

MOURY, Catherine and Luis DE SOUSA (eds.). Institutional Challenges in Post-Constitutional Europe: Governing Change, London: Routledge, 2009.

NEYER, Anne-Katrin. Multinational teams in the European Commission and the European Parliament, Bern: Peter Lang, 2005.

PESCATORE, P. "L'executif communautaire: justification des traités de Paris et de Rome." Cahiers de droit européen 4 (1978)

PETERSON, John and Michael SHACKLETON (eds.). The institutions of the European Union Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, 2nd edition, 2006, 3rd. edition 2012.

SANDHOLTZ, W. "Membership matters: limits of the functional approach to European institutions", Journal of Common Market Studies, 34, 3 (1996): 403-429.

STACEY, Jeffrey. Integrating Europe: informal politics and institutional change, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

THOMSON, Robert and Madeleine HOSLI. "Who Has Power in the EU? The Commission, Council and Parliament in Legislative Decision-making", Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 2 (2006): 391-418.

TRONDAL, Jarle. An emergent European executive order, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

WEILER, J.H.H.H. The Constitution of Europe, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

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7.2 The European Council

BULMER, Simon. "The European Council's first decade: between interdependence and domestic politics", Journal of Common Market Studies, 24 (1985): 89-104.

BULMER, Simon and Wolfgang WESSELS. The European Council: Decision-Making in European Politics, London: Macmillan, 1987.

DE BASSOMPIERRE, Guy. Changing the guard in Brussels: an insider's view of the EC presidency. New York: Praeger, 1988.

DE SCHOUTHEETE, P. and H. WALLACE. The European Council, Paris: Notre Europe, 2002.

EGSTROM, O. European Union Council Presidencies: a comparative perspective. London: Routledge, 2003.

HOHSCHEIT, Jean Marc and Wolfgang WESSELS (eds.), The European Council 1974-1986: evaluation and prospects. Maastricht: EIPA, 1988.

JOHNSTON, Mary, T. The European Council: gatekeeper of the European Community. Boulder: Westview, 1994.

KIRCHNER, Emil J. Decision-making in the European Community: the Council Presidency and European integration. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992.

LEWIS, Jeffrey. "The methods of community in EU decision-making and administrative rivalry in the Council's infrastructure." Journal of European Public Policy 7, 2 (2000): 261-289.

LODGE, Juliet. "Towards the European Political Community: EEC summits and European integration." Orbis 19 (1975)

MORGAN, Annette. From summit to Council: evolution in the EEC. London: Chatham House, 1987.

QUAGLIA, Lucia and Edward MOXON-BROWNE. "What Makes a Good EU Presidency? Italy and Ireland Compared ", Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 2 (2006): 349-368.<

TAULEGNE, Béatrice. Le Conseil européen. Paris: PUF, 1993.

WALLACE, H. "The Council: an institutional chameleon", Governance, 15, 3 (2002): 325-344.

WERTS, Jan. The European Council. London: JohnHarper Publishing, 2008.

WESTLAKE, Martin. The Council of the European Union. London: Cartermill, 1995, 1996, 1999.

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7.3 The Commission

ARNAUD, Jean-Louis. La Commission européenne à l'écoute du changement. Rennes: Apogée, 1997.

BELLIER, I. "La Commission européenne: hauts fonctionnaires et culture de management." Revue française d'administration publique 70 (1994)

CHRISTIANSEN, Thomas. "Tensions of European governance: politicised bureaucracy and multiple accountability in the European Commission." Journal of European Public Policy 4, 1 (1997): 73-90.

CHRISTIANSEN, Thomas and Mark GRAY. European Governance and the New European Commission, Abingdon: Routledge, 2010.

CINI, Michelle. The European Commission: Leadership, Organisation, and Culture in the EU Administration, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996.

CLERGERIE, Jean-Louis. "L'improbable censure de la Commission européenne." Revue du droit public et de la science politique en France et à l'étranger 111, 1 (1995)

"La Commission européenne: cultures, politiques, paradigmes" special issue of Revue française de science politique 46, 3 (1996)

"La Communauté: un dialogue d'administration?" special issue of Revue française d'administration publique 63 (1992)

COOMBES, David. Politics and bureaucracy in the European Community: a portrait of the Commission of the EEC. London: Allen & Unwin, 1970.

DIMITRAKOPOULOS, Dionyssis G. The Changing European Commission. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.

EDWARDS Geoffrey and David SPENCE (eds.). The European Commission. Harlow: Longman, 1994, 1997.

ENDO, Ken. The Presidency of the European Commission under Jacques Delors: the politics of shared leadership. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

"La formation des fonctionnaires de la Commission des Communautés européennes." Revue internationale des sciences administratives 41, 2 (1975)

FRANCHINO, Fabio. "Experience and the distribution of portfolio payoffs in the European Commission", European Journal of Political Research, 48, 1 (2009): 1-30.

GEORGAKAKIS, Didier et Marine De LASSALLE. "Les directeurs généraux de la Commission européenne. Premiers éléments d'une enquête prosopographique", Regards sociologiques, 27-28 (2004): 6-69.

GOBIN, Corinne et Jean-Claude DEROUBAIX. Quand la Commission se présent devant le Parlement. Etude du vocabulaire des discours de présentation de la Haute Autorité de la CECA et de la Commission de la Communauté européenne devant le Parlement européen (1952-1993). Bruxelles: Recherche européenne en sciences humaines, 1994.

HAY, Richard. The European Commission and the administration of the Community. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1989.

HEARD-LAUREOTE, Karen. European Union Governance. Efficiency and Legitimacy in European Commission Committees, London: Routledge, 2010.

HOFFMANN, Stanley. "The case for leadership." Foreign Policy 81 (1990-91)

HOOGHE, Liesbet. The European Commission and the integration of Europe: images of governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

HOOGHE, L. "Several roads lead to international norms, but few via international socialization: a case study of the European Commission", International Organization, 59, 4, 2005: 861.898.

KASSIM, H., J> PETERSON, M. BAUER, R. DEHOUSSE, L., L. THOMPSON and S. CONNOLLY. The European Commission of the 21st century: decline or renewal?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

JAMAR, Joseph and Wolfgang WESSELS (eds.). The Community bureaucracy at the crossroads. Bruges: De Tempel, 1985.

JOANA, Jean et Andy SMITH. Les commissaires européens. Technocrates, diplomates ou politiques, Paris: Presses de Science Po, 2002.

LOPES DE FIGUEREIDO, A. "CEE: la specificité de la fonction publique communautaire: l'exemple de la Commission." Revue française d'administration publique 55 (1990)

LOUIS, Jean Victor and Denis WAELBROECK (dir.). La Commission au coeur du système institutionnel des Communautés Européennes. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1989.

MENDRINOU, Maria. "Non-compliance and the European Commission's role in integration." Journal of European Public Policy 3, 1 (1996): 1-22

METCALFE, Les. "La Commission pourra-t-elle gérer l'Europe?" Revue française d'administration publique 63 (1992)

METCALFE, L. "Réformer la gouvernance européenne: anciens problèmes ou nouveaux principes?" Revue internationale des sciences administratives 67, 3 (2001): 473-505.

MICHELMANN, Hans J. Organisational effectiveness in a multinational bureaucracy. Farnborough: Saxon House, 1977.

MICHELMANN, H.J. "Multinational staffing and organizational functioning in the Commission of the European Communities." International Organization 32, 2 (1978): 477-496.

NUGENT, Neill. "The leadership capacity of the European Commission", Journal of European Public Policy, 2 (1995): 603-623.

NUGENT, Neill (ed.). At the heart of the Union: studies of the European Commission. New York: St. Martins's Press, 1997, 2000.

NUGENT, N. The European Commission. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

O'TOOLE, Richard. "The decision-making process within the Commission of the European Communities in light of the Single European Act." Irish Studies in International Affairs 2 (1986)

PAGE, E. and L. WOUTERS. "Bureaucratic politics and political leadership in Brussels." Public Administration 72, 1 (1994)

PETERSON, John. "The Santer era: the European Commission in normative, historical and theoretical perspective." Journal of European Public Policy 6, 1 (1999): 46-65.

RINGE, Nils. "Government-opposition dynamics in the European Union: The Santer Commission resignation crisis", European Journal of Political Research, 44, 5 (2005), 671-697.

SPENCE, David. "Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose? Attempting to reform the European Commission." Journal of European Public Policy 7, 1 (2000): 1-25.

SPIERENBURG, Dick and Raymond POIDEVIN. Histoire de la Haute Autorité de la Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier: une expérience supranationale. Bruxelles: E. Bruylant, 1993. In English: History of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community: supranationality in operation, London: Weidenfeld, 1994.

VAHL, R. "The European Commission on the road to European Union: the consequences of the Treaty on European Union for the Commission's power base." Acta Politica 27, 3 (1992): 297-322.

VAHL, Remco. Leadership in disguise: the role of the European Commission in EC decision-making on agriculture in the Uruguay round. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1997.

WALLACE, Helen. "The Council and the Commission on the brink of Maastricht." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 531 (1994)

WEILER, J. "Eurocracy and distrust." Washington Law Review 61 (1986)

WINCOTT, Daniel. "Looking forward or harking back? The Commission and the reform of governance in the European Union." Journal of Common Market Studies 39, 5 (2001): 897-911.

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7.4 The Council of the EU (formerly, of Ministers) and the Co.Re.Per.

BEYERS, Jan and Guido DIERICK. "Nationality and European negotiations: the working groups of the Council of Ministers." European Journal of International Relations 3, 4 (1997): 435.471.

BEYERS, J. and D. DIERICK. "The working groups of the Council of Ministers: supranational or intergovernmental negotiations?" Journal of Common Market Studies, 36 (1998): 289-317.

CICHOCKI, Marek and Karol ZYCZKOWSK (eds.) Distribution of Power and Voting Procedures in the European Union, Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.

EDWARDS, Geoffrey and Helen WALLACE. "European Community: the evolving role of the Presidency of the Council." International Affairs 52, 4 (1976): 535-550.

HAYES-RENSHAW, Fiona and Helen WALLACE. The Council of Ministers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

HAYES-RENSHAW, Fiona, Wim VAN HAKEN and Helen WALLACE. "When and Why the EU Council of Ministers Votes Explicitly", Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 1 (2006): 161-194.

HOSLI, Madeleine O. "Admission of European Free Trade Association states to the European Community: effects on voting power in the European Community Council of Ministers." International Organization 47, 4 (1993): 629-643.

LEUFFEN, Dirk and Robin HERZ. "If things can only get worse: anticipation of enlargement in European Union legslative politics", European Journal of Political Research, 49 (1): 53-74.

LEWIS, J. "Is the 'hard bargaining' image of the Council misleading? The Committee of Permanent Representatives and the local elections directive", Journal of Common Market Studies, 36, 1998: 479-504.

MATTILA, Mikko. "Roll call analysis of voting in the European Union Council of Ministers after the 2004 enlargement", European Journal of Political Research, 48 (6), 2009: 840-857.

NAURIN, D. and H. WALLACE. Unveiling the Council of the European Union: games governments play in Brussels, New York: Palgrave, 2008.

NOËL, Emile. "The Permanent Representatives Committee and the deepening of the Communities." Government and Opposition 6 (1971): 422-446.

O'NUALLAIN, Colm (ed.). The Presidency of the European Council of Ministers: impacts and implications for national governments. London: Croom Helm, 1985.

SHERRINGTON, Philippa. The Council of Ministers: political authority in the European Union. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

SMITH, S.C. "Europe: the politics of arithmetic." The Political Quarterly 66, 4 (1995): 307-319.

TALLBERG, Jonas. Leadership and Negotiation in the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

TALLBERG, Jonas. "The power of the Presidency: brokerage, efficiency and distribution in EU negotiations", Journal of Common Market Studies, 42, 5, 2004: 999-1022.

TALLBERG, Jonas. "The agenda-shaping powers of the EU Council Presidency", Journal of European Public Policy, 10, 1, 2003: 1-19.

WALLACE, Helen and Geoffrey EDWARDS. ""European Community: the evolving role of the Presidency of the Council", International Affairs, 53 (1976): 535-550.

WALLACE, H. and G. EDWARDS.The Council of Ministers of the European Community and the President-in-Office. London: Federal Trust of Education and Research, 1977.

WESTLAKE, Martin and David GALLOWAY. The Council of the European Union, London: John Harper Publishing, 2004.

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7.5 The European Court of Justice

ALTER, Karen J. Establishing the Supremacy of European Law: The Making of an International Rule of Law in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

ALTER, K. "The European Court's political power." West European Politics 19, 3 (1996): 458-487.

ALTER, K. "Who are the 'masters of the treaty'? European governments and the European Court of Justice." International Organization 52, 1 (1998): 121-147.

ALTER, Karen J. amd Sophie MEUNIER-AITSAHALIA. "Judicial politics in the European Community: European integration and the pathbreaking Cassis de Dijon decision." Comparative Political Studies 26, 4 (1994)

ALTER, K. and J. VARGAS. "Explaining variations in the use of the European litigation strategies", Comparative Political Studies, 33 (2000): 452-482.

ARNULL, Anthony. The European Union and its Court of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, 2006.

BAUER, Michael W. and Miriam HARTLAPP. "Much ado about money and how to spend it! Analysing 40 years of annulment cases against the European Union Commission", European Journal of Political Research, 49 (2) 202-222.

BENGOETXEA, Joxerammon. The legal reasoning of the European Court of Justice: towards a European jurisprudence. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

BOULOUIS Jean et Roger-Michel CHEVALIER. Grands arrêts de la Cour de Justice des communautés européennes. Paris: Dalloz, 1974, 1991.

BROWN, L. Neville and Francis C. JACOBS. The Court of Justice of the European Communities. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1977, 1989.

BURLEY, Anne-Marie and Walter MATTLI. "Europe before the Court: a political theory of legal integration." International Organization 47, 1 (1993): 41-76.

BZDERA, André. "The Court of Justice of the European Community and the politics of institutional reform." West European Politics 15, 3 (1992): 122-136.

CALDEIRA, Gregory A. and James L. GIBSON. "The legitimacy of the Court of Justice in the European Union: models of institutional support." American Political Science Review 89, 2 (1995): 356-376.

CALDEIRA, G. and J. GIBSON. "Democracy and legitimacy in the European Union: the Court of Justice and its constituents." International Social Science Journal 49, 152 (1997): 209-224.

CICHOWSKI, Rachel. "Women's Rights, the European Court, and Supranational Constitutionalism", Law and Society Review, 38 (2004): 489-512.

CICHOWSKI, R. The European Court and Civil Society: Litigation, Mobilization and Governance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

The Court of Justice of the European Communities. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1981, 1983, 1986.

DEHOUSSE, Renaud. The European Court of Justice: the politics of judicial integration. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

GARRETT, Geoffrey, R. Daniel KELEMEN and Heiner SCHULZ. "The European Court of Justice, national governments, and legal integration in the European Union." International Organization 52, 1 (1998): 149-176.

GOLUB, Jonathan. "The politics of judicial discretion: rethinking the interaction between national courts and the European court of justice." West European Politics 19, 2 (1996): 360-385.

HARTLEY, Trevor C. The Foundations of European Community Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003.

----------. "The European Court and the EEA." International and Comparative Law Quarterly 41 (1992)

HUNNINGS, Neville M. The European Courts. London: Cartermill, 1996.

LASOK, K.P.E. The European Court of Justice: practice and procedure. London: Butterworths, 1994.

KUPER, R. The Politics of the European Court of Justice, London: Kogan Page, 1998.

MATTLI, Walter and Anne-Marie SLAUGHTER. "Revisiting the European Court of Justice." International Organization 52, 1 (1998): 177-209.

MILLET, Timothy. "The New European Court of First Instance." International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38, 4 (1989)

O'NEILL, Aidan. Decisions of the European Court of Justice and their constitutional implications. London: Butterworths, 1994.

PAPPAS, Spiros A. (ed.). The Court of First Instance of the European Communities: history, organization, procedure. Maastricht: EIPA, 1990.

RASMUSSEN, Hjalte. On law and policy in the European court of justice: a comparative study in judicial policy making. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986.

SCHWARZE, Jürgen. The role of the European Court of Justice in the interpretation of uniform law among the member states of the European Community. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1988.

SMITH, Gavin. The European Court of Justice: judges or policy makers? London: Bruges Group, 1990.

STEIN, E. "Lawyers, judges and the making of a transnational constitution." American Journal of International Law 75, 1 (1981)

STEINER, J., L. WOODS and C. TWIGG-FLEISNER. Textbook on EC Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

STONE SWEET Alec. The judicial construction of Europe, Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2004.

STONE SWEET, A. Governing with judges: constituional politics in Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

STONE SWEET, A. and Thomas L. BRUNELL. "The European Court and the national courts: a statistical analysis of preliminary references, 1961-95." Journal of European Public Policy 5, 1 (1998): 66-97.

TALLBERG, Jonas. "Supranational influence in EU enforcement: the ECJ and the principle of state liability." Journal of European Public Policy 7, 1 (2000): 104-121.

VOLKANSEK, Mary. "The European Court of Justice: supranational policy-making." West European Politics 15, 3 (1992): 109-121.

VOLKANSEK, Mary amd John F. STACK Jr. (eds.). Courts crossing borders: blurring the lines of sovereignty, Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.

WEILER, J.H.H. "A quiet revolution: the European Court of Justice and its interlocutors." Comparative Political Studies 26, 4 (1994)

WEILER, J. "Journey to an unknown destination: a retrospective and prospective of the European Court of Justice in the arena of political integration", Journal of Common Market Studies, 31, 1993.

7.6 The European Parliament, National Parliaments, and European elections

ABÉLÈS, Marc. La vie quotidienne au parlement européen. Paris: Hachette, 1992.

ABÉLÈS, M. "Political anthropology of a transnational institution: the European Parliament." French Politics and Society 11 (1), 1993

ANDERSON, Peter and Aileen McLEOD. "The great non-communicator? The mass communication deficit of the European Parliament and its press directorate", Journal of Common Market Studies, 42 (5), 2004: 897-917.

BARRETT, G. (ed.). National Parliaments and the European Union: the costitutional challenge for the Oireachtas and onther member state legislatures, Dublin: Clarus Press, 2008.

BAUMANN, Carol Edler. "Direct elections to the European parliament." Millennium: Journal of International Studies 7, 1 (1978): 20-35.

BOGDANOR, Vernon. "The June 1989 European elections and the institutions of the European Community." Government and Opposition 24, 1989: 199-214.

BOYCE, B. "The June 1994 elections and the politics of the European Parliament." Parliamentary Affairs 48, 1 (1995)

BOWLER, Shaun and David M. FARRELL. "The organizing of the European Parliament: committees, specialization and co-ordination." British Journal of Political Science 25 (2), 1995: 219-243.

BOWLER, S. and D. FARRELL. "Electoral institutions and campaigning in comparative perspective: electioneering in European Parliament elections", European Journal of Political Research, 50 (5), 2001: 668-688.

BURBAN, Jean-Louis. Le parlement européen et son élection. Bruxelles: E. Bruylant, 1978.

BURBAN, J.-L. Le parlement européen. Paris: PUF, 1998.

CHABOT, Jean-Luc. Elections européennes, suffrage partisan. Grenoble: PUG, 1980.

CHAUCHAT, Mathias. Le contrôle politique du parlement européen sur les exécutifs communautaires. Paris: LGDJ, 1989.

COOMBES, David. The power of the purse in the European Communities. London: Chatham House, 1972.

COOMBES, D. The future of the European Parliament. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1979.

COOMBES, D. Seven theorems in search of the European Parliament. London: Federal Trust for Education and Research, 1999.

COOMBES, D. et al. The power of the purse: the role of the European Parliament in budgetary decisions. London: Political and Economic Planning, 1976.

COOMBES, D. (ed). The Power of the purse : a symposium on the role of European parliaments in budgetary decisions. New York: Praeger, 1975.

CORBETT, Richard. "Testing new procedures: the European Parliament's first experience with its new 'Single Act' powers", Journal of Common Market Studies, 27 (1989): 359-372.

CORBETT, R. The European Parliament's role in closer EU integration. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

CORBETT, R. Francis JACOBS and Michael SHACKLETON. The European Parliament, 8th edition, London: John Harper Publishing, 2011.

CRUM, Ben and John E. FOSSUM. "The multilevel parliamentary field: a framework for theorizing representative democracy in the EU", European Political Science Review, 1, 2 (2009) 249-271.

DUFF, Andrew. "The European Parliament assesses the Constitution" The International Spectator 39, 3 (2004): 73-81.

ELLES, James. "The foreign policy role of the European Parliament." The Washington Quarterly 13 (1990):69-78.

FITZMAURICE, John. The party groups in the European Parliament. Farnborough: Saxon House, 1975.

FITZMAURICE, J. The European Parliament. Farnborough: Saxon House, 1978.

FITZMAURICE, J. "Reflections on European elections." West European Politics 3, 2 (1980): 230-241.

GORDON, Ian and Paul WHITELEY. "Swings and roundabouts: an ecological analysis of the European and general election results in Great Britain." Political Studies 29, 4 (December 1981): 586-603.

GUIRAUDON, Virginie et al. 'The European Parliament: taking stock after the June 2004 elections' EUSA Review, 17, 3 (Summer 2004): 1-7.

GUYOMARCH, Alain. "The European elections of 1994." West European Politics 18, 1 (1995): 173-187.

HERMAN, Valentine and Rinus VAN SCHENDELEN (eds.). The European Parliament and the national parliaments. Farnborough: Saxon House, 1979.

HERMAN, Valentine and Mark HAGGER (eds.). The Legislation of direct elections to the European Parliament. Farnborough: Gower, 1980.

HERMAN, Valentine and Juliet LODGE. The European Parliament and the European Community. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978.

HIX, Simon. What to expect in the 2009-14 European Parliament: return of the Grand Coalition?, Stockholm: Swedish Institute for European Policy Analysis, 2009.

HIX, S. A. NOURY and G. ROLAND. Democratic Politics in the European Parliament, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

HIX, S. and Christopher LORD. "The making of a President: the European Parliament and the confirmation of Jacques Delors as President of the Commission." Government and Opposition 31, 1 (1996): 62-76.

HIX, S., A. KREPPEL and A. NOURY. "The Party System in the European Parliament: collusive or competitive?" Journal of Common Market Studies, 41, 2, 2003: 309-331.

HOBOLT, Sara B. and Jae-Jae SPOON. "Motivating the European voter: parties, issues and campaigns in European Parliament elections", European Journal of Political Research, 51, 6 (2012): 701-727.

HRBECK, Rudolf, Joseph JAMAR and Wolfgang WESSELS (eds.). The European Parliament on the eve of the second direct election: balance sheet and prospects. Bruges: De Tempel, 1984.

HUG, A. Reconnecting the European Parliament and its People, London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2010.

JACKSON, Robert and John FITZMAURICE. The European Parliament: a guide for the European elections. New York: Penguin, 1979.

JACQUÉ, Jean-Paul et al. Le Parlement européen. Paris: Economica, 1984.

JUDGE, David, David EARNSHAW and Ngaire COWAN. "Ripples over waves: the European Parliament in the European Community policy process." Journal of European Public Policy 1, 1 (1994): 27-52.

JUDGE, D. and D. EARNSHAW. The European Parliament, 2nd edition, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

JOWETT, Paul. "The second European elections: 14-17 June 1984." West European Politics 8, 1 (1985): 109-112.

KACZYNSKI, P.M. Paper tigers or sleeping beauties? National Parliaments in the post-Lisbon European Political System, CEPS Special Report, Brussels, Center for European Policy Studies, 2011.

KIIVER, P. "The Treaty of Lisbon, the National Parliaments and the principle of subsidiarity", Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 15 (1), 2008.

KREPPEL, Amie. "The June 1999 elections, Amsterdam, and the perils of ideology." ECSA Review 12, 4 (1999): 8-10.

KREPPEL, A. "The European Parliament's influence over EU policy outcomes", Journal of Common Market Studies, 37, 1999: 521-538.

KREPPEL, A. The European parliament and supranational party system: a study in institutional development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

KREPPEL, A. and S. HIX. "From 'Grand Coalition' to left-right confrontation: explaining the shifting structure of party competition in the Europen Parliament", Comparative Political Studies, 36, 2003: 75-96.

LAKEMAN, E. "Elections to the European parliament 1989." Parliamentary Affairs 43, 1 (1990): 77-89.

LODGE, Juliet. "The European Parliament and foreign policy." Manohar L. Sondhi (ed.). Foreign policies and legislatures: an analysis of seven parliaments. New Dehli: Abhinav, 1988.

LoDGE, J. (ed). Direct elections to the European Parliament, 1984. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.

LODGE, J. (ed). The 1989 election of the European Parliament. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.

LODGE, J. (ed). The 1994 elections to the European Parliament. London: Pinter 1995.

LODGE, J. (ed). The 1999 elections to the European Parliament. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

LODGE, J. (ed). the 2004 elections to the European Parliament, New York: Palgrave 2005.

LODGE, Juliet and Valentine HERMAN. Direct elections to the European Parliament: a Community perspective. London: Macmillan, 1982.

LOUIS, Jean-Victor. "National Parliaments and the principle of subsidiarity - legal options and practical limits", European Constitutional Law Review, 4 (3), 2008: 429-452.

LOUIS, J-V. and Denis WAELBROECK. Le Parlement européen dans l'évolution institutionnelle. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1988.

MARQUAND, David. Parliament for Europe. London: J. Cape, 1979.

MATHER, Janet. "The European Parliament - A model of representative democracy?" West European Politics 24, 1 (2001): 181-201.

MAIER, Michaela, Jesper STROMBACK and Lynda L. KAID (eds.). Political Communication in European Parliamentary Elections. Campaign Strategies, Media Coverage, and Campaign Effects in European Parliamentary Elections, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011.

MORGAN, Roger and Clare TAME (eds.). Parliament and parties: the European Parliament and the political life of Europe. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

MOSER, P. "The European Parliament as an agenda setter: what are the conditions? A critique of Tsebelis", American Political Science Review, 90, 1996: 834-838.

NEUNREITHER, Karlheinz. "The European Parliament's strategy in view of the intergovernmental conference of 1996." ECSA Review 8, 3 (1995): 16-21.

NORTHAWL, Rod and Richard CORBETT. Electing Europe's first Parliament. London: Fabian Society, 1977.

O'BRENNAN, J. and T. RAUNIO (eds.). National Parliaments within the enlarged European Union: from 'victims' of integration to competitive actors?, Abingdon: Routledge, 2007.

PALMER, Michael. The European Parliament; what it is, what it does, how it works. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981.

PINDER, John (ed.). Foundations of democracy in the European Union: from the genesis of parliamentary democracy to the European Parliament. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

PINELLI, Cesare. "The Powers of the European Parliament in the New Constitutional Treaty" The International Spectator 39, 3 (2004): 84-96.

PRIESTLEY, Julian. Six battles that shaped Europe's Parliament, London: John Harper Publishing, 2008.

PROKSCH, Sven-Oliver and Jonathan V. SLAPIN. "Parliamentary questions and oversight in the European Union", European Journal of Political Research, 50, 1 (2011): 53-79.

RAUNIO, Tapio. The European perspective: transnational party groups in the 1989-94 European Parliament. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1997.

REIF, Karl-Heinz (ed.). European elections 1979/81 and 1984: conclusions and perspectives from empirical research. Berlin: Quorum, 1984.

REIF, Karl-Heinz (ed). Ten European elections: campaigns and results of the 1979/81 first direct elections to the European Parliament. Brookfield: Gower, 1985.

REIF Karl-Heinz and Anna MELICH (eds.). European elections, 1989: pre-election survey, March-April 1989. Ann Arbor: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 1991.

RITTBERGER, Berthold. Building Europe's Parliament: democratic representation beyond the nation-state, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

ROBINSON, Ann and Adrian WEBB. The European Parliament in the EC policy process. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1985.

ROSE, Richard and Ian McALLISTER. European Parliament constituencies in Britain in 1984. Glasgow: Centre for the Study of Public Policy, University of Strathclyde, 1984.

SASSE Cristoph et al. The European Parliament: towards a uniform procedure for direct elections. Florence: EUI, 1981.

SCHMITT, Hermann. "The European elections of June 1989." West European Politics 13, 1 (1990): 116-123.

SCHMITT, Hermann (ed.). European Parliament Elections after Eastern Enlargment, London: Routledge, 2010.

SCULLY, Roger. "The European Parliament and the co-decision procedure: a reassessment." Journal of Legislative Studies 3, 3 (1997): 58-73.

SHACKLETON, Michael. "The European Parliament after the 1994 election." ECSA Review 7, 3 (1994): 11-13.

SHEPARD, Mark. "The European Parliament: laying the foundations for awareness and support." Parliamentary Affairs 50, 3 (1997): 438-452.

SMITH, Julie. Citizens' Europe? The European elections and the role of the European Parliament. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1994.

SMITH, J. "The 1994 European election: twelve into one won't go." West European Politics 18, 3 (1995): 199-217.

SMITH, J. Voice of the people: the European Parliament in the 1990s. Royal Institute for International Affairs, 1995.

SMITH, J. Europe's elected Parliament. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press, 1999.

SOLDATOS, Panayotis et Gilles ROSSIGNOL (dir.). L'Election du Parlement européen au suffrage universel direct: bilan et perspectives intégratives (colloque organisé le 3 novembre 1979 par le Centre d'études et de documentation européennes). Montréal: C.E.D.E., Université de Montréal, 1980.

STEUNENBERG, Bernard and Jacques THOMASSEN (eds.). The European parliament: moving toward democracy in the EU, Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

STEVENS, Anne. "Problems of parliamentary control of European community policy." Millennium: Journal of International Studies 5, 3 (1976-77): 269-281.

STRUDEL, Sylvie. "Les citoyens européens aux urnes: les usages ambigus de l'article 8B du traité de Maastricht", Revue internationale de politique comparé, 9, 1 (2002): 47-63.

SVENNEVIG, Michael and B. GUNTER. "Television coverage of the 1984 European Parliament elections." Parliamentary Affairs 39, 2 (1986): 165-178.

TILLEY, James, John GARRY and Tessa BOLD. "Perceptions and reality: economic voting at the 2004 European Parliament elections", European Journal of Political Research, 47, 4 (2008): 665.686.

TSEBELIS, George. "The power of the European Parliament as a conditional agenda setter." American Political Science Review 88, 1 (1994): 128-142.

TSEBELIS, G. and G. GARRETT. "Agenda setting, vetoes, and the European Union's co-decision procedure", Journal of Legislative Studies, 3, 1997: 74-92.

TSEBELIS, G. and G. GARRETT. "More on the co-decision endgame", Journal of Legislative Studies, 3, 1997: 139-143.

TSEBELIS, G. and G. GARRETT. "Legislative politics in the European Union", European Union Politics, 1, 2000: 9-36.

TSEBELIS, G. et al. "Legislative procedures in the European Union: an empirical analysis", British Journal of Political Science, 31, 2001: 573-599.

VAN DER EIJK, Cees, Mark FRANKLIN. Choosing Europe? The European electorate and national politics in the face of the Union. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

VIOLA, Donatella Maria. European foreign policy and the European Parliament in the 1990s: an investigation into the role and voting behaviour of the European Parliament's political groups. Brookfield: Ashgate, 2000.

WESSELS, Bernard and Richard KATZ (eds.). The European Parliament, national parliaments, and European integration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

WESTLAKE, Martin. A modern guide to the European Parliament. London: Pinter, 1994.

WESTLAKE, M. "The European Parliament, the national parliaments and the 1996 intergovernmental conference." The Political Quarterly 66, 1 (1995): 59-73.

WHITAKER, Richard. The European Parliament's Committees. National Party Control and Legislative Empowrment, London: Routledge, 2010.

WOLTERS, Menno. Decision making in the European Parliament. Utrecht, 1985.

WRING, Dominic, David BAKER and David SEAWRIGHT. "Panelism in action: Labour's 1999 European parliamentary candidate selections." The Political Quarterly 71, 2 (2000): 234-245.

7.7 Economic and Social Committee

LODGE, Juliet and Valentine HERMAN. "The Economic and Social Committee in EEC decision-making." International Organization 34, 2 (1980): 265-284.

7.8 The European Central Bank and the Euro

LOUIS, Jean-Victor and Hajo BRONKHORST (dir.). The Euro and European integration. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

LOUIS, Jean-Victor et al. Vers un système européen de banques centrales: projet de dispositions organiques. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1990.