Depending on the country in which it is used, Black, as it is applied as a descriptor of people, can have various meanings. In the United Kingdom, for example, it is used to describe people of African, African-Caribbean and Asian origin. In North America, it generally denotes people of African-American/Canadian origin, including people who have emigrated from other parts of the world who can trace their origins to Africa (Wells, 1999). As used by the dominant culture, it is a political, socially constructed term in that it has less to do with skin colour than with racializing human beings in order to denote White privilege. People of African origin often use the term in order to emphasize their common experiences of racism, and to delineate between the social construction of "blackness" (hooks, 1992) and their various cultural identities (Schulz, 1999).

Abucar, M. (1988). Struggle for development: The Black communities of North and East Preston and Cherry Brook, Nova Scotia 1784-1987. Dartmouth, NS: Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia.

Adler, J. et al. (1991). African dreams. Newsweek, 118(13), 42-45.

Afrocentricism: Pharoah time (1993). The Economist, 327(7812), 32.

Asante, M.K. (1991) Afrocentic curriculum. Educational Leadership , 49 (4), 28-31.

Banks, J. (1997). Guidelines for working with partner abusers from ethnocultural groups different from your own: Working with African Canadians. In, Abusive partners: Guidelines for interventions. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Maritime School of Social Work Project.

Bekerie, A. (1994). The four corners of a circle: Afrocentricity as a model of synthesis. Journal of Black Studies, 25(2), 131-149.

Bell, D. (1980). Shades of brown: New perspectives on school desegregation . New York: Basic.

Bell, D. (1978). The age of segregation: Race relations in the south, 1890-1945. Jackson: University of Mississippi.

Blye, F., Schlatman, J., Johnson, A., Bushen, S., & Mayish, P. (1997). Miracles could happen here (An external review of Cole Harbour District High School). Halifax: Halifax Regional School Board.

Boyd, J. A. (1990). Ethnic and cultural diversity in feminist therapy: Keys to power. In E.C. White (Ed.), The Black women's health book: Speaking for ourselves (pp. 226-243). Seattle: Seal Press.

Boyd-Franklin, N. (1991). Recurrent themes in the treatment of African-American women in group psychotherapy. Women & Therapy, 11(2), 25-40.

Boykin, W. (1991). Black psychology and experimental psychology: A functional confluence. In R.H. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology. Berkeley, CA: Cobb and Henry.

Brand, D. (1992). No burden to carry: Narratives of black working women in Ontario. 1920s to 1950s. Toronto: Women's Press.

Bryan, B., Dadzie, S., & Scafe S. (1985). The heart of the race: Black women's lives in Britain. London: Virago.

Brody, G.H., Stonehaven, Z., & Flor, D. (1995). Linking family processes and academic competence among rural African American youths. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57 (3), 567-579.

Brown, P. & Brown, D. J. (1997). Clinical impasses for African American social workers. Journal of Family Social Work, 2(2), 99-108.

Browne, J. & Wien, F. (1985). Blacks in the economic structure of Nova Scotia. In, Social Profile of Nova Scotia. Ottawa: Department of the Secretary of State.

Burgess, N. J. (1994). Gender roles revisited: The development of the 'woman's place' among African American women in the United States. Journal of Black Studies, 24(4), 391-401.

Cahill, B. (1995). Afro-Nova Scotian history in microcosm. New Maritimes , 13(4), 25.

Carlton-LaNey, I. (Ed.) (1996). African American community practice models. New York: Haworth Press Inc.

Celebrates African American experiences and challenges readers to understand the black experience from the inside out rather than from the outside in. The contributors provide excellent historical and current case studies of leaders and programs that provide models for program and community development in African American communities today.

Carter, C. (1997). Using African-centered principles in family-preservation services. Families in Society, 78(5), 531-538.

Chadiha, L.A. & Danziger, S.K. (1995). The significance of fathers for inner-city African American teen mothers. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 12(2), 83-100.

Chau, K. (1992). Needs assessment for group work with people of color: A conceptual formulation. In J.A. Garland (Ed.), Group work reaching out: People, places, and power. New York: The Haworth Press Inc.

Comas- Diaz, L. & Green, B. (Eds.). (1994). Women of color and mental health. New York: Guilford Press.

Crenshaw, K. (1993) Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics. In D.Kelly Weisberg (Ed.), Feminist legal theory (pp.383-395). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Cunningham, J. L. (1997). Colored existence: Racial identity formation in light skin blacks. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 67 (3), 375-400.

Dada, M. & Tomlinson, K. (1989). Issues for clients and workers from black and ethnic minority communities. London: Central Council for Education and Training in Social Work.

Daniel Tatum, B. (1997). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?: And other conversations about the development of racial identity. New York: Basic Books.

This book presents the idea of racial identity as a positive developmental factor and a vital component in the development of young people of colour. It also discusses issues of racism, affirmative action, multiracial families, and cross-racial dialogue.

Denby, R. & Rindfleisch, N. (1996). African Americans' foster parenting experiences: Research findings and implications for policy and practice. Children and Youth Services Review, 18 (6), 523-551.

Devore, W. (1995). Responses to aging in Great Britain: The Black experience. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 22(1), 173-184.

Early, G. (1992). Their Malcolm, my problem: On the abuses of Afrocentrism and Black anger. Harper's Magazine, 285(1711), 62-62, 66-74.

Ewing, K., Richardson, T., & James, L. (1996). The relationship between racial identity attitudes, worldview, and African American graduate students: Experience of the imposter phenomenon. Journal of Black Psychology , 22(1), 53-66.

Fanon, F. (1992). The fact of blackness. In J. Donald & A. Rattansi (Eds.), Race, culture and difference (pp. 220 - 40). London: The Open University Press.

Folaron, G. & McCartt Hess, P. (1993). Placement considerations for children of mixed African American and Caucasian parentage. Child Welfare, 72 (2), 113-125.

Franklin, J. (1987). From slavery to freeman: A history of Negro Americans. New York: Knopf.

Gaffin, J., Hill, D., & Penson, D. (1996). Opening doors: Improving access to hospice and specialist palliative care services by members of the Black and minority ethnic communities. British Journal of Cancer , 74(24), 551-553.

Gary, L.E. (1995). African American men's perceptions of racial discrimination: A sociocultural analysis. Social Work Research, 19(4), 207-217.

Gates, H.L. (1991). Beware of the new pharoahs. Newsweek, 118(13), 47.

Gil, O. & Jackson, B. (1983). Adoption and race: Black, Asian and mixed children in white families. London: Batsford.

Gray White, D. (1999). Too heavy a load: Black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994, (1st edition). New York: W.W. Norton.

Grier, W.H. & Price M.C. (1968). Black rage. New York: Basic Books.

Grim, V. (1996). "Tryin' to make ends meet": African American women's work on Brooks Farm, 1920 - 1970. In G. Etter Lewis & M. Foster (Eds.), Unrelated kin: Race and gender in women's personal narratives . New York : Routledge.

Gutiérrez, L. M. & Lewis, E. A. (1999). Empowering women of color. Irvington, New York.: Columbia University Press.

With the help of guest authors, the writers provide an excellent framework which social workers can more effectively aid women of color in their ongoing struggle against systemic oppression.

Hall, R. E. (1992). African-American male stereotypes: Obstacles to social work in a multicultural society. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1(4), 77-89.

Hammond, R. & Yung, B. (1994). African Americans. In L.D. Eron, J.H. Gentry, & P. Schlegel (Eds.), Reason to hope. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association.

Hampson, R.B., et al. (1990). Cross-ethnic family differences: Interactional assessment of white, black, and Mexican American families. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 16(3), 59-69.

Harvey, A. (1997). Group work with African- American youth in the criminal justice system: A culturally competent model. In G. Grief & P. Ephross (Eds.), Group work with populations at risk (pp. 160-174). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hickson, J. & Strous, M. (1993). The plight of Black South African women domestics: Providing the ultraexploited with psychologically empowering mental health services. Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 109-122.

Hill Collins, P. (1990). Black feminist thought. London: Routledge.

Hill Collins, P. (1998). Intersections of race, class, gender, and nation: Some implications for black family studies. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 27-36.

Hill Collins, P.(1998). Fighting words: Black women and the search for justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: Race, gender and cultural politics . Toronto: Between the Lines

hooks, b. (1992). Black looks: Race & representation. Boston: South End Press.

hooks, b. (1993). Ain't I a woman? Black women & feminism . Boston: South End Press.

hooks, b. (1993). Sisters of the yam: Black women and self-recovery . Halifax, NS: Fernwood Books Ltd.

hooks, b. (1993). Living to love. In, Sisters of the yam: Black women and self recovery. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Books Ltd..

Hoskins, L.A. (1992). Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism: A geopolitical linkage analysis. Journal of Black Studies, 23(2), 247-257.

Howard-Vital, M.R. (1989). African-American women in higher education: Struggling to gain identity. Journal of Black Studies, 20(2), 180-191.

Hull, G., Scott, P., & Smith, B. (Eds.). (1982). All the women are white, all the blacks are men. But some of us are brave. New York: Feminist Press.

Hurd, E.P., Moore, C. & Rogers, R. (1995). Quiet success: Parenting strengths among African Americans. Families in Society, 76 (7), 434-443.

Jackson, M.S. (1995). Afrocentric treatment of African American women and their children in a residential chemical dependency program. Journal of Black Studies, 26(1), 17-30.

James, J. (1999). Shadowboxing: Representations of Black feminist politics, (1st edition). New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kanuha, V. (1990). Compounding the triple jeopardy: Battering in lesbian of color relationships. Women & Therapy, 9(1 & 2), 169-83.

King, A. (1994). An Afrocentric cultural awareness program for incarcerated African-American males. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 3(4), 17-28.

Kochman, T. (1983). Black and white styles in conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Examines the culture-based behavior of blacks and whites in the U.S., and explores black values and the integrity and sensibility of black culture.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1996). Silence as weapons: Challenges of a black professor teaching white students. Theory into Practice, 35(2), 79-85.

Landry, B. (2000). Black working wives : pioneers of the American family revolution. Berkeley : University of California Press.

Lebaqu, M. & Shah, Z.. (1989). A Group for black and white sexually abused children. Groupwork, 2, 123-133.

Lerner, M. & West, C. (1995). Jews and blacks: Let the healing begin. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.

Lerner, M. (1996). Jews and blacks: A dialogue on race, religion, and culture in America. New York: Plume.

Logan, S., Freeman, E., & McRoy, R. (1990). Social work practice with black families. New York: Longman.

Lundgren, L., Amodeo, M., Schneider, R., Ellis, M., Fitzgerald, T., & Stevens, R. (1999). African-American injection drug users: Effect of pre-treatment services on entry into and completion of detoxification. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(2), 259-267.

Martin, E. & Martin, J. (1985). The helping tradition in the black family and community. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Presents the evolution of the helping tradition from traditional Africa to slavery in the U.S., among free blacks, through Reconstruction, and into rural and urban states. The tradition incorporates mutual aid, social-class cooperation, male-female equality, and prosocial behavior in children.

Martin, E. & Martin, J. (1995). Social work and the black experience. Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Examines black history, black culture, and black life to create a black identity in social work and to provide social workers with the knowledge they need to help black people. The first book to incorporate the rich black spiritual and blues traditions for use in work with black individuals and families.

McCombs, H. (1986). The application of an individual/collective model to the psychology of Black women. In D. Howard (Ed.), The dynamics of feminist therapy. New York: Haworth Press.

McCubbin, H., Thompson, E., Thompson, A., & Futrell, J.A. (1998). Resiliency in African American families. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc.

This book pays particular attention to the role that culture and ethnicity play in minority families development. Divided into two major sections, the book examines the context in which the family unit lives and the effects of the community and cultural resources on the family's resilient adaptation to stressful life events, then shifts its focus to issues of resiliency within the context of family relationships.

McNair, L. (1992). African American women in therapy: An Afrocentric and feminist synthesis. Women & Therapy, 12 (1/2), 5-19.

Meacham Gould, V. (1998). Chained to the rock of adversity: To be free, Black & female in the old south. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Moraga, C. (Ed.). (1984). This bridge called my back: Writings by radical women of color. New York: Kitchen Table.

Morris, J.K. & Kolb, J.(1993). Interacting oppressions: Teaching social work content on women of color. Journal of Social Work Education, 29(1), 99-110.

The author reviews the existing literature on women of colour, focusing on five dominant themes that address interactions among race, gender, and other factors in the lives of women of colour. The themes are: (1) the personal is political, (2) interacting oppressions, (3) the importance of unique issues, (4) concern with stereotypes and myths, and (5) power as a central theme.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved. New York: Knopf.

Norton, D. G. (1993). Diversity, early socialization, and temporal development: The dual perspective revisited. Social Work , 38(1), 82-90.

Although the dual perspective should be used to focus on diversity, it should be applied within the context of an anthropological-ecological framework to prevent stereotyping, to illuminate the universal goals of societal organization underlying human behavior, and to explore the early socialization of children. This view is illustrated with preliminary findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of lower socioeconomic inner-city African-American children that examines the importance of a sense of time, its evolution in early socialization, and the relationship of parent-child interactions to the development of a sense of time.

Pearson, D.F. (1994). Black males and crime and delinquency: Violence in search of purpose. Journal of Multicultural Social Work , 3(4), 1-16.

Pack-Brown, S.P. (1998). Images of me: A guide to groupwork with African-American women. Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.

Palmer, H. (1997). "...but where are you really from?": Stories of identity and assimilation in Canada. Toronto: Black Women and Women of Colour Press.

Perlo, V. (1975). Economics of racism, U.S.A.: Roots of black inequality. New York: International Publishers.

Perkins, M.V. (2000). Autobiography as activism : three Black women of the Sixties. Jackson : University Press of Mississippi.

Pierce, W.J. & Singleton, S.M.. (1995). Improvisation as a concept for understanding and treating violent behaviour among African American youth. Families in Society, 76(7), 444-450.

Pinderhughes, E. (1982). Family function of Afro-Americans. Social Work, 27(1), 91-96.

Ruggles, C. & Robinson, O. (1996). Outsider blues: A voice from the shadows. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing Ltd.

Ruggles tells us that, "Black is more than just a racial category, it's a way of viewing the world". It is out of this set of eyes that he writes a column in the West Island edition of the Montreal Gazette. This book is a collection of these columns and of Ruggles' Photographs which visually illustrate the 'Black' experience.

Schiele, J.H. (1994). Afrocentricity as an alternative world view for equality. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 5(1), 5-25.

Shipler, D.K. (1998). A country of strangers: Blacks and whites in America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc.

Sigelman, L. & Welch, S. (1994). Black Americans' views of racial inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

This book provides an analysis of black opinions about the sources of their inequality in American society and the means for redressing this imbalance.

Slevin, K. & Wingrove, C.R. (1998). From stumbling blocks to stepping stones: The life experiences of fifty professional African American women. New York: New York University Press.

Small, J. (1986). Transracial Placements: Conflicts and contradictions. In S Ahmed, J. Cheetham & J. Small (Eds.), Social work with black children and their families. London: Batsford.

Smith, A. & Stewart, A. (1983). Approach to studying racism and sexism in black women's lives. Journal of Social Issues , 39(3), 1-15.

Smith, E.J. (1981). Mental health and service delivery systems for Black women. Journal of Black Studies, 12(2), 126-141.

Smith, T.W. (1992). Changing racial labels: From 'coloured' to 'Negro' to 'Black' to African American'. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56, 496-514.

Spelman, E. (1982). Theories of race and gender: The erasure of black women. Quest, 5(4), 36 -62.

Spence, M.F. (1995). Reflections on Black lecturers in social work education: Finding the boundaries between roles and responsibilities. Issues in Social Work Education, 15(2).

Sudarkasa, N. (1988). Black enrollment in higher education: The unfulfilled promise of equality. In National Urban League (Eds.), The state of Black America. New York: National Urban League.

Takaki, R. (1993). Violence in the black imagination: Essays & documents. New York: Oxford University.

Thompson, K. & Mac Austin, H. (Eds.)., Introduction by D. Clark Hine. (1999). The face of our past: Images of Black women from colonial America to the present. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Turner, C. (1984). Psychosocial barriers to Black women's career development. Boston: The Stone Center.

Vaz, K. (1995). Racial aliteracy: White appropriation of Black presences. Women & Therapy, 16 (4), 31-49.

Verharen, C.C. (1995). Afrocentrism and acentrism: A marriage of science and philosophy. Journal of Black Studies, 26(1), 62-76.

Vorst, J. et al. (Eds.) (1989). Race, class and gender: Bonds and barriers. Toronto: Between the Lines in co-operation with the Society for Socialist studies = Société d'études socialistes.

A number of articles discussing how race, class and gender combine in oppression of people in Canada and abroad; includes articles focusing on Native Indian women, Black women and Métis women in Canada.

Walker, A. (1982). The colour purple. New York: Pocket Books, Simon and Schuster.

Walker, J. (1980). A history of Blacks in Canada: A study guide for teachers and students. Ottawa: Minister of State Multiculturalism.

Walker, J. et al. (1979) Identity: The Black experience in Canada. Toronto: Ontario Educational Communications Authority, in association with Gage Educational Publishing.

Walker, T. (1995). African-American resources for more inclusive liberation theology. The Journal of Religious Thought , 51(2), 9-15.

Watts, R. J. & Jagers, R. J. (1998). Manhood development in urban African-American communities. Binghamton, New York.: The Haworth Press, Inc.

This book underlines the importance of understanding culture, oppression, and gender when working with males in urban African-American communities.

Weisz, A. (2000). Reaching African American battered women: Increasing the effectiveness of social work advocacy . New York: Paper Presented at the Council on Social Work Education Annual Program Meeting, February 26-29, 2000.

This study describes interviews with African American battered women about legal advocacy. It includes associations with helpfulness ratings and reasons why some women did not use advocacy. For a copy of the paper, contact Arlene Weisz , Wayne State University.

West, C. (1982). Prophesy deliverance! An Afro-American revolutionary Christianity. Philadelphia: Westminster John.

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