Three dimensions of environmental change: The arrival of people and vegetation change in Viking-Age Iceland
Across the north Atlantic, our understanding of the ways that Viking-Age and medieval Norse populations managed periods of climatic and environmental change has improved considerably, with research in Greenland providing particularly fascinating insights. Iceland's human populations arrived in the early medieval period, making it one of the last significant landmasses to be settled by people. The island was transformed over its first human centuries and some of these changes are clearly the result of human action, such as the introduction of domesticates and corresponding land management. Other changes may be linked to larger processes, including climatic fluctuations. Iceland's dramatic loss of its coastal woodlands is a good example of a potentially natural trend in the reduction of forest cover being accentuated by human action. In order to separate out human from natural processes, high resolution data holds out special possibilities as we seek to better understand linkages between climate fluctuations, environmental change and human activities. The morphology of volcanic airfall (tephra) horizons reflects variation in vegetation cover — and in southern Iceland we have a well-studied and dated sequence of these deposits. In order to investigate Iceland's loss of coastal woodland and to better comprehend the human role in this process, one novel way to study these tephra horizons is to contour their three-dimensional surfaces.
Alix, Claire (Université Paris 1- Panthéon Sorbonne)
From Selecting to Recycling — Thousand year old Umiaq Parts from Two Archaeological Sites in Northwestern Alaska
In 2011, during excavation at the large sites of Cape Espenberg in northwestern Alaska, umiaq parts were uncovered within the architecture of an early 12th century multi-room house. Directly radiocarbon dated to ca. AD 1000, they are de facto the earliest dated in situ boat parts found on mainland Alaska. This discovery led to re-analyzing several wood pieces from the nearby and contemporaneous Deering site, providing a base for a regional comparison of late Birnirk/Early Thule umiaq frames. Species identification and physical characteristics provide information about wood selection. The placement of the parts in an ideal frame allows analysis of technological choices in terms of strength and weight distribution within the frame. At the same time, some cross boards show signs of reuse indicating that good wood was not wasted and that recycling of high quality wood was common. This paper provides a detailed description of these umiaq parts and discusses the meaning of using boat parts as architectural material within the overall question of wood use and conservation along the shores of Kotzebue Sound. Finally, it reflects on the "life cycle" of frame parts through time, potentially through several generations of users and hunters.
Appelt, Martin (National Museum of Denmark), and the NOW-project Research Team
A bird's eye perspective on ecological engineers in the Avanersuaq area (North Western Greenland).
The paper will discuss a multi-scale perspective on the biotic resources of the Avanersuaq area with point of departure in dovekies (Alle alle) as an ecological engineer, i.e. as a key-species in engineering a particular habitat. The Avanersuaq area houses half of the World's population of dovekies in the months from May to September, i.e. ca. 30 million pairs. Feeding in the North Water the birds bring vast amounts of copepods to land that as bird's excreta provide the nutrients for the lush vegetation seen in some valleys along the coasts. The vegetation not only supports musk-oxen and caribou but also large flocks of arctic hare. The last-mentioned again gives rise to a large number of arctic foxes. Archaeological excavations document that dovekies have constituted a primary resource for human subsistence in the area for more than 600 years, as it is relatively easily accessible, can be caught in large numbers and require limited time and energy investment when consumed (Johansen 2013). Preliminary mapping of settlements and other human constructs across coastal stretches clearly holds evidence of the intense human exploitation of the biotic resources of the so-called bird valleys along the Cape York Peninsula (Appelt et al. 2001) and in northern Melville Bay. During the 2014 field-campaign of the newly established "NOW project" biologist, anthropologist, and archaeologists have joined forces to highlight the relations in particular between dovekies and humans.
Appelt, Martin (National Museum of Denmark), Jens Fog Jensen (National Museum of Denmark), Mikkel Myrup (Greenland National Museum and Archives), and Henning Haack (Natural History Museum of Denmark)
Heavenly and Terrestrial Iron
During the summer of 2014 the national museums of Greenland and Denmark in collaboration with the Museum of National History in Denmark made the first ever archaeological recording of the findspots of the four of the large pieces of the Innaanganeq meteorite - known as "Ahignito", "Woman", "Dog" and "Savik"of the Cape York Meteorite.
The 2014-recordings clearly show that the main site of prehistoric/early historic iron extraction were done at "Woman" with its 62 features (dwellings, caches, work-stations etc.) and large pile of hammer stones used for extraction. The site was documented using a combination on ground recording and recordings from drone flights. This permitted us to make a qualified estimate of the volume of hammer stones brought to the site. Thus our estimates indicate that the major pile of hammer stones sorrounding the original position of Woman may be no less than 35m3, or about 60-70 tons of hammer stones.
Arbour, Chelsee (Memorial University) and Stephen Loring (Smithsonian Institution).
Introduction: Where to Start the Story…
The hoped for intent of this session is to provide a forum for discussions between archaeologists and cultural historians on the one-hand and indigenous community members on the other who are concerned with the (mis)representation and interpretation of Native history. How should the mediation of the archaeological narrative be managed now that First Nations and Inuit communities are increasingly becoming involved in all aspects of archaeology. We hope to solicit discussions that might critically assess the ambiguous boundaries between what constitutes "archaeological narratives", as perceived by academic practitioners and by descendant communities.
Ball, Christopher (University of Toronto), and Daniel H. Kwan (University of Toronto)
No experience, no problem: exploring the role of emulative learning in democratized tobacco smoking
The interpretive value of Iroquoian smoking pipes has long been apparent to archaeologists working in southern Ontario. Recently, the dominant paradigm has been one of a medico-religious nature, emphasizing the connection between the consumption of narcostimulants such as Nicotiana rustica with practices of spiritual deliberation. This emphasis is somewhat narrow in its scope and has therefore tended to overlook a number of potentially important ways in which pipes articulated with the broader Iroquoian cultural system. Situated within a context of a growing popularity of individualized smoking practices during the 13th century, the circumstances of pipe production and the role of emulative learning have been approached through the comparative analysis of experimental data and archaeological pipe collections from southern Ontario. In broadening the way we think about the role of tobacco and smoking within Iroquoian society, this paper intends to add nuance to our understanding of the role of smoking in Late Woodland society.
Baron, Anne (Université de Montréal), Bernard Gratuze (Université d'Orléans), Adrian L. Burke, (Université de Montréal), and Claude Chapdelaine (Université de Montréal)
Characterization and origin of steatite ornaments made by the Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Since Precontact times, First Nations groups from northeastern America used steatite or soapstone to make many artifacts such as ornaments, vessels or ceremonial objects and decorative objects. A few studies have been dedicated to this topic, particularly on steatite vessels from Northern Dorset sites and from Eastern America. Steatite quarries are quite known for this kind of production and the manufacture is well documented. In the region occupied by Iroquoian groups many beads and pipes have been discovered, while steatite vessels are rare. Furthermore, the identification of the geological resources for this production is still unknown unlike the steatite vessel quarries. Consequently it is difficult to reconstruct the distribution of the objects and the origin of materials. A research program has just begun in order to explore raw material acquisition and to reconstruct ancient exchange networks for the territories occupied by Iroquoian populations, more particularly in Southern Ontario, New York and Quebec. This interdisciplinary research program includes i) an archaeological approach to the objects, ii) a geological approach to identify and sample the exploited resources and iii) the characterization of the materials to define their origin. We focus here on beads made by the Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians from recently excavated archaeological collections and compare to sampled geological sources (referential in process). A new approach using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was chosen for its micro-destructive aspect, which provides a first estimation of the chemical composition of the materials. The preliminary results on beads from two Iroquoian archaeological sites, Droulers/Tsiionhiakwatha and Mailhot-Curran, will be presented.
Bartholdy, Bjorn Peare (University of Calgary), Krystyna Hacking (University of Calgary), and Tyler James Murchie (University of Calgary)
Dog Days on the Plains: Comparison of Three Sites on the Canadian Plains through aDNA Analysis of Canid Bones
This study assesses the taxonomy of canid remains recovered from Late Period sites on the Canadian Plains to explore archaeologically important interrelationships amongst species of Canis at three sites: FM Ranch (EfPk-1), Cluny (EePf-1), and Lake Midden (EfNg-1). This paper is an interpretation of preliminary results obtained in the ancient DNA (aDNA) facility at the University of Calgary, with the intention of a further analysis incorporating additional aDNA canid data in the future. Six samples were obtained from excavated canid bones, classified morphologically, at the FM Ranch (n=3), and Cluny (n=3) sites. These results were compared to a previous study from Lake Midden in Saskatchewan, and considered alongside ethnographic studies concerning the role of dogs on the plains. The samples, all identified as domestic dog, displayed an interesting relationship between the FM Ranch and Lake Midden sites, while the Cluny samples seemed to be somewhat isolated from the other sites. Various issues surrounding aDNA analysis are also addressed.
Beardsell, Robert J.
Combined Aggregate Analyses as a Useful Means of Analyzing Quarry Debitage Assemblages: an Example from the Boreal Forest of Manitoba
Quarries present archaeologists with a logistical problem: they are extremely messy in terms of artifact variability and typically exhibit enormous and complex assemblages. Coupled with the usual absence of stratigraphic control, this may be why quarries have often been considered 'best left alone' by archaeologists. Ironically, as the source of useable toolstone, quarries are the logical starting point for the study of how stone tool-using societies organized their technologies in accordance with their subsistence and social needs. Mass Analysis (after Ahler 1979) is one aggregate analytical technique that has shown promise in the study of quarry debitage assemblages, although it has also been the subject of some criticism. Using data from the author's Ph.D. dissertation (Beardsell 2013), it is demonstrated here that although it is more time-consuming and labour-intensive than a standard Mass Analysis (MA), the modified version allows for the collection of a large number of attribute data that lend robusticity and provide academic rigour to the results obtained. It is argued that although MA presents some problems when applied incorrectly, it is a useful tool for examining large, complex assemblages such as those found in quarry sites when modified and combined with another aggregate technique such as attribute analysis.
Beaudoin, Matt (Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants) and Josh Dent (Western University)
The Archaeological Voice in Canada
Archaeology in Canada is often conducted under the pretense of being to protect archaeological resources for the good of the general public; however, it is not always clear how archaeological excavations and research serve the public interest. There are many examples of how the Canadian public is interested in the archaeological discipline, but the voice of the academic archaeologist is often absent within public discussions of archaeology and history. In this context, the public's interest becomes filled by international, avocational, and political archaeologies, which often overshadow more local archaeological projects. This can lead to a misunderstanding and undervaluation of the importance of archaeology, which becomes more problematic when the discipline is founded upon and supported by public interest. This paper will explore how the archaeologist's voice is lost within much of the Canadian context, the consequences of this absence, and some considerations in reclaiming our voice.
Bell, Trevor (Memorial University), Patricia J. Wells (University of Western Ontario), John Smol (Queen's University), Neal Michelutti (Queen's University), Kristen Coleman (Queen's University), Spencer Yakabak (Queen's University), and Jules Blais (University of Ottawa)
Palaeoenvironmental context for the late phase Dorset Palaeoeskimo occupation and abandonment of Phillip's Garden, Northwest Newfoundland
The precontact occupation of the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland was punctuated by a series of cultural disappearances, suggesting that each culture reached a tipping point beyond which they could not continue as before. Our presentation focuses on one such threshold that resulted in the abandonment of one of the most successful Dorset Palaeoeskimo (DP) sites in the Canadian north: Phillip's Garden, at Port au Choix. In particular, we are interested in understanding the palaeoenvironmental context for the late phase of Phillip's Garden occupation leading up to site abandonment. Field sampling and laboratory analyses addressed two objectives: (1) to establish late phase DP impact on pond ecology, and (2) to examine late phase palaeo-temperature conditions. We have demonstrated human impact on Bass Pond, attributed to DP sealskin processing. New cores from Bass Pond reconcile age discrepancies in the timing of human impact, increase the temporal resolution for a finer correspondence between impact signals and site phases, and employ additional proxies of past lake production. We have shown that Bass Pond chironomid assemblages display significant correspondence with occupational phases at Phillip's Garden. New cores from Bass Pond and two additional ponds clarify and increase the temporal resolution of the chironomid-based palaeo-temperature record.
Bibeau, Pierre (Arkéos), David Denton (Cree Nation Government), André Burroughs (Hydro-Québec)
What the River Provided: Archaeology and History of the Eastmain 1 Reservoir.
In 2006 the construction of the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric project created a reservoir of 603 square kilometres in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay territory in northern Québec. From 2002 to 2005, preventative archaeological research was undertaken in the region within the context of environmental studies initiated by the Société d'énergie de la Baie James and the Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Program, based on an agreement with the Cree people. The 2015 publication of the results of this work in the CMH Mercury Series represents an important milestone in the archaeology of the eastern Canadian boreal forest / subarctic. Focussing on a range of subjects—from the paleo-environment, settlement and subsistence patterns and culture history, to the important contributions of Cree elders and land-users—our paper summarizes major findings amongst the 18 papers in this book and places this work in the broader context of eastern subarctic / boreal forest archaeology.
Blaikie-Birkigt, Kurtis (Tree Time Services)
Hit and Miss: An analysis of Shovel Testing Methods in the Boreal Forest.
In the course of forestry sector Historic Resource Impact Assessments in Alberta between 2010 and 2014, Tree Time Services completed archaeological survey of 4132 target landforms resulting in the identification of 361 new archaeological sites. These boreal hinterland sites typically exhibit small spatial extent, low overall artifact density and strong artifact clustering. While the data collected from each site are limited, aggregate analysis of these data has potential for broad interpretations and methodological improvements. This paper looks at two methodological issues: matrix screening, and sampling frequencies. The accuracy and efficiency of screened and unscreened shovel tests are compared, and estimations are made of survey result confidence using aggregate measures of artifact density and spatial clustering. Based upon these analyses, we make recommendations regarding sampling methods and minimum sampling frequencies for archaeological survey in the western boreal forest.
Blankholm, Hans Peter (University of Tromsø), and Max Friesen (University of Toronto)
Joint Proxies: the Dawn and Implementation of a Concept
During the interdisciplinary and international IPY SciencePub project "Arctic Natural Climate and Environmental Changes and Human Adaptation: From Science to Public Awareness" we were all working with proxies within our individual fields of archaeology and marine and terrestrial geology. Cooperation among disciplines was fine, however, integration of data sometimes proved challenging due to widely differing geographical and chronological scales of resolution. Our conclusion regarding the latter was that in the future we should endeavor to implement on site mutual presence and integration of our respective proxy data, thus the concept of Joint Proxies was born. In 2014 the Joint Proxies research network was created at, and funded by, Tromsø University — The Arctic University of Norway , and as a result a research project is now under construction.
A joint proxy is an archaeological site with good preservation conditions that contains proxy data of relevance for archaeological, geological, botanical, zoological and climate change research and interpretation. The focus is on sites with data of organic matter. However, sites containing organic matter are relatively rare in our part of the world. Concurrently, sites with good preservation conditions are also among the most vulnerable to the detrimental effects of global climate change (e.g., riverine and coastal erosion, acidification, thawing of permafrost) and increasing industrialization of the arctic and sub-arctic. There is an urgent need both to activate, re-investigate and analyze already known archaeological sites with joint proxies and to find, excavate and analyze new such sites with cutting edge theories, methods, and techniques before it is too late and they are gone forever. However, only by establishing a broader "Tops of the World" research network will it be possible to gain knowledge on how high-latitude, human and natural populations related to global climate changes in a long-term perspective and concurrently make a significant contribution to climate change research. This will provide a basis for more precise predictions on the adaptation of human and natural populations to future climate change. This paper will discuss these issues and give an account of the current state of the project.
Bohms, Jeralyn (Memorial University)
Toward a More Complete Understanding of Inuit Life in Hamilton Inlet, Labrador
In 2014, excavation was completed of the first of three late 18th-century Inuit sod houses at Double Mer Point (GbBo-2) in Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. Inuit winter house sites in Hamilton Inlet were identified and documented in the 1960s-70s. Richard Jordan's research in particular was instrumental in creating a holistic interpretation of Inuit occupation and has been widely accepted. However, recent research in the region is bringing to light new information about the complexities of the Inuit-European relations and persistence of traditional Inuit lifeways. The 18th century was a time of dramatic changes in the lives of the Labrador Inuit. European and Canadian explorers, settlers, traders and fishers were arriving in increasing numbers, challenging Inuit with new goods and technologies, economic strategies, and social relationships. While Hamilton Inlet may have been a comparative refuge between the Moravian missions of the north and fishers and settlers in the south, it was not free from European influence. This paper describes the excavation at Double Mer Point, its relationship with other Inuit winter house sites nearby, and its implications for the overall picture of Inuit life in Hamilton Inlet.
Bouchard, Stefan (Lakehead University), and Carney Matheson (Lakehead University)
Micro-Analysis of Quartz and Amethyst Artefacts: A Case Study of the Mackenzie I (DdJf 9) Palaeo Site near Thunder Bay, Ontario
As a result of the ubiquity of chert and flint material, as well as their distinct flaking patterns, lithic studies have long had a "flint-centric" or more inclusively a "crypto-centric" bias. However, chert is not the only raw material used in stone tool manufacturing. Other materials, such as siltstone and quartz, have also been used alongside cryptocrystalline varieties or when these more popular materials are rare or absent. Lithic tools made from non-cryptocrystalline material have long been viewed as difficult to analyze. More recently, archaeologists are beginning to take on this challenge to better understand these long ignored or overlooked artefacts. Recent excavations of the Mackenzie I site near Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario have presented an ideal situation to analyze quartz. This large Palaeo site has so far produced nearly 5700 quartz artefacts, including rarely found amethyst items. Although cataloging is in progress, a large sample of these macrocrystalline artefacts are being analyzed for use-wear and the presence of residue using a variety of micro-analytical techniques.
Bower, Megan (Memorial University) and Vaughan Grimes (Memorial University, Max Planck Institute)
Using strontium isotope analysis to explore mobility in southern Ontario, Canada
This study presents new strontium isotope baseline values for the geologically heterogeneous region of southern Ontario, Canada. Using archaeological faunal remains from various species such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) recovered from archaeological sites located below the Trent-Severn waterway in southern Ontario, the range in bioavailable strontium values in different geological regions has been characterized. Influential actors such as geological and soil composition and elevation have been considered. These data enable for investigation of mobility and other associated topics in populations indigenous to southern Ontario such as the Huron-Wendat, a northern Iroquoian population who lived in the area until approximately A.D. 1649. A case study illustrating the utility of strontium isotope analysis in this area is provided, supplementing the existing archaeological, historical and ethnographic evidence.
Bower, Megan (Memorial University) and Asta Rand (Memorial University)
Contemplating the relationship between mobility theory and bioarchaeology: Past and present perspectives
Human movement in past populations is a universal phenomenon, be it long distance migration or travelling short distances for everyday activities. However, despite the prevalence of its occurrence in archaeological populations, mobility studies in archaeology have experienced a rise and fall in popularity through time. Currently, there has been a resurgence of interest in mobility with the development of new techniques that can assess whether a sampled individual changed residences during life. These include the isotopic analysis of elements like oxygen, strontium, sulfur, and lead in human remains recovered from archaeological sites. This paper addresses the place that mobility theory holds in bioarchaeological research, how and why the popularity of such theories have waxed and waned in archaeology over time, and contemplates where we are today with mobility theory from a bioarchaeological perspective.
Brake, Jamie (Nunatsiavut Government / kavamanga)
Nunatsiavut Archaeology Office Fieldwork in the Nain Region in 2014
The Nunatsiavut Archaeology Office conducted fieldwork throughout the land claims area during the 2014 field season visiting 67 archaeological and ethnographic sites, 56 of which were recorded for the first time that year. For the sake of brevity, the focus of this paper will be the work which took place in the Nain region. Activities on Hillsbury Island, Skull Island, in Anaktalak Bay and in Nain itself will be discussed and some suggestions for future research will be presented. At Hillsbury Island a very large Intermediate Period Amerindian site was revisited and several new sites were recorded, including an interesting group of tent rings and caches at a very low elevation with an apparent Late Dorset affiliation. On Skull Island we visited an early period Inuit site with many features including a substantial ceremonial structure. In Anaktalak Bay we finished up work at the Rawson-MacMillian Subarctic Expedition Station of 1927-28 where the remains of Labrador's first snowmobile were recovered between 2013 and 2014, and in Nain we assessed and mitigated church renovations at the Nain Moravian mission complex. The work in 2014 helps us manage archaeological resources and contributes to our understanding of Labrador history.
Brownlee, Kevin (Manitoba Museum) and E. Leigh Syms (Manitoba Museum)
Ancestors from the Winnipeg River and their Implications on Boreal Forest Archaeology
In the 1990s three ancestors were exposed due to hydro electric flooding on the Winnipeg River, southeast Manitoba. The authors worked collaboratively with Sagkeeng First Nation on a comprehensive analysis followed by reburial of the individuals and their belongings. The ancestors were determined to be 4,000 BP, 1,550 BP and 450 BP from two separate sites. The results of the project were shared in multiple formats including two table top display cases for the First Nation community, incorporation of replicas into the permanent galleries at The Manitoba Museum, and finally two books on the project. The first book has now been published. The second is anticipated to be published in the summer of 2015. The presentation will chronicle the project and how it began, developed and evolved over 17 years. Perspectives of archaeologists and physical anthropologists, as well as the insights of Anishnaabe Elder, Mark Thompson will be shared. The associated personal belongings with these individuals will be highlighted. Many items have never been seen before and provide a unique glimpse into the life ways of these ancestors. The complex culture history of the southern Boreal forest and the proximity to other biomes makes interpretation particularly difficult.
Bumsted, Michael (Consultant)
From Pelt to Felt: The Collateral Archaeology of the Canadian Beaver, 1750-1850
Historians and archaeologists in North America have expended much energy studying the fur trade. The role which beaver played in this is especially well discussed, and the importance that it had to European expansion into the North American interior has been thoroughly examined. The same cannot be said for what happened to the goods Europeans acquired once they took them back to Europe. Beaver, and the other Hudson's Bay Company imports, had social and economic impacts on the British end of the fur trade which were equally as widespread as those which took place in North America. Primarily in the form of felt hats, beaver was common in the cities and towns of the United Kingdom, as well as the rest of the British empire. This paper will discuss the benefits an interdisciplinary approach to researching materials like beaver, and the journey it took from the Canadian interior to the streets of European metropoles. It will also highlight some of the specific findings of my research, including a new perspective on the end of beavers' fashion dominance, and the role that the Europeans and First Nations of Rupert's Land played in that shift.
Burgess, Neil M. (Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland and Labrador, Memorial University) and Ken Keeping (Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland and Labrador, Maritime Survey Services)
Community-based Underwater Archaeology Growing in Canada
Recreational scuba divers have played an important role in discovering many ancient and historic shipwrecks around the world. The challenge internationally has been to harness sport divers to protect rather than pillage our underwater cultural heritage. In Canada, avocational training for recreational divers in underwater archaeology (developed by the Nautical Archaeology Society UK) is available in three provinces through non-profit organizations: the Underwater Archaeology Society of British Columbia, Save Ontario Shipwrecks, and the Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland & Labrador. All three organizations work with maritime archaeologists to conduct and report on numerous shipwreck surveys. The history, growth and success of these community-based archaeological organizations will be reviewed with a focus on Newfoundland & Labrador.
Burke, Adrian (Université de Montréal) and Killian Driscoll (Université de Montréal)
Current Chert Geoarchaeological Research in Ireland: The Example of the Irish Lithic Landscapes Project
Any archaeological project that hopes to tackle the comprehensive analysis of lithic technology (e.g. chaîne opératoire) as well as the movement of lithics throughout the prehistoric landscape must start with the identification of the geological sources of lithic raw materials in a study region. This geoarchaeological fieldwork is the indispensable initial step to any quarry study. The Irish Lithic Landscapes project is investigating the places where prehistoric communities obtained the raw materials for their flaked stone tools during the Irish Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Early Bronze Age, which dates to ca 8000-2000 BC. While Ireland has a very rich archaeological heritage, there is a significant gap in the island's raw material sourcing research. This paper presents the results of our 2014 geoarchaeological prospection centred on the northwest of Ireland. During 2014 we collected 350 geological samples from over 400 survey points, which included examining ca 250 outcrop groups. The present analysis is using non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) as a first-order technique to determine chert whole-rock geochemistry, which will be followed by petrographic analysis on a sub-sample of the collection. A significant part of this project is the creation of a reference collection of Irish cherts. This will be physically housed at the UCD School of Archaeology in Dublin and accompanied by a web-based, spatial database, open for use by other researchers.
Campbell, Jennifer L. (SUNY Potsdam)
The Architecture of Madness: The St. Lawrence State Hospital, Ogdensburg NY.
St. Lawrence State Hospital, Ogdensburg NY opened in 1890 as a comprehensive and cutting edge treatment facility whose base architecture was intended to guide patient treatment and recovery. Asylums constructed at this time were more than institutions, these places were communities within landscapes of treatment; self-sufficient complexes featuring power centers, churches, rail systems, trolley ways, farms, dairies, kitchens, morgues, etc.. Overtime facilities have moved from inpatient to outpatient care, with greater emphasis on counselling and targeted drug therapies. Today many 19th century medical complexes stand abandoned. This paper examines how architecture and medical practice converged in the St. Lawrence State Hospital and how centers such as this one, once dominant features in in their social, economic, and environmental landscapes have transitioned to become relics of a bygone era and now contribute most notably to heritage dialogues centered on historic site identification, preservation, reuse, and repurposing.
Campbell, John Andrew (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
Along the Riverbanks of the Annapolis: The Boswell Site and its Importance for Understanding the Transitional Archaic on the Maritime Peninsula.
The Transitional Archaic (4,100 -2,700 BP) is an often overlooked and underrepresented period in the Northeast, especially in the Maritime Provinces. While there is a substantial Transitional Archaic site inventory in Maine and western New Brunswick, there are only a handful of such sites in Nova Scotia. The Boswell site reveals complexities in alluvial deposits along with lithic materials never before seen during this period in Nova Scotia. By examining lithic tool assemblages and use-life of artifacts in existing collections from Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia an integration of lithic analysis and possible population movement can be investigated. In particular, the Boswell Site sheds new light on the popular notion of a Transitional Archaic migration into the region.
Cannon, Aubrey (McMaster University)
Protocols and practicalities of place on the Northwest Coast
Pattern and variability in settlement form and location on the central coast of British Columbia are often attributable to environmental potential, which is substantiated in many cases by associated features and faunal remains. Yet these 'practicalities of place' fail to account for specific patterns of site use at some locations, persistent patterns of use at most locations and the purpose and meaning of a whole class of intensive residential sites located without reference to discernible environmental advantage. A checklist of environmental characteristics, material evidence of activities and the longevity and consistency of site use isolate the residual patterns that seem better attributed to cultural rather than practical considerations. Comparison with ethnographic and contemporary conceptions of place as defined by kin ties and use rights suggests long-term continuity in these or similar 'protocols of place,' which might also account for apparent stability within regional settlement patterns. Broader comparisons between regions of the Northwest Coast, the Northwest Coast and other maritime locales and maritime and terrestrial-based hunter-fisher-gatherers suggest that cultural protocols are regionally specific and historically contingent, but potentially also related to the mobility intrinsic to maritime ways of life.
Clark, Terence (Canadian Museum of History)
Finally a Practical Use for Archaeological Statistics: A study of single-malt quality
The large, complex datasets of archaeology require powerful statistical tools to unravel the interesting and enlightening patterns they hold. However, these statistics can instill fear in the hearts of the uninitiated, which has served to limit their widespread usage. This paper brings Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA) to bear on a practical, accessible, and decidedly archaeological problem, which single-malt scotch whiskey should you buy? Burdened by good taste but hindered by a poor paying career, archaeologists should be able to relate to this dilemma. Using data on taste, colour, nose and distillery location, this paper will identify high quality whiskeys at a reasonable price. This study serves as an analog for more traditional forms of archaeological enquiry.
Clausnitzer Jr., Arthur R. (Memorial University)
The Ceramics of the 17th-Century Fishery
Beginning in the first quarter of the seventeenth century there was a shift in the conduct of the fishing industries in North America. This shift was marked by a gradual transition from a seasonally migratory occupation to year-round fishing stations and permanent settlement. With this shift there was a concurrent change in the material culture as a colonial domus was established and the nature of the household on fishing stations changed. This paper examines the ceramic assemblages associated with three Newfoundland fishing sites, including a migratory fishery-related assemblage from Ferryland and the planters sites of Clear's Cove in Port Kirwan and the Goodridge Site in Renews, as well as a contemporary assemblage from Smuttynose Island, Maine which includes both migratory and residential components. For all four assemblages the ceramics are interpreted by both vessel forms and ware types in order to understand how the change from a migratory to a residential mode of production affected the lifeways of participants in the fisheries. Secondary research goals examine the effects of geographic location and the diversification of consumer goods in the seventeenth century on the assemblages.
Colligan, Paddy Eileen (The Graduate Center, CUNY)
Traces of Iron from the Past: Examining Tool Marks on Ivory and Antler Artifacts to Amplify the Signature of Iron
Experimental archaeology permits the testing of phenomena under known conditions to aid in evaluating hypotheses relating to our research. My hypothesis is that there was more iron in use when the Thule lived in the Arctic than is indicated in the archaeological record. I have produced replicas of tools with iron and stone blades like those that might have been used to make the Thule artifacts now housed in museums. Using a low power microscope, I have compared the marks made by these replicas with those found on Thule ivory and antler artifacts and have developed criteria for identifying probable use of iron in sites even where little or no iron has been found. This method can help compensate for the low visibility of iron due to corrosion, use, and human curation.
Cooney, Gabriel (University College Dublin)
Making an Island World: Felsite in Neolithic Shetland
The Shetland Islands lie between the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Atlantic. They are the most northerly part of Europe where the classic cultural assemblage associated with early agricultural societies occurs, but where there is a particular insular expression of identity across the archipelago. One important aspect of this island world is the use of an island lithic source; felsite or more strictly riebeckite felsite. Felsite occurs in the form of linear dykes in an area of granite in the northwest area of Mainland Shetland in an area known as North Roe. The felsite was used to make ground and polished stone axes and a distinctive local form of object known as the Shetland knife. The scale and quality of preservation of the evidence for extraction and primary working of the felsite in the quarry area is impressive and finished objects of felsite are known from across the archipelago but have not been identified elsewhere. The North Roe Felsite Project is taking an integrated approach to understand the significance of felsite in the creation of social identity in Neolithic Shetland. Detailed archaeological survey and targeted excavation in the quarry area is complemented by geochemical and petrological survey and by detailed analysis of museum collections with the aim of reconstructing the patterns of production, distribution, use and deposition of felsite axes and knives and understanding the wider social role of this distinctive source.
Cottreau-Robins, Katie (Nova Scotia Museum), Jacob Hanley (St. Mary's University), Glen Hodge (St. Mary's University), Chris MacFarlane (University of New Brunswick), and Mike Saunders (CRM Group Ltd).
Developing Studies of Archaeological Copper from the Gaspereau Lake Reservoir, Mainland Nova Scotia and the Maritime Provinces
Recent archaeological mitigation at the Gaspereau Lake Reservoir in Kings County, Nova Scotia has resulted in the recording of 21 Mi'kmaw archaeology sites, numerous associated features, and the excavation of over 250,000 artifacts. Within the GLR artifact collection there are a number of pre-contact and early contact copper artifacts. In fact, work at the GLR has resulted in more than doubling the number of copper artifacts in the provincial archaeology collection. With the jump from 46 to 110 artifacts, 64 from two GLR sites alone, researchers recognized an opportunity to study a largely unexplored component of Nova Scotia's archaeological record. Interdisciplinary collaboration and advances in scientific analysis have been applied to determine the provenance of pre-contact and early contact copper from the GLR. Since the research began however, integration of additional copper artifacts from other site areas has caused the development of two distinct streams of research, a comparative exercise of analytical methods, the re-testing of copper pot specimens analyzed in the1990s, and the incorporation of copper from outside the province. This paper describes the path of the research and its development from a site-specific project to a regional study now incorporating all three Maritime Provinces.
Craig, David (Memorial University)
What do you see? : Inter-visibility as a factor for feature location in North Arm, Saglek Bay
Over the last 40 years, computational view-shed studies have systematically analyzed spatial relationships between archaeological features and between archaeological features and the landscape they occupy, however, such studies are often criticized as unrealistic representations of a static reality based largely on elevation models. More recently, the development of experiential survey techniques- which focus on sensory-based observer data- has brought the human perspective to the forefront but has also been heavily criticized for its emphasis on the experiences of present-day subjects as proxies for past human perceptions. This paper presents the visibility data collected and analyzed from North Arm, Saglek Bay, Labrador. This consists of geospatial and experiential survey data collected from archaeological features (burials, food caches, fox traps…) in the 2013 field season. The goal of this study is to model visibility between archaeological features using the strengths of these two methodological approaches, GIS view-shed analysis and a phenomenological experiential survey, in order to assess whether visibility was a factor in feature location. By combining both approaches, it is argued that the experiential ground survey informs how the quantitative visibility analyses modelled in ArcGIS are interpreted, which provides a more rounded model of the visual landscape of North Arm.
Crompton, Amanda (Memorial University)
Object Lessons, or Multiple Interpretations of a Single Coarse Earthenware Pitcher
Archaeological excavations at a seventeenth century barracks site at the Vieux Fort (ChAl-04) in the French colony of Plaisance (now Placentia, Newfoundland) unearthed fragments of a green-glazed pitcher. Unlike many of the ceramic sherds from this site, the pitcher sherds could be reconstructed to a remarkable state of completeness. This fact alone makes the vessel an unusual one in the context of the site, as most of the ceramic remains are represented by very worn and isolated fragments. Its unusual state of completeness also has implications for the ways in which this vessel might be interpreted, particularly from its unusual form, and the challenges this presented during reconstruction. The vessel's atypical style also provides an indication of its provenance, as well as the social contexts that surrounded its use by soldiers in the barracks.
Csenkey, Kristen (Trent University)
Intrusive Rodents in Mortuary Assemblages — A Case Study from the Trent-Severn Waterway Region
Small mammals are often considered to be an invasive species when found in archaeological deposits, as their presence is typically attributed to natural disturbances. The interpretation of small mammal remains should be given a closer look, to determine if their presence can be attributed to natural disturbances or intentional deposits through specific taphonomic criteria. Rodents — specifically chipmunks — were the second most represented species at Jacob's Island-1B in Peterborough County and highly concentrated in a single feature (uncal. 3980+/-30 B.P.) associated with Late Archaic mortuary clusters. In this paper, I examine the criteria for defining the presence and collection of rodents in archaeological sites and then use them to quantify the presence of chipmunks at Jacob's Island-1B. Additionally, I determine if their presence can be attributed to natural or intentional burial activities and discuss the possibility that the chipmunk remains might have possible ritual importance.
Curtis, Jenneth (Parks Canada)
Life on the Shores of Clode Sound: A Dorset Palaeoeskimo Site in Parks Canada's Terra Nova National Park
In response to ongoing erosion of the coastline in Terra Nova National Park, Parks Canada undertook salvage excavations at the Bank Site, on the shore of Clode Sound in Bonavista Bay. The Bank Site is a complex, multi-component site spanning several thousand years of occupation. In this paper I focus on the Dorset Palaeoeskimo component at the site, exploring several lines of evidence to gain insights into the social and physical landscape in which the inhabitants of the site were living: the site context and setting in the landscape, lithic endblade manufacturing processes and lithic sources, and the Dorset settlement pattern context in Bonavista Bay, Eastern Newfoundland.
Darwent, John (University of California, Davis), Kelly Eldridge (University of California, Davis) and Christyann Darwent (University of California, Davis)
Documenting the Yup'ik to Inupiaq Shift in Norton Sound: Archaeological Investigations near the Native Village of Shaktoolik, Alaska
Historical documents note that the Shaktoolik Peninsula, located in Norton Sound, Alaska, was a nexus of interaction among local Yup'ik, Inupiat from the north, Athabaskans from the east, and Russian and American traders in the 1800s. Yup'ik populations were displaced from the area and replaced by Inupiaq groups during this time; however, limited archival, ethnographic, and oral history accounts make it difficult to disentangle the local history. The archaeological record may be able to fill in the record. Extensive mapping and test excavation was undertaken, in collaboration with the Native Village of Shaktoolik, at the Shaktoolik Airport site (NOB-072) in 2014. The site proved to be considerably larger than anticipated; mapping revealed over 120 house depressions, including a large "men's house" (qasigi, kargi), typical Inupiaq-style houses, and multiple complexes of houses with interconnected tunnels reminiscent of those built by the Yup'ik during the Bow-and-Arrow War days of the late-Thule period. Limited test excavations yielded well-preserved pre- and post-contact architecture and artifacts, and a faunal record of both maritime (especially salmon) and terrestrial game. We have just scratched the surface of a rich archaeological record of the past 600 years. Unfortunately time is of the essence as the site is threatened by increased seasonal flooding and coastal erosion.
Davies, Michelle (Nunatsiavut Government / kavamanga)
A beginner's DIY guide to UAV technology in remote Northern Labrador.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are currently being used in remote regions to quickly and non-invasively survey, record and monitor archaeological resources. Lacking high quality aerial images of archaeological sites in northern Labrador, UAV technology has the potential to be enormously beneficial in documenting and managing Nunatsiavut's archaeological resources; however, this emergent technology is not without its challenges and drawbacks. Prior to the 2014 field season, the Nunatsiavut Government Archaeology Office built a UAV from a DIY kit with the help of a group of young students from an after school science program in Nain. Initially suffering through high winds, swarms of bugs, a broken power distribution board, catastrophic battery and GPS failures, the little-drone-that-could has since provided us with high resolution aerial videos and images of significant archaeological sites in the Nain and Rigolet area. New camera and software developments may provide future opportunities for efficient digital elevation models and thermal imaging of sites in Nunatsiavut.
Dawson, Peter (University of Calgary) and Richard Levy (University of Calgary)
From Science to Survival: Using Virtual Heritage Environments to Communicate the History and Heritage of Fort Conger, a 19th Century High Arctic Research Station
Fort Conger is located in Qutinirpaaq National Park, northeastern Ellesmere Island, and is a site of national and international significance because of its association with the British Arctic Expedition (1875-76) and the ill-fated Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (1881-83). American polar explorer Robert Peary also used Fort Conger as a base of operations during his attempts to reach the North Pole in the early 20th century. Like many polar heritage sites, Fort Conger is currently at risk, due to the impacts of climate change and human-caused destruction. In this presentation, we discuss our use of computer modeling and gamification to create an interactive website for the purposes of education and public outreach. This project, which is funded through the Virtual Museum of Canada, demonstrates the value of virtual heritage environments in communicating Canadian Arctic history to the world.
Deal, Michael (Memorial University) and Alison Harris (Memorial University)
The Boswell Site And The Potential For Archaeoloigcal Research On The Annapolis River, Nova Scotia
Boswell (BfDf-08) is the first archaeological site to be excavated along the Annapolis River, in north-central Nova Scotia. Therefore, it is the baseline for our understanding of prehistoric occupation for this entire drainage system. Less than 50 sites have been recorded on this system, but only a few have even been shovel-tested. Thus far, the Boswell site has revealed a cultural sequence beginning with the Transitional Archaic (ca. 4100-2700 BP), followed by Middle and Late Woodland (ca. 2500-1500 BP) occupations. Work at the site since 2011 has included paleoethnobotanical and zooarchaeological analyses and an environmental reconstruction. The site location suggests that freshwater fishing was important, while faunal remains indicate that beaver and birds were hunted, and plant remains indicate that various edible berries and nuts were collected. The deeply stratified sediments at this site give an indication as to why so few sites and private collections have been recorded. The authors recommend a new approach for future archaeological work in this understudied part of the province.
de Boer, Laura (Davis MacIntyre & Associates Ltd.)
Excavations at Paq'tnkek: A Historic Mi'kmaw House Revealed
In the summer of 2014, Davis MacIntyre & Associates conducted a full excavation of a historic Mi'kmaw house located on the Paq'tnkek Mi'kmaw Nation reserve near Antigonish, Nova Scotia. Excavated by a crew that included professional archaeologists and local Mi'kmaq as well as university co-op students, the project has revealed that the house was more substantial than preliminary assessments indicated, consisting of a full stone foundation banked with earth and dating from the late 19th to the early 20th century. Toys, jewellery, tools, beads and buttons, ceramics, glass, and an abundance of clothing and shoe remnants are all part of a broad and fascinating array of artifacts collected from the site. The findings have been particularly illuminating given that the house had nearly disappeared from the Paq'tnkek Band's oral history accounts, and few if any historic Mi'kmaw homes in Nova Scotia have previously been the subject of detailed archaeological exploration.
Deck, Donalee (Parks Canada)
Archaeological Discoveries during the Prince of Wales Fort National Historic Site Wall Stabilization Project
Prince of Wales Fort is an 18th Century stone fort at the mouth of the Churchill River on the Hudson Bay. The fort was constructed by the Hudson's Bay Company during their rivalry with the French for control over territory and resources. It was intended to defend the Company's interests in the region, but was used as a fur trade post dealing directly with the Inuit, Dene and Cree and as a launching point for whaling expeditions and northern exploration. The stone fort was home to more than 40 officers, tradesman and labourers and remained a construction site for most of its occupation. Archaeological investigations of the fort's rampart were initiated as part of a multi-year Wall Stabilization Project by Parks Canada. Archaeological research coupled with impact assessments were incorporated into design plans to stabilize the walls and protect the in situ cultural resources. Features discovered on the ramparts, the rubbish disposed in the rampart fill and organic preservation have provided insights into commercial operations, and other aspects of life alluded to or not documented in the surviving historic record.
de Mille, Christy (Lifeways of Canada Limited)
The Comparability and Utility of Differing Strategies of Analyzing Large Lithic Assemblages Recovered from Quarry of the Ancestors Workshop Sites, Part 2.
In response to Oilsands related development, a series of large salvage mitigation projects have been completed near the important Quarry of the Ancestors site in Northeastern Alberta by a number of different Historical Resources Consulting firms. As a result of these projects, vast quantities of lithic assemblages have now been recovered from the complex of stone tool workshop sites associated with the Quarry site. In a previous paper, an initial investigation into the comparability of the different analytical strategies for debitage assemblages utilized by various companies was undertaken. This paper further explores the possible implications of these differing approaches to debitage analysis. To further assess the comparability and utility of varying cataloguing systems, this paper also explores the effects that different strategies for tool analysis could have on overall site interpretation.
Dent, Joshua (Western University) and Matt Beaudoin (Timmins Martelle Heritage Consultants)
The Creation of a Canadian Archaeological Almanac
We are all aware that the quantity of archaeological excavations across the country has increased exponentially over the last couple of decades; however, the absence of a national archaeological database make it difficult to observe and compare the trends and numbers across provincial boundaries. This is further compounded by the fact that each provincial body tracks, reports, and presents data related to archaeological excavations in differing manners with differing emphases. As such, it is difficult to get an accurate presentation of how many archaeological excavations are conducted each year and who is conducting them. This paper will discuss the efforts of a new project to collect and collate the data from the archaeological databases. The goal of our project is to create an online database that is easily accessible by the general public to facilitate research of the ongoing trends within the archaeological discipline.
Denton, David (Cree Nation Government) and Kevin Brousseau (Cree Nation Government)
Talking about the past in Eeyou Istchee
The language and terms we use to talk about the past both reflect and shape our broader conceptual frameworks and narratives in subtle and complex ways. This paper discusses terminology and conceptual issues relating to the past from both Cree and archaeological perspectives as they apply in Eeyou Istchee, the territory of the Cree Nation in Quebec . We focus on examples of terms and concepts at several levels: broad terms related to archaeological periods and traditions, how important places are are referred to and described and how various types of house structures and tools are classified. For each, we examine the terms used, or proposed, and attempt to understand their conceptual underpinnings and the implications for interpretation and narratives. We consider the possibilities for dialogue and for the development of educational materials that communicate archaeological knowledge while respecting Cree perspectives.
Des Lauriers, Matthew R. (California State University, Northridge)
Boats, Nets, and Harpoons: The 'Hidden' Values of a Maritime Adaptation
For decades, the Archaeology of the Pacific Coast of California has been largely conducted under various Human Behavioral Ecology models. However, this approach fails to capture the decision-making practices of past peoples, and lacks an appreciation for the fact that many necessary resources have no caloric value in and of themselves. Some others may have layers of value - food, raw material, or even cosmological meanings, all wrapped up in a single deer or tree. In Baja California, Mexico, one of the most important resources for native people was the Agave or century plant, which provided starchy carbohydrates, fiber, firewood, and even soap. Deer provided meat, but also hides which figured prominently in annual rituals and competitions, antlers for pressure-flakers and harpoons, and hooves which were a consistent element in shaman's paraphernalia, while deer imagery is a major component of rock art, especially in the central Peninsula. We should examine the resources with which people interacted along the full axis of their value, food, raw material, and ideological significance. By doing so, we can better understand the decision-making of real people, within real social structures and cultural systems of meaning.
Desmarais, Danielle (University of Toronto)
A Stitch in Time: The Benefits of Experiential Learning and Community Engagement for Understanding Skin Clothing Production in the Arctic
The production of Arctic skin clothing involves a variety of stages with several activities performed in each stage that are cognitively and/or labour intensive. Each stage and activity within this process produces material correlates, including faunal remains (animal bones) and artifacts which are detectable in the archaeological record. Many ethnographic accounts of Arctic skin clothing production have been invaluable to interpreting these activities at archaeological sites. However, since ethnographic details were not collected for the purpose of archaeological interpretations a series of reconstruction experiments have been carried out to identify the material correlates and spatial distribution of specific activities. By examining the processes of skin clothing production through experiential learning of pattern development, layout, cut and construction of garment pieces from the historic MacFarlane collection, additional archaeological correlates and considerations have been identified which can aid in detecting changes that occurred within and between populations in the Arctic. Additionally, this research is part of a broader initiative which is linking skin clothing production with community engagement and Traditional Knowledge.
Diesel, Torsten (Inuit Heritage Trust), Tim Rast (Elfshot), and Brendan Griebel (Intuit Arctic Research)
Communicating Archaeology in the North: Challenges and New Approaches
In 2013, the Inuit Heritage Trust (IHT) spearheaded a new campaign to increase archaeological awareness in the territory of Nunavut. The involvement of Nunavummiut in archaeological programming has traditionally been a difficult endeavor, replete with various financial, educational and logistical issues. Arctic excavation typically takes place in remote locations during a short window of summer when local populations are engaged with other cultural activities. Community outreach initiatives and field schools sponsored by archaeologists have been attempted in the past, but are typically short lived, with resources-as well as the patience of participants and researchers-becoming rapidly exhausted. The question of how to educate about archaeology through a framework that aligns with the socio-economic realities of the North, as well as the learning levels, cultural priorities, and general interests of local people remains an on-going challenge. This paper will present a series of community outreach resources developed as part of IHT's archaeological awareness campaign. Of foremost interest, is a prototype excavation kit designed to allow Nunavut communities to better understand the principles of archaeology outside of formal academic programming. This kit will allow hands-on, experiential learning to take place without the challenge of obtaining permits or being restricted to specific schedules.
Dionne, Marie-Michelle (GAIA)
Make visible gender relations: Women's contribution to the socio-economics of Palaeoeskimo
Rendre visibles les relations de genres : contribution féminine à la socioéconomie paléoesquimaude
Do subsistence activities performed in household space can reveal social interactions and women's role in Dorset society? Tools function and household analysis highlight tendencies about activities and individuals interactions. Household space is a place where social relations occur, through different technical activities. The organisation of activities in this area depends on the physical and cultural contexts. The nature of interactions between individuals from a domestic group, as well as mode of management of supply and production activities, will be highly influenced by gender relations. We can observe social interactions on a Dorset occupation site through the identification of tools functions and activities that really happened on the site. Analysis of clusters in the domestic space, and associations or segregation between certain types of activities can be used to evaluate the nature of interactions between the genders. In fact, my study about skins treatment « Chaîne opératoire » from palaeoeskimo's archaeological sites reveals that Palaeoeskimo women could be considered as a group of specialists in treatment and production phases of supplies for their communities.
L'organisation des activités de subsistance dans l'espace domestique peut-il révéler les interactions sociales qui permettraient de qualifier le rôle socioéconomique des femmes dorsétiennes ? L'analyse spatiale et la fonction des outils mettent en relief des tendances quant aux interactions entre les activités techniques et les individus. L'espace domestique est un lieu d'interactions sociales et d'activités techniques, dont l'organisation est tributaire d'un contexte physique et culturel donné. La nature des interactions entre les individus qui forment un groupe domestique et le mode de gestion des activités d'approvisionnement et de production seront certainement influencés par les relations de genres. Il est en effet possible de rendre visible les interactions sociales sur un site d'occupation dorsétienne, grâce à l'identification des fonctions des outils et des activités réellement pratiquées sur le site. L'analyse des regroupements dans l'espace domestique, des associations ou de la ségrégation entre certains types d'activités, permet d'évaluer la nature des interactions entre les genres. En fait, mon étude de l'organisation de la chaine opératoire de traitement des peaux sur les sites paléoesquimaux révèle que les femmes paléoesquimaude pourraient bien former un groupe de spécialistes dans le traitement des ressources et la production de réserves (alimentaires et matérielles) pour leur communauté.
Dobrota, Paulina (University of Toronto)
Integrated Soil Analysis at an Inuit Tent Camp: Huntingdon Island 5 (FkBg-3), Sandwich Bay, South Labrador
This paper presents the results of integrated soil analysis on a series of soil samples collected from the floors of two tent rings from Huntingdon Island 5, South Labrador. The structures, consisting of oval arrangements of boulders, revealed sparse nondiagnostic 18th and 19th century assemblages.
Consisting of the joint application of thin-section micromorphology, paleoethnobotany and chemical soil analysis, integrated soil analysis offers a supportive framework in which the results of each subsection of the analysis can be cross-checked. This approach was found to eliminate much of the uncertainty associated with traditional soil analyses and to provide a new perspective on the Inuit tent camp, a poorly understood aspect of the Inuit seasonal round. Occupational debris recovered offers a picture of the taskscape associated with the dwellings, particularly in relation to the internal division of space and the resources employed to furnish them, as well as some indications of seasonality. Multiple occupation events were also identified and a relative chronology was established. This paper presents the results and discusses their significance in relation to available knowledge about the Labrador Inuit warm season dwelling. The paper also introduces integrated soil analysis as a method to study temporary dwellings and outdoor sites. Findings related to the taphonomy and ecology of Labrador coastal regosols and histosols have a wider significance in relation to the Labrador coastal record, as the predominant soil types found here.
Dowkes, Shalcey (University of Calgary)
Phytolith Extraction and the Cluny Site
Phytolith analysis offers important insight into understanding past interactions between humans and the plant world. Many strides have been made over the last three decades, however, complications in applied methods can still occur. Over the past two years, various research has been conducted investing the botanical nature of Cluny Site. In the summer of 2014, sediment samples were collected from across the site and processed to extract phytoliths. These extractions yielded unexpectedly low phytolith counts. In order to better understand the results obtained, the use of different methods in the laboratory were utilized in order to increase the amount of phytoliths extracted. The results obtained from this study will help increase the awareness of sediment processing and ultimately allow archaeologists insight into the past lives of the occupants of the Cluny Site.
Doyle, Sean (McMaster University), Tristan Carter (McMaster University), and Daniel Contreras (Kiel University)
Assemblage Integrity and GIS Applications at Artifact-rich Quarried Landscapes: An Example from Stélida, Naxos, Greece
This paper details the methodology used by the Stélida Naxos Archaeological Project (SNAP) to distinguish primary activity areas within a Palaeolithic chert quarry. This work is undertaken in a challenging artifact-rich landscape that has undergone significant post-depositional modification through various environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbance. The two-year non-invasive survey involved walking numerous transect lines to produce a general impression of artifact density, which were followed by intensive grid collections in recognized 'hot-spots'. This strategy was supplemented by grab samples of key diagnostic pieces discovered outside of the standardized collection units. Chert outcrops were mapped and sampled to gauge variability in the raw materials. Degree of slope and vegetation cover were recorded throughout, together with noted 'artifact trap' locations such as historic terrace walls and donkey paths, along with all instances of human disturbance including bulldozed tracks, clay pits, and buildings. These systematically documented data are then interrogated using GIS weighted overlay tools and other spatial analysis techniques in an attempt to analyse post-depositional effects and map areas of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic activity (quarrying, tool production). The paper offers some preliminary conclusions, and charts alternative and supplementary techniques that will be employed in the future.
Dunham, Rebecca (Parks Canada)
Eroding Coastal Heritage — What Gives? Defining a Coastal Heritage Conservation Solution for the Fortress of Louisbourg
The Fortress of Louisbourg, positioned at the eastern tip of Cape Breton Island on the Atlantic coast, is a designated site of national historic significance. In the 18th century, this site was a busy French fortified town, fishing community and transshipment centre that was twice besieged as it stood in the front line against British aspirations for Canada. Due to various quirks of fate, much of the town, fishing community and battlefields have been preserved for centuries, and 14-acres of the fortified town have been reconstruction for public appreciation of an important chapter of Canadian history. Louisbourg lies on a low coastal plain and it is eroding. Partly due to subsidence, sea level has risen over 90 centimeters since the mid-18th century and many heritage features have already been lost. The IPCC outlook for sea-level rise in this region over the next century suggests greater change than has been experienced over the past 250 years. For these reasons, a new coastal heritage conservation plan has been developed for Louisbourg, striving to find a balance between heritage custodianship and the inevitability of sea-level rise. This paper will discuss the research and findings that have led to the development of this plan.
Dussault, Frédéric (Memorial University), Trevor Bell (Memorial University) and Vaughan Grimes (Memorial University)
Archaeoentomological perspectives on Dorset occupations in Newfoundland: Preliminary results from Phillip's Garden (EeBi-1) and Stock Cove (CkAl-3)
Archaeoentomology, the study of insect remains found in archaeological contexts, is a proven method for studying human occupations and impacts on the natural environment of archeological sites through time. Many insects, including ground beetles, are ecological specialists and can be linked to specific ecological conditions such as humidity, soil types and plant species. By examining their modern ecological requirements and applying them to identified insect specimens found in the archaeological record, it is possible to reconstruct past natural and human-influenced environments. Soil samples taken from the Dorset sites of Phillip's Garden on the Northern Peninsula and Stock Cove in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, were analyzed for taxonomically identifiable entomological remains, specifically ground beetles. Preliminary results show that the Dorset occupations had an impact on the site environments in these regions. The distribution of beetle species found on both sites through time is unlike the off-site beetle populations. Furthermore, the presence of certain ground beetles provide proxy evidence for the identification of plant species that were not preserved in the archaeological record, but characterize the Dorset impact on site flora.
Erwin, John (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador)
Large-Scale Systematic Study of Prehistoric Soapstone Vessel Metrics from Newfoundland and Labrador
The examination of soapstone vessel fragments from the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador provides a basis to better understand the use and significance of this technology to Palaeoeskimo peoples, who with an abundant supply of firewood (on the Island of Newfoundland), continued to use soapstone lamps and pots for cooking and the production of light for a period of 1000 years. While researchers have tacitly accepted the use of soapstone vessels by Palaeoeskimo peoples on the basis of ethnographic analogy, no large-scale systematic study of these vessels has ever been produced to test these assumptions in this region. Results of this study, which are based upon the measurement of over 3600 vessel fragments, demonstrate ways in which vessel function may be determined from both morphological characteristics as well as carbonization patterns, and document recognizable stylistic differences between vessels used in Labrador and on the Island of Newfoundland.
Evans, Lance (University of Calgary)
The Use of Geophysics in Identifying Subtle Features and Delineating Internal Site Areas
Non-invasive techniques involving geophysical and remote sensing technologies are increasingly being incorporated into the study of archaeological sites. The resulting data and surveys can provide potent insights into the extent and distribution of certain types of sub-surface features. Study of the fortification elements present at the idiosyncratic Cluny Fortified Village has benefited from the application of such methods. A pilot project to assess the feasibility of teasing out the subtle signatures of timber posts from ground-penetrating radar data has yielded encouraging results. Additionally, maps produced from a magnetic gradiometer survey over the majority of the site have been used to identify individual hearths and "hearth-less" zones within the earthworks. This hearth distribution has further implications for the extent of timber structures suggested by patterned posts. This paper addresses the results of these efforts and may provide encouragement to those seeking to use technology in creative ways to solve archaeological problems.
Ewald, Tatyanna D. (University of Calgary)
A Paleoethnobotanical Analysis of Ceramic Residues from the Cluny Fortified Village Site
Paleoethnobotanical analysis using the residues from ceramic vessels has been applied to previous research to observe the types of vegetative materials cooked within these vessels, allowing for the assessment of the types of plant foods being utilized by certain groups. This type of analysis uncovers evidence of botanical remains invisible to excavation, allowing for more subtle archaeological indicators of subsistence to be examined. These techniques have proven to be extremely significant to archaeology in North America by contributing implications about the presence and spread of cultigens, leading to deductions regarding domestication and trade. This has also been useful in consolidating the directions and nature of interaction between particular groups, and even in implying ethnic or political origins. These techniques, however, have yet to be performed using ceramic vessels uncovered from the Cluny Fortified Village Site. Using careful techniques to extract phytoliths and starches from the residues on individual vessels uncovered at Cluny, a paleoethnobotanical analysis has been performed; the results of which are reported here.
Fay, Amelia (The Manitoba Museum)
Archaeological Artifacts from the HBC Museum Collection
The HBC Museum Collection at The Manitoba Museum consists of over 26,000 artifacts, the majority of which are ethnographic and represent the many cultural groups whose history became entwined with the Company's. While HBC's history extends back to 1670, the museum collection is quite modern as it was first considered in the 1920s and, as a result, the collection is primarily composed of 19th and 20th century artifacts. The exception lies with the pre-contact archaeological artifacts that were collected by curious HBC employees in Canada's north. This paper will present these materials, long over-looked due to their lack of archaeological context, and attempt to provide some historic context to support their potential interpretation.
Finch, David M.
The Rest Is History, Among Other Things: An Example of Multidisciplinary Heritage Research in the Hudson Bay Lowlands
Northern research is situated in a complex web of connections that stretch from the past to affect present choices. However, these relationships can be neglected owing to limits of project scope and timeline. Subarctic anthropological and archaeological projects are often pursued in isolation, and historically assumed great uniformity in northern environment and culture when in fact there exists considerable regional diversity. Successfully juggling these complexities requires the northern researcher to become a Jack (or Jill) of all trades. This paper discusses recent research in the community of Fort Severn, Ontario as an example of positive overlaps between disciplines (anthropology, archaeology, history, biology). Recent collaboration with the community on ethnohistoric and social-ecological projects provides insight on the interrelatedness of tools, implications for site prediction, and best practices in community-driven research.
Fireman, Margaret (Cree Nation of Chisasibi)
Living By the Great River
The importance of our spiritual bond to the land, water and universe is closely tied in the oral stories, legends and songs of our ancestors in connection to our roots, our language, our ceremonies, special place names, burial sites and the cultural landscapes. Our people followed the seasonal variations of nature and knew the land intimately. All living things communicated and had parallel knowledge and respect with each other. The natural environment provided all that they needed for their well-being. Depending on the seasons and location, different types of dwellings were constructed. Our ancestors have a strong spiritual presence as each generation has different memories and stories passed on from generation to generation- Aayaanischaa-past, present and future. There were no permanent structures until people congregated on the island of Fort George. The archaeological heritage is important as it provides historical evidence about our past; how our people lived and survived. It is not the material culture that we feel an emotional bond to, it is what it represents, the intrinsic value that it signifies.
Chisasibi-The Great River- Chisasibiiyiyuuch- 'We are the people of the Great River'.
Fitzpatrick, Scott (University of Oregon)
Discussant for the session Foragers and the Sea: Archaeological Perspectives on the Social Dimensions of Coastal Living
Foran, Tim (Canadian Museum of History)
Prayers, Pelts, and Politics: Catholic Missionaries and the Hudson's Bay Company in the Northwest, 1844-1898
This paper charts the evolution of a complex relationship between Roman Catholic missionaries and the Hudson's Bay Company in the Northwest over the latter half of the nineteenth century. Whereas missionaries described this relationship as strategic, harmonious, and mutually advantageous in the 1840s, 50s, and early 60s, they referred to it increasingly as exploitative over the following decades and sought wherever possible to mitigate the Company's "influences néfastes" on Aboriginal populations. In examining how and why this transformation occurred, this paper underscores the potential of missionary perspectives to enhance and complicate our understanding of fur-trade history.
Forsythe, Kyle D. (University of Western Ontario)
Buried Dreams: Refitting and Ritual at the Mount Albert Site (BaGt-40), Ontario.
Few intact Middle Archaic sites have been investigated in Southwestern Ontario and attention has focused on large, multicomponent sites, which are difficult to interpret. This talk focuses on recent fieldwork that has been conducted on an undisturbed, single-component Brewerton site in Mount Albert south of Lake Simcoe, where the lithic assemblage presents an unprecedented view of lifeways in the Middle Archaic (5000-4500 B.P.). Notable is the presence of high numbers of fragmented formal tools - moreso than is consistent with solely tool production activities. Particularly enigmatic inclusions are bannerstones, rare polished slate artifacts that are often interpreted as spearthrower weights. They are the first excavated examples from this time period in Ontario. I discuss the possibility that the artifacts were intentionally destroyed as part of previously undocumented ceremonial practices in the region.
Fowler, Kent D. (University of Manitoba), Mostafa Fayek (University of Manitoba), Scott Birse (Historic Resources Branch, Manitoba), Raven Sharma (University of Manitoba), Emma Middleton (University of Manitoba), and Kevin Brownlee (The Manitoba Museum)
Identifying pre-contact pottery resource areas in northern Manitoba
In this paper we present the results of a petrographic study examining whether pre-contact hunter-gather societies in the northern boreal forest of Manitoba collected local clays and temper to make pottery. Historical and ethnographic data indicate that potters may have obtained clay from a number of activity locations: seasonal camps, along paths and trails, and resource harvesting sites. Since travel by canoe was preferred during warmer months when pottery would optimally be made, it is possible that clay and/or vessels may have been moved considerable distances. Optical petrography, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the mineral and major elemental composition of clays, sediments, and sherds of 63 Middle-Late Woodland pottery vessels from Sipiwesk Lake in north-central Manitoba. When compared to pottery from ten other sites in the Nelson River and Red River drainages, the results link the composition of pottery to local 'resources areas' used by pre-contact potters around Sipiwesk Lake. Based on these linkages we can distinguish pottery made using "local" clay and temper resources and infer the movement of vessels in the Nelson River drainage. Our findings confirm historical and ethnographic observations and move us towards developing a Ceramic Resource Area Model (CRAM) for pre-contact hunter-gatherer communities, which has otherwise only been developed for sedentary or semi-sedentary communities. The implications for a CRAM of mobile hunter-gather communities are broad, including a contribution towards identifying communities of potters who produce a similar repertoire of pottery both in terms of style and manufacturing methods.
Fowler, Kent D. (University of Manitoba), Emma Middleton (University of Manitoba), and
Mostafa Fayek (University of Manitoba)
The human element: Discriminating the effects of manufacturing behaviour on the chemical composition of modern Zulu pottery from South Africa
In pottery provenance studies archaeologists cannot assume that the chemical elements in pottery are similar to the raw materials used to produce it. The natural variability in clays, the resources chosen by potters, and manufacturing techniques all influence the compositional variation of pottery. However, just how procurement and processing behaviours effect the composition of pottery vessels is not obvious, direct, or well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate how different clay selection and processing practices in eight contemporary Zulu communities in South Africa effect the chemical composition of the pottery they make. Through this detailed understanding of the "human element" affecting pottery composition, we propose how compositional data may be utilized to reconstruct past procurement strategies and processing behaviour in addition to refining our ability to relate compositional profiles to source materials.
Friesen, Max (University of Toronto)
The Arctic CHAR Project: Reacting to Climate-Related Destruction of the Inuvialuit Archaeological Record
It is now widely recognized that climate change is endangering heritage resources around the circumpolar North, though climate impacts vary by region. The western Canadian Arctic is one region where many factors combine to create a "worst case scenario" for impacts on the material record of the past. As a result, much of the region's coastline is eroding rapidly; with tragic consequences for many of the largest and most important Inuvialuit heritage sites. This situation led to the development of Arctic CHAR (Arctic Cultural Heritage At Risk), a project developed as a collaboration between university-based researchers and the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre in Inuvik. Arctic CHAR's primary goal is to assess the status of the most important sites in the region, and then selectively excavate portions of sites that are deemed most at risk. This paper will briefly outline the environmental and development factors leading to site destruction, and will conclude with an overview of activities during the 2013 (survey) and 2014 (excavation) seasons.
Gates St-Pierre, Christian (Université de Montréal), and Matthew Collins (University of York)
Social Bones. What bone debris, striations, and molecules can tell about an ancient Iroquoian community from southern Quebec
The St. Anicet cluster is a group of Late Woodland St. Lawrence Iroquoian village sites located in the Upper St. Lawrence River valley, Quebec. Two of these villages, Droulers and Mailhot-Curran, have yielded large quantities of faunal remains, including bone tools and manufacturing debris. Zooarchaeological, technological, usewear, and biomolecular analyses were conducted to understand how the local fauna was exploited, but also to investigate some aspects of the social organisation and preferences of this Iroquoian community.
Gaulton, Barry (Memorial University)
How much can a big hole in the ground tell you?: Preliminary investigations into the 1620s builder's trench associated with Lord Baltimore's Mansion House at Ferryland, Newfoundland
Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, is well known for establishing a permanent English settlement at Ferryland Newfoundland in 1621, for his prompt retreat from these shores following one harsh winter, and for setting the foundation for the colony of St. Mary's City in today's state of Maryland. History however does not shed any light on his "Mansion House" at Ferryland: its size, the nature of its construction or how this building functioned within the physical and social confines of seventeenth-century Ferryland. The ongoing archaeology at Ferryland has provided answers to these inquiries and more. In 2013-2014, investigations directly south of the Mansion House's stone hall revealed a deep and wide builder's trench infilled with approximately 6 feet of compacted, sterile clay and rock. At the very bottom of the trench was a thin layer of refuse associated with the construction of the stone hall and, more importantly, the activities of the ordinary colonists and craftsmen who built it. This paper explores the importance of this builder's trench and its contents for understanding early manorial architecture in North America, religious toleration in the New World, and the limits of archaeologists' endurance.
Glass tableware in New France, the use of archaeometric analysis and the social perspective.
While studying the use of French glass tableware in North America during the French colonial period, the perspective offered by archaeometric techniques cannot be ignored. Different types of techniques have been developed to answers specific questions relative to glass material. We will particularly put the light on compositional analysis that allows us to see the glass tableware in a social perspective. The specific case of Venetian glass is an excellent example of such a problematic. If a façon-de-Venise glass is of good quality, even a trained eye cannot determine if such a glass is a real Venetian one or a façon-de-Venise, an imitation. In such a case, archaeologists need to resort to specific compositional analysis in order to determine the glass origin. But it's not only a question of provenience, as the price of the glass may vary depending on if the glass is a real Venetian one, much more expensive, or an imitation. Regarding those elements, the aim of that paper is to cross sociological interrogations, specifically the questions of elitism, social interaction through imitation and ostentation, with archaeological data obtained via archaeometric techniques.
Gilbert, William (Baccalieu Trail Heritage Corporation)
"Dwelling There Still": Historical Archaeology in Cupids, Newfoundland
Cupids, Newfoundland is the site of the first English settlement in what is now Canada. Despite this many people are still uncertain about the true significance of the founding of Cupids in 1610. William Gilbert discovered the site in 1995 and has conducted excavations there every year since. In this paper he will look at some of the more significant archaeological discoveries made over the last 20 years and combine these with recent documentary research in an attempt to place Cupids in its proper historical context.
Gjerde, Jan Magne (University of Oslo)
Interacting with the sea - rock art location and seascapes in the Stone Age of Northernmost Europe
The majority of Stone Age rock art and settlement sites in northernmost Europe are situated close to the contemporary shoreline. The landscapes and seascapes of this region were very different during the Stone Age. Traditional functional explanations for the shore location of settlement and rock art sites are further supported by circumpolar ethnography, whereby rock art and settlements are placed in the middle world of a three tiered cosmology. Several rock art and settlement sites are submerged during transgressions, suggesting that the placing of rock art there was a way that people interacted with the sea, seascapes and the maritime sphere. It is further argued that knowledge of land was incorporated in Stone Age rock art and that rock art acted as memoryscapes to Stone Age people.
Glen, Courtney (Davis MacIntyre & Associates)
Implementing Public Archaeology and Indigenous Community Engagement within CRM Projects: The Paq'tnkek Project Case Study.
There has been recent and growing interest in community-oriented archaeology and public archaeology in Canada. Community engagement has been viewed as a way to decolonize archaeology and minimize ethnocentrism, particularly within Indigenous communities but can be challenging to implement within CRM projects. This paper examines a five-week mitigation project on the Paq'tnkek Mi'kmaw Nation Reserve in which public community engagement was a major goal. A video of the project was created by two Paq'tnkek youth and can viewed online (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MV63Hz5sIk8). The challenges, successes and benefits of the project, for archaeology and for the community will be discussed.
Glen, Courtney (Davis MacIntyre & Associates)
Exchange in the Woodland Period: the Starr's Point Surface Collection Project.
North Mountain quartz varieties like jasper and chalcedony are found on First Nations sites throughout parts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Aside from its value as a lithic material for use in flaking technologies, chalcedony, jasper and other minerals from Blomidon had a cultural significance that may have contributed to their trade value. In 2014, Davis MacIntyre & Associates Limited conducted surface collection at a First Nations site at Starr's Point, Nova Scotia, resulting in the collection of 2300 artifacts. This paper will relate the findings of the surface collection project and will examine the site within the broader context of the exchange of lithic and other culturally significant materials in the Woodland period. The cultural significance of some of the recovered material will also be explored.
Goodwin, Rebecca (University of Toronto)
A whole "Lota" burbot: Evaluating the Inuvialuit Winter Fishery
Ethnographic accounts show that fishing and fish consumption have long been an important part of Inuit culture, even when higher value prey is available. The Lower East Channel of the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, is particularly rich and diverse in fish species and has been occupied by the Inuvialuit and their ancestors for thousands of years. These large Inuvialuit sites contain some of the best-preserved examples of fish exploitation in the entire arctic, yet the diversity and intensity of this fishery is rarely explored. Using the faunal data from a newly excavated cruciform dwelling at the winter beluga-hunting site of Kuukpuk, I will attempt to quantify this fishery. Special emphasis is placed on identifying winter exploitation of fish.
Grønnow, Bjarne (National Museum of Denmark)
High Arctic Hotspots in Greenland: Investigating Relations between Biotic Resources and Human Settlement around Polynyas
Research in the Sirius Water area, a recurrent polynya in North East Greenland, has revealed basic differences in settlement patterns and subsistence strategies applied by different prehistoric societies. Due to remarkably rich and highly concentrated biotic resources, the Sirius Water was, like other polynyas, a rare 'oasis' for human life in the High Arctic, however only periodically so. Sometimes ecosystems reached a 'tipping point' from where return to an earlier equilibrium was not an option. The first part of the paper explores the natural and cultural processes that led to such events around the Sirius Water. Experiences from these studies form the basis of the current NOW Project, where biologists, anthropologists, and archaeologists collaborate in order to explore the dynamics of biotic resources and human life around the North Water, the prominent polynya in the easternmost Arctic, situated between Ellesmere Island and the Thule region in Greenland. The second part of the paper introduces the NOW Project and presents some archaeological discoveries from the first field season around Cape York.
Guindon, Amélie (Université de Montréal)
Potters and Merchants: Their role in the composition and variation of glazed pottery from the Sadirac production center, France
Archaeologists working on the French colonial period are struggling with the lack of data concerning the early modern period in France. Many have started to do provenance studies especially of ceramics because of their good conservation. Unfortunately, many production centers are still unknown or barely studied. Sadirac appears as the biggest pottery production center of the southwest of France. This village close to Bordeaux seems to have produced many ceramics and exported them through local, regional and transatlantic trades. In order to improve our understanding of this production center and to help researchers to continue their provenance studies, I present a global study of this pottery production center. Using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) I studied green glazed productions from eight sites (workshops, dumps, kilns...) dating to the 14th through 19th centuries at Sadirac. Analyses of the raw materials, methods and techniques of the glazes produced have shown substantial variations between workshops for all periods. It is possible to correlate some tendencies with fundamental changes in this handcraft, helping us to understand the social and professional organisation of potters, and merchants' implication in the glazed pottery production of Sadirac.
Guiry, Eric (University of British Columbia) and Michael Richards (University of British Columbia)
Isotopic perspectives on domestic animal diet and trade at rural and urban sites in 19th C. Toronto, Canada.
This presentation will explore stable isotope variation in livestock consumed at different kinds of historical sites in Toronto during the 19th C. in order to help better understand how animals were raised and traded during the urbanization of Southern Ontario. Bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values from cattle and pigs are compared between urban and rural sites to (1) construct an isotopic baseline for livestock husbandry in the region and (2) identify patterns in meat sourcing practices among urban wealthy vs. poor neighborhoods. We hope that this study shows the potential for approaching questions about historical animal trade from an isotopic perspective.
Hamilton, Scott (Lakehead University)
The 'Late' Fur Trade and Contemporary Northern Aboriginal Life
The fur trade drove early European colonialism in northern North America, and integrated European and Aboriginal economic interests. Aboriginal people were portrayed as central protagonists in the trade until the mid 1800s, but they became increasingly marginalized in the historical narrative after Canadian Confederation. In part, this reflects the late 19th Century socio-economic transformation of Canada, and the shifting attention of Canadian historical research towards 'nation building' themes. However Aboriginal communities did not disappear, nor did they cease their central involvement in the fur trade. Indeed, they continued to merge traditional harvest with surplus production (furs, commercial fishing, etc.) into the modern period, and affects how many Indigenous people define traditional life on the land.
Hamilton, Scott (Lakehead University), Matt Boyd (Lakehead University), and Terry Gibson (Western Heritage)
The State of Play in Boreal Forest Archaeology
Canada's Subarctic represents a substantial portion of its landmass, and is increasingly being subjected to large-scale natural resource and infrastructure development. But it remains something of an archaeological enigma, with published interpretations remaining little changed from those offered over a half century ago. This is a function of the region's geographic enormity, comparative inaccessibility, severe taphonomy, limited research and publication among other systemic issues. However new research approaches are emerging across the Subarctic that offer new insights and perspectives. Examples from northern Ontario review some of these developments, with special attention to the consequences of new methodologies to aid site prospection and material culture analyses.
Hamilton, Scott (Lakehead University), Jason Stephenson (Lakehead University), and Chris McEvoy (Lakehead University)
Remote Sensing for the Rest of Us: 'Consumer-Grade' Technology and Possible Applications to Archaeology
Over the past 40 years increasingly sophisticated scientific and technological tools have been applied to archaeology. This often required a costly outlay for equipment and technical expertise beyond that available to most archaeologists. However the cost of electronic tools has decreased sharply, as consumer and hobbyist demand grows. This coincides with improving capability, interpretative resolution, and ease of use. At issue is whether consumer-grade devices offer sufficient capacity for archaeological research application. Ongoing research at Lakehead University is undertaking 'proof of concept' evaluation of camera-equipped UAVs to document terrestrial sites, and GPS-enabled sonar to document underwater sites and landforms.
Hanley, Jacob (St. Mary's University), Jessica Whattam (St. Mary's University), Katie Cottreau-Robins (Nova Scotia Museum), Chris McFarlane (University of New Brunswick), Bruce Stewart (Cultural Resource Management Group Ltd), and Mike Saunders (Cultural Resource Management Group Ltd)
The geochemical provenance of pre-contact copper artifacts from the Gaspereau Lake Reservoir, Nova Scotia: analytical approaches, challenges and interpretation
In-situ microanalysis by laser ablation ICP-MS is rapid and virtually non-destructive compared to conventional bulk techniques (XRF, NAA). We used LA-ICPMS to compare trace element concentrations in 28 copper artifacts (worked "nuggets") from the Gaspereau Lake area, Nova Scotia to natural samples from 10 deposits in Michigan and Nova Scotia. Intra- and inter-sample variations in trace element concentrations at hand sample and deposit scales are <20% (relative) whereas previous NAA and XRF data is compromised by contaminating mineral inclusions in the copper that cannot be excluded in the large sample volumes required for these methods. Eight of the artifacts were derived from 2 sources on the Bay of Fundy coast with contrasting Ag/Pb ratios. (Cap D'Or and Margaretsville-Victoria Beach). The remaining 20 artifacts are not from the Bay of Fundy, or any Michigan sources (enriched in As relative to Fundy) and comprise 5 distinct yet geographically unidentified provenance groupings. Preliminary results reassert the importance of local (Fundy) copper to pre-contact period indigenous peoples of Nova Scotia and the Maritimes, and negate the Lake Superior model. The diversity of copper sources indicated has significance in the broader context of territorial procurement of copper, and trade relationships between groups of aboriginal peoples.
Hare, P. Gregory (Yukon Cultural Services Branch-Archaeology), Christian Thomas (Yukon Cultural Services Branch-Archaeology) and Barbara Hogan (Yukon Cultural Services Branch—Historic Sites)
From Yukon's Subarctic to Arctic: the Heritage Costs and Benefits of Climate Change.
Archaeologists have long understood the relentless impact of climate change on past cultures and the material evidence of those cultures as preserved in the archaeological record. Climates change, landforms change, structures collapse, sites are buried, sites wash away. Straddling the subarctic/arctic regions, the Yukon Territory has undergone dramatic environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present, and the effects of climate change will continue to influence heritage management priorities in the territory. From the dynamic shoreline erosion of Herschel Island to the episodic melting of alpine ice patches in southern Yukon, evidence of climate change is felt throughout the territory. This paper provides an overview of current climate-related heritage management issues facing Yukon today and examines the impacts and benefits that may be associated with climate change
Harris, Alison (Memorial University), Ana T. Duggan (McMaster University), Stephanie Marciniak (McMaster University), Ingeborg Marshall (Memorial University), Hendrik Poinar (McMaster University), and Vaughan Grimes (Memorial University).
The Social Meanings of Food in a Marginal Environment: New Stable Isotope Results and Radiocarbon dates from the Maritime Archaic Cemetery (EeBi-02) at Port au Choix, NL
The Maritime Archaic tradition represents the first continuous occupation of the island of Newfoundland. Much of what is known about this occupation of the island is derived from Locus II of the multi-loci cemetery at Port au Choix (EeBi-02). Even though the skeletal remains of over 100 people have been recovered from the cemetery, the burial ground is not clearly associated with a habitation site. It is, however, associated with a major seal harvesting region that is assumed to have been a critical resource to the people of the Maritime Archaic tradition and the hunter-gatherer groups who succeeded them. Despite the assumption that the island environment necessitated a heavy reliance on marine resources, previous research has indicated that when compared with other precontact Newfoundland populations, people of the Maritime Archaic tradition had the most variable diets, with differences appearing to relate to biological sex and age. Here we present new radiocarbon dates from Locus I and Locus V, and the results of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen from 80 individuals representing interments from each burial locus. These data build a more detailed account of the development of the cemetery and can be used to explore social differentiation within the population and changing subsistence patterns through time.
Harris, Megan (Simon Fraser University)
Can a Quarry Move? Challenges and Questions from an Elemental Analysis of Sedimentary Beads on the Salish Sea
X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) provides a unique opportunity to elementally group artifacts in to known or unknown source groups. XRF works well in the context of a stationary, elementally homogenous quarry where lithic raw material was collected. However, the majority of lithic raw materials are assumed to have been collected from areas in close proximity to sites, e.g. riverbanks and/or gravel bars. Elemental analysis of sedimentary lithic raw material, an elementally homogenous material, groups a geographically vast material into a single source group. Grouping presents its own challenges in the definition of a sedimentary lithic raw material quarry as the majority of this material appears on riverbanks and gravel bars, which currents affect. This paper presents an elemental analysis of sedimentary ground stone disk beads from the Salish Sea and the challenges faced when using a lithic raw material from a moving quarry.
Hartery, Latonia (Memorial University)
Dorset Paleoeskimo Warm Season Adaptations in Newfoundland
The Dorset Paleoeskimo were hunter-gatherers who inhabited Newfoundland from approximately 1900 BP to 1100 BP. Their reliance on sea mammals as a primary source of food has been long been established. This paper presents an alternative view of Dorset Paleoeskimo subsistence strategy in Newfoundland, one which shows a greater degree of flexibility than previously known. Peat Garden North, a site in Bird Cove, on the Northern Peninsula, consists of a faunal assemblage, lithic remains, phytoliths and starch, and house features which all suggest a summer occupation - a season for which very little data exists and the economic choices of the Dorset Paleoeskimo remain elusive. Results from Peat Garden North are compared to other sites across Newfoundland and Labrador to further isolate information about late spring and summer behaviour. Factors considered when accounting for this subsistence diversity include environmental differences between the Arctic and Newfoundland, resource seasonal availability, climate change, human agency and social structure.
Hartery, Latonia (Memorial University)
Northern Cruise Ship Archaeology: Survey Through the Northwest Passage
Over the past decade, the number of passenger cruise ships traveling through the Arctic has increased dramatically. Due to changing climate, and ice conditions, these ships sail further north each year, and have access to isolated archaeological sites. This paper discusses the archaeologist's role in these voyages as a permit holder, interpreter, and also as the professional responsible for maintaining site integrity during visits. It looks at the pros and cons of the industry, the benefits for archaeologists and northern communities, as well as the scientific contributions to polar archaeology in the form of a survey through the Northwest Passage.
Hawkins, Catherine (Memorial University) and Barry Gaulton (Memorial University)
Buildings, Bombardments, and Burnings: archaeological evidence for the multiple occupations and destructions of Ferryland, Newfoundland (1621-1705)
The archaeological record at Ferryland contains extensive evidence of Sir George Calvert's 1621 colony and the subsequent reorganizations undertaken by Sir David Kirke and his family starting in 1638. This same record bears witness to the tumultuous events its residents had to endure including the partial destruction of waterfront facilities in 1673, the total annihilation of the settlement in 1696 and further harassment in the first decade of the eighteenth century. Cannonballs, collapsed walls, burned floors, melted ceramics and glass, and the remains of non-human casualties speak to the level of destruction. Throughout these uncertain and troubled times, Ferryland residents persistently returned and rebuilt their lives atop the remains of former structures. In this regard, the archaeology at Ferryland is a testament to early European's tenacity and ingenuity in carving out a livelihood in the face of harsh and adverse conditions.
Hodgetts, Lisa (University of Western Ontario), Laura Kelvin (University of Western Ontario), and Kathryn Kotar (University of Western Ontario).
Connecting with the Past: Seasonal Rhythms at a Thule Inuit Qarmat on Banks Island, NWT.
Abstract: Priscilla Renouf's work at the Dorset site of Phillip's Garden examined the importance of skin processing at the site. In so doing, she redirected archaeological attention from its traditional focus on seal hunting, often associated with men, to hide working and sewing activities, often associated with women. Our engagement with the Inuvialuit community of Sachs Harbour on Banks Island is similarly re-orienting our research. The Ikaahuk Archaeology Project (IAP) is a community-based investigation of 4000 years of human history on Banks Island (Ikaahuk in Inuvialuktun), NWT. Modern residents of Sachs Harbour, the island's only settlement, have expressed frustration with the traditional archaeological emphasis on large mammal hunting, and want to learn more about things like fishing and sewing in the past. The IAP recently excavated a Thule Inuit qarmat, a shallow semi-subterranean dwelling, typically occupied in spring and fall, at the site of Agvik (OkRn-1) near Sachs Harbour. The dwelling contains abundant evidence for the processing of Arctic fox skins, which helps to connect its occupants with Sachs Harbour families, many of whom first settled on the island to trap foxes. There is also evidence in the qarmat for fishing and goose hunting, which today remain important activities that bring families together on the land and allow them to connect with their past and traditions.
Hodgson, Tasha (Lakehead University)
Micro-analytical investigations of unifacial tool technologies at the Woodpecker II Site (DdJf-12)
Between 2010 and 2012, Western Heritage excavated several Late Paleoindian archaeological sites along the relic shoreline of Glacial Lake Minong, in the Thunder Bay Region. One of these sites, Woodpecker II (DdJf-2), served as a case study for a biochemical residue and microwear analysis. The goal of this study was to add to the growing literature concerning the economy and subsistence patterns of regional Paleoindian cultures. The study sample consisted primarily of unifacially flaked tools. These tools ranged from expedient to formal in manufacture and were comprised of several morphological types. A smaller selection of utilized flake tools were selected as supplementary data. Multiple micro-analytical techniques w ere employed to maximize the recoverable data from the sample. The resultant five-stage methodology consisted of the following: preliminary microscopic examinations for in-situ residues, residue extractions from the working edges, low-powered microscopic wear analyses, multi-analytical residue analysis, and a comparative stage to determine the validity of each individual approach. This presentation will discuss the comparability between the results, as well as preliminary inferences from the data analysis.
Hodgson, Tasha (Lakehead University)
Micro-analytical techniques for documentation of plant use in Northwestern Ontario
The combination of poor organic preservation and slow soil formation processes has led to constraints concerning the documentation of pre-contact floral resource use within the boreal forest. These conditions have resulted in interpretations being limited to more traditional analyse s of stone and pottery artifacts, which have temporal limitations of their own (i.e., sites that pre-date pottery). As large-scale development within Northwestern Ontario increases, so too does the need for new methodologies to maximize recoverable data from these limited resources. In recent years, several promising approaches have been proposed to aid in this endeavour. One of these techniques involves the micro - analysis of lithic artifacts for indirect evidence of tool function and food resource use. Ongoing research into experimental microwear patterns via use - wear analysis will aid in the development of baseline expectations for the inference of tool function. Organic residue analysis, if proven viable for Palaeo contexts, may identify otherwise invisible organic material culture allowing further inference concerning pre-contact resource use. The preliminary results of a case study utilizing these techniques will be presented here, demonstrating the efficacy of using a combined micro-analytical approach. Should the technique be successful, it can then be expanded to address a broader range of sites and to build upon interpretations from more traditional analytical approaches.
Holder, Madeline (Tree Time Services) and Reid Graham (Tree Time Services)
Digging in the Dark: Examining patterns of test locations and artifact distributions in boreal forest sites.
This study aims to examine the relationship between test pit locations, and artifact distributions in boreal forest hinterland sites. Focusing on point or corner terrace landforms, the common practice to "test the point" is reviewed by using aggregate data to determine if there are typical artifact distributions patterns on the tip and elsewhere on the landform. The artifact density is mapped based on distance from primary and secondary landform edges in order to identify general patterns and make recommendations regarding micro-site selection and the detection and delineation of sites. The aggregate data has been compiled from sites identified by Tree Time Services Inc. between 2010-2014.
Holly, Donald H. (Eastern Illinois University), and Paul Prince (MacEwan University)
The Relative Productivity of Coastal and Terrestrial Environments and Why People Matter: the View from Birchy Lake, Interior Newfoundland
Archaeologists have long debated the relative productivity of coastal and terrestrial environments for hunter-fisher-gatherers. This issue has been examined globally with the aim of understanding the occupation history and nature of coastal and terrestrial "adaptations" in general, and specifically within the Eastern Subarctic for assessing the relative risks and vulnerabilities associated with coastal versus terrestrial living. This paper revisits the specific issue of risk and vulnerability from the perspective of a first millennium C.E. Amerindian site located on Birchy Lake, in the interior of the island of Newfoundland. We suggest that the nature of social organization, lifeways, and the relationship between Amerindians and their Paleoeskimo contemporaries ultimately played a more significant role in the relative success and failure of hunter-fisher-gatherers on Birchy Lake and on the island than the natural environment itself.
Holyoke, Ken (Stantec Consulting Ltd.), Trevor Dow (Stantec Consulting Ltd.), Matthew Bagley (Stantec Consulting Ltd.), Jeff Benjamin (Stantec Consulting Ltd.), and Ryan Sutcliffe (Stantec Consulting Ltd.)
Digital tools for a new AEON: Integrating mobile GIS technology, surveys and modeling in New Brunswick cultural resource management
Starting in 2013, Stantec archaeologists in New Brunswick integrated GIS-based mapping and data collection with their field programs as part of the modernization of the discipline and to assist with post-field data analysis. The initial launch used ArcPad and resulted in enhanced data collection and a more accurate depiction of areas assessed as having elevated potential for archaeological resources. Processing this data was time consuming which prompted a search for alternate solutions. Following discussions with counterparts elsewhere in Canada, a revised program was developed with the assistance of a software programmer. The Archaeology Electronic Observation and Notation (AEON) application was launched in 2014 in British Columbia and New Brunswick with success in both jurisdictions. AEON implements both Microsoft mobile database technologies and ESRI ArcGIS Mobile to provide an easy to use application. Survey data for AEON projects in New Brunswick is preliminary, but already provides a valuable tool for planning and constraints analysis for clients. In the coming field season, this preliminary data will be verified on multiple projects with testing components. Moving forward, the data will be an integral tool for archaeologists in evaluating existing provincial models and for the development of more robust archaeological "predictive" models.
Howse, Lesley (University of Toronto)
Technological Impacts on Late Dorset and Thule Inuit Archaeofaunas from the Eastern Arctic
Abstract: Despite the limitations of the Arctic environment, it has been home to very different and successful societies throughout prehistory, and each of these groups relied almost exclusively on animals for food and raw materials. In this paper, I explore how differences in the technologies used by Late Dorset and Thule Inuit societies impacted the animal bones found on their respective sites, and ultimately how they interacted with animals. Fine-grained zooarchaeological analyses were used in order to reconstruct Late Dorset and Thule Inuit hunting strategies, site seasonality, settlement patterns, and butchery and disposal practices. To address marked variability in resource availability between different areas, I focused on three separate Arctic regions where Late Dorset and Thule Inuit occupied either the same site, or sites located in close proximity to one another. Results suggest that while Late Dorset and Thule Inuit 'adaptive' strategies in these areas were largely determined by regionally-specific environments, they are also culturally distinct, which serves to highlight the role of culture in prehistoric lifeways, even in 'marginal' environments.
Hrynick, M. Gabriel (University of Connecticut), and David W. Black (University of New Brunswick-Fredericton)
Dwelling Features and Cultural Change during the Maritime Woodland Period in the Quoddy Region
Explanations of hunter-gatherer cultural transitions are often posited at the confluence of social and economic-subsistence change, the latter often considered in tandem with environmental change. Dwelling features may offer archaeologists useful windows for considering this interplay, as dwellings are both technological articulations with the environment and social arenas. Changes in spatial and architectural form can be documented archaeologically to reflect the historically situated ways that people negotiated their worlds in their daily lives. While some transitions in architecture and domestic space may be particularly salient in the archaeological record, others may be more subtle. In this paper, we consider the varied Pre-Contact architectural record of the Quoddy Region (Washington County, Maine, and Charlotte County, New Brunswick). While Middle and early Late Maritime Woodland dwelling features have most frequently been reported in the regional literature, sufficient evidence exists to propose an architectural sequence spanning much of the Maritime Woodland period, paralleling other evidence for a dynamic view of that time. We argue that the architectural and spatial record of the Quoddy Region indicates that the Late Maritime Woodland period was a time of transformation in daily social life informed by a long historical trajectory.
Hughes, Colleen (University of Calgary)
The Application of Sentiment Analysis to Inuit Place Names and Heritage Valuation
The question of how Arctic heritage and archaeological sites are valued, explored and then considered 'significant' generally relates to whoever is evaluating the site. Due to limitations in time, funding and resources it is necessary to have a system of evaluating in order to prioritize how sites are managed, but whose system creates this valuation? My research revolves around assessing sentiment analysis as a methodology to determine valuation of heritage areas via Inuit place names and comparing that information to governmental heritage valuation in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. This may provide one way for local indigenous communities to communicate to non-indigenous groups regarding the importance of places on the landscape. Sentiment analysis is a useful method for archaeologists to extract subjective information from text (i.e. opinions, emotions, attitudes) to create positive, negative or neutral scores based on a statistical algorithm. The emphasis of the presentation explains sentiment analysis, its potential use for archaeologists (i.e. as a line of evidence) and what it is currently being used for (examples range from national security to marketing).
Hunt, Garett (Purdue University), and H. Kory Cooper (Purdue University)
Marpole Copper Innovation
Examples of worked copper appear in the archaeological record in the central Northwest Coast during the Middle Pacific Late Holocene period at roughly 900 BCE. This represents some of the earliest metalworking in northwestern North America. The copper technological phenomenon has been traditionally considered a feature of the Marpole cultural unit. This association has been used widely to embed copper within theoretical frameworks of developing social complexity, which has often been argued from the copper's near exclusive presence in burial contexts and abstract artifact morphologies. Pre-contact example of copper are extremely rare and poorly documented. This has made it difficult to theorize the circumstances leading to the innovation or adoption of copper technologies and, by extension, testing the hypothetical links with social differentiation. This paper presents a comprehensive accounting of known examples of pre-contact native copper artifacts within Salish Sea, lower Fraser River Valley, and along the north coastlines of British Columbia. Native copper identification was verified using handheld XRF. Theoretical processes for copper innovation strategies are tested through morphometric analysis and a Behavioural Archaeology perspective. This data is evaluated and contrasted against other locals of copper innovation across North America.
Techniques and Uses of Low Cost 3D Scanning in Archaeology
The use of 3D scanning technology in the context of archaeology is far from a new idea, but until recently it was often prohibitively expensive or lacked the resolution to be an effective tool. Advances in scanning hardware have reduced the cost and increased the precision of the 3D models that can be produced. Concurrently, free to use, open source software for the management and manipulation of these models have opened doors to researchers who could not previously afford this technology. 3D scanning techniques such as photometry, infrared mesh, and structured light scanning allow for speed and precision scanning of not only artifacts but also sites and features. Being able to represent these features in 3 dimensions allows for rapid measurement as well as a far better sense of scale and perspective. These aspects of low cost 3D scanning make it a very powerful tool for recording non-traditional archaeological materials and sites, such as remnants of WWII emplacements and structures. 3D scanning techniques allow a detailed recording of these eroding sites that is easily accomplished, low cost, and serves to monitor the condition of these sites.
Mini University at the Kain Site (DlLw-11): A Case Study in Public Archaeology
For the past 15 years, archaeological investigations have been conducted at the Kain Site by over 1000 youth (ages 8-15) attending Brandon University's Mini University program. The program has been led by approximately 30 instructors who, for the most part, were undergraduate students at Brandon University. This presentation will review how education, excavation and lab procedures were conducted over the years and present a summary of the research completed at the site. It will also examine how the program has benefited the Brandon University Anthropology Department and the impact it has had on the student and instructor participants.
Hyslop, Bradley G. (Lac Seul, Northwestern Ontario)
Positively Amazing-A New Picture of Pre-contact Cultural Landscape Use in the Boreal Forest
Ongoing research being carried out within the Lac Seul basin of Northwestern Ontario involves a systematic testing of the forested interior in some locations. The results provide a new perspective of landscape utilisation in the boreal forest by pre-contact cultural groups. This paper will also outline the Light Bright model and provide data that supports this concept for describing the interaction of foraging groups in a region defined as Minontoba.
Hyslop, Bradley G. (Lac Seul, Northwestern Ontario), and Jeff Bursey
The Lightbulb Site: (EcJx-9): Technological and Functional Variability in a Biface Cache from Lac Seul, Northwestern Ontario.
A collection of lithic artifacts eroding from the shores of Lac Seul is providing abundant new information on the material culture of northwestern Ontario. In comparison with other biface caches from north of the Great Lakes, this relatively large assemblage of bifaces, flakes and fragments consists of artifacts manufactured from a diversity of previously undocumented raw materials and includes artifacts discarded during all stages of manufacture. The assemblage recovered during two brief visits in 2006 and 2012 will be described and discussed in terms of how tool caches might have been used in prehistoric mobility strategies and implications for future archaeological investigations in the Lac Seul region.
Jack, Meghann (Memorial University of Newfoundland)
"Unpretentious in style": Rural domestic architecture along the St. Mary's River in Northeastern Nova Scotia
The vernacular landscape of rural Nova Scotia bears witness to a great reordering of farmhouses during the middle-to-late decades of the nineteenth century— a period of agricultural modernization in Maritime Canada. This paper explores the transformation of farmhouse design along the St. Mary's River in Northeastern Nova Scotia from c.1840-1900. The farmhouse is examined as a site of both domestic comfort and industry within the changing context of cultural values that restructured notions of public display and privacy, and the spatial segregation of labour and leisure. Architectural evidence is linked to the wider social and ideological forces that influenced perceptions of appropriate cultural aesthetic in farmhouse design and appearance—characterized by an austere interpretation of the Classical and Gothic Revivals.
Jahraus, Adam (University of Calgary), Peter Dawson (University of Calgary), Derek Lichti (University of Calgary) and Max Friesen (University of Toronto).
Assessing the Potential of Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Arctic Archaeology.
A terrestrial laser scanner instrument uses laser range-finding to produce a point cloud; a dense set of three-dimensional point coordinate measurements of objects within its field of view. Arctic archaeologists are beginning to recognize the potential uses of these and other reality capture technologies for recording, interpreting, and visualizing arctic heritage. This paper explores the potential of terrestrial laser scanning in arctic environments, using recent fieldwork at the Kuukpak site in the Mackenzie delta region as a case study. Specifically, we examine how point cloud data is collected and used in architectural analysis, the temporal monitoring of heritage at risk, and as a means of increasing public awareness of archaeological sites of national and international significance.
Jamieson, Bruce (Heritage Research)
Examining Style in Iroquoian Bone Artifacts
Indivdual artifacts and artifact assemblages exhibit aspects of both style and function, aspects that are dualistic and often indistinguishable. This presentation will examine the osseous technology of two Iroquoian groups within the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands region, the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and the ancestral Wendat. It will focus on five roughly contemporaneous sites: McKeown and Roebuck - St. Lawrence Iroquoian village sites; Keffer and Draper - ancestral Wendat village sites; and Steward - a special purpose St. Lawrence Iroquoian fishing station. These sites have been selected because their function, ethnic affiliation and temporal placement are well known and therefore, can be controlled for. Their similarities and differences will be examined to shed light on how elements of stylistic expression are demonstrated by distinctive patterns within these artifact assemblages.
Julig, Patrick (Laurentian University)
Should we avoid excavating quarry faces? Evaluating potential for stratigraphic separation and dating of assemblages on the edges and swales of ancient quarries, examples from the Canadian Shield.
While quarry sites can typically pose challenges due to mixed assemblages with lack of stratigraphic separation, unique opportunities may also be present. Lithic procurement among mobile hunter/gatherer/foragers is often imbedded in other activities, so many large quarry sites also have tool/perform manufacture and habitation areas. Rather than near quarry faces these activity areas may be on the site fringes and edges of extraction locations, and may extending into swales and bogs with organic soils. In the Boreal forest the organic sedimentation rates in bogs and swales is greater compared to the upland soils, wet lands are typically less affected by tree throws, forest fires and bioturbation, and may provide isolated datable assemblages with stratigraphic separation. The potential for locating areas with stratigraphic separation by pre-excavation evaluation, mapping and testing are discussed, with examples for Cummins, Sheguiandah and other quarry/workshop sites. Because of long-term repetitive use some large quarry sites may help provide some dates and answers to major questions of Canadian Shield prehistory.
Kaplan, Susan A. (The Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, Bowdoin College)
Thriving on the "Periphery" of the Inuit World
When Thule groups migrated into Labrador around the late thirteenth century, they settled in a part of the north that was away from the well-traveled migration routes of their cousins. However, the newcomers to Labrador did not settle into a marginal environment. Their new home gave them ready access to a diversity of marine and terrestrial resources that by the end of the eighteenth century supported large Inuit communities. While moving into Labrador may have isolated Labrador Inuit from their northern relatives, their interactions with the Western world were early and intense. As a result of history and geography, as well as Inuit adaptability, eighteenth century Labrador Inuit were integrated into a world economy and their culture evolved socially, economically, and politically. They adapted to changing environmental and social circumstances, employing many of the technologies and strategies with which their ancestors came to Labrador, while selectively adopting European materials they found useful. The archaeological and ethnohistorical record, and scenes of Labrador Inuit life drawn by Nain children in the 1940s and 1950s reveal the robust sense of identity and culture of Labrador Inuit.
Kelvin, Laura Elena (Western University) and Lisa Hodgetts (Western University)
"We Learn through Doing": Inuvialuit Historicities and Community-Based Archaeology on Banks Island, NWT
Traditional knowledge and oral histories have always aided in archaeological interpretations. However, these forms of knowledge are only one aspect of Inuit historicities. The ways in which the Inuit understand, relate to, and learn about the past are multifaceted and diverse, and extend far beyond the formal communication of oral histories and traditional knowledge. Archaeologists working in the North are increasingly recognizing that in order to build meaningful partnerships with local communities a better understanding of Inuit historicities is needed. The Ikaahuk Archaeology Project is currently in its fourth year and is a community-oriented project working with people from the Inuvialuit community of Sachs Harbour. Based on archaeological and ethnographic research with the community, this paper will examine the diversity of Inuvialuit historicities, and how this relates to community-based archaeology.
Kenel, Kait (University of Saskatchewan)
Dene Tha' First Nation and the Science on the Land Project: Community-Based Archaeology in Northwestern Alberta Dene Tha' First Nation
The ongoing research to be discussed in this paper is twofold: an archaeological excavation of the IgQk-5 site at Meander River, Alberta, and an ethnographic characterization of the life ways of the Dene Tha' First Nation (DTFN) of northwestern Alberta. This archaeological site is located in the boreal forest and has proven to be rare, particularly since there is some organic preservation and defined stratigraphy. Many boreal forest sites in northern Alberta have little to no organic preservation and there is often limited stratigraphic integrity. Also, the excavation is atypical because it is a project conceived and carried out primarily by the DTFN. An excellent example of an Indigenous archaeology approach, this project has presented the opportunity for an archaeologist to work within the DTFN community on a number of different levels. These include working with youth, elders, and council in varying capacities from teaching to ethnographic data collection. In addition, there has been an opportunity to see several benefits resulting for the community and archaeologist. As such, the project reaches beyond strictly informing the largely understudied archaeological record and efforts to develop the regional culture history, but also serves community development and planning needs.
Keron, James R. (University of Western Ontario)
Spatial Analysis of the Surface Material from the Late Archaic Davidson Site (AhHk-54)
Davidson is a Late Archaic site with both Broadpoint and Smallpoint components located on the Ausable River in southwestern Ontario. Besides excavations of approximately 90 m2, from 2006-2014 we have conducted ten controlled surface pickups over approximately 2 ha in the field adjacent to the excavations. We have recovered over 1000 predominantly diagnostic artifacts, the locations of which were recorded with a Total Station. Interim plots of these artifacts as well as observations during the CSPs suggested that there was differential use of space by major component as well as other patterns of clustering indicative of the social use of the space. This paper rigorously evaluates the suggested distributions of these surface artifacts using spatial statistics to evaluate ideas about clustering by component and differential use of space over time as well as to seek other patterns that are not visually evident. Analyses indicate a structured use of the space by Broadpoint people highly suggestive of an aggregation site occupied by up to six groups of people. Further, the pattern of spatial use shifts significantly from Broadpoint to Smallpoint times.
Klokler, Daniela (Universidade Federal de Sergipe)
Ritual use and consumption of animals in Brazilian shell mounds
Research on shell sites has seen a shift away from economy-centered studies in the last few decades. This paper explores the importance of animals in the symbolic world of coastal populations that inhabited southern Brazil. Mollusks and fish were used as foods in funerary feasts, and their remains later accumulated to form large mounded cemeteries. The choice of menu elements and their deposition in graves indicate the importance of these animals for ritual. The preparation of such events probably involved members of surrounding communities due to the large quantities of food provided. The performance of large feasting events is understood as a way to decrease competition over territories and resources, and promote cooperative behavior in areas simultaneously populated by multiple communities.
Koblun, Candice (University of Saskatchewan) and Jennifer Rychlo (University of Saskatchewan)
"If You Teach a Man To Dig…": The Public Archaeology of South Branch House
Located on the shores of the South Saskatchewan River, the historic archaeological site of South Branch House has been used as part of the Saskatchewan Archaeological Society's (SAS) public archaeology program for the last 8 years. Approximately 115 km north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, the site was designated as a Provincial Historic Site in 1986. It is believed to be the location of the Hudson's Bay Co. fur trade fort that was established in 1786 and burned down in 1794. Through the course of the SAS's public archaeology field school, a total of 1319 participants composed of children, teenagers, and adults have been involved in the excavations at this site. This field school has provided an opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students in archaeology to interact with the public and gain insight into the importance of public outreach. It has shown that social engagement in archaeology positions both the participants and the archaeologist in a positive light and creates a beneficial climate to partake in archaeological analysis. This presentation will outline the goals for this field school and discuss the value of this program for both the public and the archaeologists involved.
Lange, Michael (Champlain College)
Communicating and Translating the Archaeological Other
In my paper, I would like to explore the translation of archaeological theory and practice into knowledge, especially knowledge about Indigenous people and for public consumption. The knowledge that archaeology creates is fundamentally different from the knowledge that the public consumes, and is often fundamentally different from people with cultural ties to those past groups being dug up. Each of these sets of people works with a different knowledge making system - a different epistemology - and each therefore makes different knowledge. I would like to give a talk about crossing those epistemological boundaries and what is involved in what is in essence a translational process. In my talk, I will draw heavily on Keith Basso's book, Wisdom Sits in Places, which delves deeply into translating space and place across the boundary between a Native American group and the dominant Euro identity.
Lemoine, Genevieve (Bowdoin College), Susan Kaplan (Bowdoin College), Christyann Darwent (University of California, Davis), and John Darwent (University of California, Davis).
Inughuit Women and the Geography of Contact
The women of northwest Greenland experienced contact with Euro-American visitors in multiple ways and in a variety of geographic contexts. Together the archaeological record and unpublished historical documents reveal the complexities of these situations and women's responses to them, which varied in both time and space. They faced both the stresses and opportunities of contact with resilience and resistance, acceptance and rejection, depending on circumstances. Archaeological and documentary data from two early twentieth century contact situations at Etah in northwest Greenland and Floeberg Beach on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, highlight the varied nature of women's responses to contact and the ways in which interaction with newcomers affected them individually and collectively.
Loring, Stephen (Smithsonian Institution)
"Don't be bossy, don't be greedy": reflections and responsibilities concerning Innu archaeology
The title for my presentation stems from one of the principle lessons I've taken from associations with Innu colleagues over the last forty years or so. It is a reflection on the practice of archaeology -that peculiar Western way of interpreting the past (as well as the present)--, of embracing ambiguity (don't be bossy), and taking responsibility for interpretations that are respectful of, and informed by, Innu. Alternatively, Ramah chert: who cares and why?
Macdonald, Brandi Lee (McMaster University) and Martin Cooper (Archaeological Services Inc)
Analysis of Pictographs and Pigment Sources in Northern Ontario: An example of the utility of portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
Portable XRF systems have seen a surge of interest by archaeologists as they have enabled the low cost and rapid study of objects of cultural heritage in situ. For the non-invasive characterization of pigments used for pictographs located in geographically remote areas, these portable technologies are a necessity. However, the recent proliferation of their use has triggered rigorous evaluation of their utility and accuracy. In light of these discussions, we offer a case study that demonstrates the utility and limitations of portable XRF spectroscopy in the field. We tested 62 pictographs and raw materials from two ochre sources located in Northern Ontario. Ochre is a culturally significant material that was used for symbolic and utilitarian purposes, and the places from which it came were important locations within a landscape. By determining its elemental signature it is possible to identify variability in the sources used, and to trace them back to their geologic origin. Four chemically distinct ochre sources were used to create pictographs in the region, with some source materials traveling distances along known trade routes greater than 150km. These results provide an empirical foundation for interpreting the nature and extent of pigment quarrying, trade, and use over time and space.
MacLeod-Leslie, Heather (Kwilmu'kw Maw-klusuaqn Negotiations Office)
Mawiomi at Pasi'tuek: Gaspereau Lake in the 1DD watershed through time
Archaeological evidence at Gaspereau Lake, now an expanded reservoir for a hydro-electric system, indicates that this place has been, continuously throughout the ages, an important place for L'nu'k. This paper presents evidence from the archaeological record about the ways in which Mi'kmaw places related to one another over time and space in this part of Mi'kma'ki. In particular, it considers the use and occupation of Gaspereau Lake within the broader context of the surrounding landscape and the constellation of recorded archaeological sites of the watershed within which it lays. Also, this paper will present some of the goals of the Mi'kmaw Nation in Nova Scotia for how their future will look at this important place in their cultural landscape and discuss some of the collaborative work, hinged on the archaeology, which is taking place to see these goals realized.
Macpherson, Katherine (Memorial University), Dan Walker (Memorial University), Neil Kennedy (Memorial University), Peter King (Memorial University), Ron Lewis (Memorial University), Rodolphe Devillers (Memorial University)
Overcoming the challenge of investigating deep water artefacts through application of side scan sonar on autonomous underwater vehicles
Newfoundland has a rich maritime history, much of which is hidden below the water's surface at inaccessible depths (>40m SCUBA limits). Seabed mapping technologies can be used to detect and delineate these underwater artefacts. These artefacts, often meters across in scale need high resolution data to be accurately identified. At present, only 0.05% of the seafloor is mapped at the resolution needed to identify such features. As water depth increases mapping technologies collect lower resolution data. Specifically, side-scan sonar needs to be <150m (or <50m with some systems) from the seafloor for effective use. Through the application of these tools from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) operating at depth, effects of distance through water are minimised, supplying higher resolution images even at 3000m ( vehicles maximum operating depth). Survey strategies, mapping techniques and detected features and artefact that have been delineated by the Memorial Explorer will be presented.
Malleau, Kaitlyn (University of Western Ontario)
Tricks of the trade: How the exchange of material culture influenced the communities of practice in the Broadpoint Archaic of Ontario
Trading networks have long been thought to have played a role in the transmission of the Late Archaic broadpoint form in different regions of Northeastern North America. This paper will discuss how the trade of Onondaga chert products influenced broadpoint making and using practices across seven Late Archaic sites from southern Ontario. These sites include Davidson, Sadler, Desjardins, Parkhill, Brodie, R&K, and the Hamilton Golf Course site. Intersite comparisons of both qualitative and metric traits of Genesee bifaces were used to infer biface making and curation practices of communities of that time. An experiment was then conducted in which Genesee replica bifaces were used in certain tasks in order to both test the constraints of their unique form, and to observe the macroscopic fractures that would result from their use in those tasks. Finally, the macroscopic use-fractures observed on the bifaces of the archaeological samples were compared to the experimental use-wear data to infer Genesee biface using practices of those past communities. While there seems to be some variation from community to community in how Genesee bifaces were made and curated, most communities seem to have used the bifaces in similar ways.
Mason, Owen K. (University of Colorado, Boulder), Claire Alix (University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne), Nancy H. Bigelow (University of Alaska, Fairbanks), Kory Cooper (Purdue University), Chris M. Darwent (University of California, Davis), Shelby Anderson (Portland State University), John F. Hoffecker (University of Colorado, Boulder), and Jeff Rasic (US National Park Service)
The Entry of the East Asian World System evident as a Birnirk Colonization in Northwest Alaska
Two crucial technological developments are recorded at the Rising Whale site, KTZ-304, at Cape Espenberg during the late 1st millennium AD, coeval with a storm cycle within the Medieval Climate Anomaly: sophisticated skin boats (umiaq) and bronze metallurgy introduced from Asia. Specialized East Asian bronze (a white alloy of copper) metallurgy is a key indicator of the penetration of the world system into the New World. Asian obsidian was also reaching Espenberg. Distinctive multi-room drift wood houses allow precision dating and the development of floating tree-ring chronologies. Marsh formation adjacent to the site reflects both cultural and marine influences. Harpoon styles at Cape Espenberg betray close resemblances to St. Lawrence Island, Cape Baranov near the Lena River and the Birnirk site. Caribou comprise a larger portion of the diet than in later occupations. The development of a whaling based economy ca. AD 900 to 1000 co-occurs with the Birnirk shift in ethnicity, architecture, mortuary practice and technology, if not demography. The Birnirk culture, is a colonizing population, restricted to within 1 km of the northern coasts of Chukotka and Alaska, with its greatest expression at two widely separated localities: Cape Baranov and Point Barrow.
Mather, Katelyn (University of Western Ontario)
Situating the Pot and Potter: Using Practice Theory to Move Beyond Group Boundaries in the Archaeological Record
Material style, particularly that of ceramic vessels, was previously thought to represent groups and group boundaries in the archaeological record. More recent work has conceived of style as a negotiated process, seeing pots as the expression of an interaction between knowledge of production, the properties of the clay, individual intent, and the social context of the potter (Roe 1995). Despite this paradigm shift, the idea of "traditions" and "complexes" in the record of southern Ontario remain. This paper will explore the juvenile and adult vessels recovered from the Silvercreek sites, two early-Late Woodland sites found in southwestern Ontario. These sites provide a unique opportunity to explore the issue of group boundaries, as they lie on the boundaries of two defined complexes/traditions and the vessels display considerable variation. My aim is to explore new approaches to ceramic studies, in the hopes of successfully integrating the cultural-historical approach to pottery with approaches that situate the potter within a social context of learning and practice.
Matheson, C.D. (Lakehead University)
Archaeological Chemistry and Ancient Technology
Archaeological chemistry is a subfield within the archaeological sciences. It is the application of chemistry to questions in archaeology. In the field of lithic residue analysis techniques like spectroscopy and gas chromatography have begun to produce information on how the tools have been manufactured and used. These techniques have been used to identify resin, poison, cooking and manufacture residues. The information being generated from these studies is providing the insight into the technology developed and employed by past peoples. Presented here is the analysis of manufacturing residues and how manufacturing technology can be further understood in the past. It allows the study of preferences based on the properties of the materials and the desired properties required manufacture.
McAleese, Kevin (Rooms Provincial Museum)
People of the Great Lake: investigating a late historic Beothuk presence in central Newfoundland
Red Indian Lake, named for the extinct Beothuk Indians of the Island of Newfoundland, was a "central place" for Beothuk occupation, especially during the 18th & 19th centuries. The Beothuk woman Shawnadithit drew maps of the Lake in the 1820s. Some of these maps illustrated the general location of a few Beothuk camps. Many have been heavily disturbed or destroyed by historic activity. A probable Beothuk housepit at DeBd-07 "Andersen Point," on the Lake's north shore, has been seasonally flooded but is still largely intact. Recent test pitting and soil sampling done here led to the recovery of a very few lithic and botanical samples/artifacts. These items are not typically or stylistically Beothuk, but site provenience and architecture suggest that cultural affiliation. While not fully revealed the feature has low cobble "walls" and an interior cobble floor. Preliminary analysis of soil samples has recovered charcoal, fire cracked rock, birch (Betula papyrifera(?) seeds and flake-like bits of quartz crystal. A radio carbon assay on charcoal is in progress and the recovered botanical data is under analysis. Together this data is contextualized within the larger corpus of Beothuk history and archaeology and within the environmental history of Red Indian Lake.
McKee, Erin, Michael Deal, and Ian Spooner
A Paleoenvironmental And Paleogeographic Reconstruction Of The Terminal Archaic - Woodland Boswell Site, Kingston, Nova Scotia.
Although the Boswell Site was likely intermittently occupied from the Terminal Archaic to the Late Woodland (ca. 4100 -1000 BP), the environmental and ecological conditions which made this location appealing for native occupants are unknown. High resolution paleoenvironmental data from wetland and lake records in southwestern Nova Scotia indicate that at about 3000 BP forest composition changed rapidly as cooler and moister conditions developed. At this time hemlock became a more significant component of the forest cover in the region. From 3000 BP till 1000 BP, cool and moist conditions were punctuated by occasional droughts. The Boswell site is located on one of the few reaches of the Annapolis River that experienced little lateral migration in the last 3000 years, a condition which facilitated site preservation. The river terrace at the excavation site was formed by 3000 BP in response to both an increase in river discharge and a prominent bedrock sill which aided sediment aggradation. A prominent depression in the sill about 20 m upriver from the site has created one of the few large, deep (> 3m) pools along the stable reach of the river and may have been a harvesting site for migrating fish species including shad, alewife, brook trout and smelt all of which were thought to be important resources. Collectively, forest composition, which aided in bank stability, increased river flow which facilitated fish occupation and migration, bank stability and the presence of a harvesting site nearby may have made this site desirable for continued seasonal use over a long period of time. Recent erosion at the site appears related to development both upstream and downstream from the Boswell site.
McLean, Laurie (Burnside Heritage Foundation Inc.)
Observations on the Morphologies and Distribution of Beothuk Housepits
Archaeological research since the 1960s has recorded the locations of over 150 Beothuk housepits. A small number of these have been excavated, contributing significantly to our understanding of Beothuk architecture, food preparation, tool use, ceremony and other aspects of their lives. Recent re-appraisals of Beothuk housepits along the Exploits River show previously undetected patterns in house construction and distribution. These are especially significant when compared to coastal housepits.
McLean, Laurie (Burnside Heritage Foundation Inc.)
Evidence for Quarrying Aesthetics in Bloody Bay Cove, Newfoundland
The Bloody Bay Cove quarry provides extensive evidence for lithic procurement activities employed by Maritime Archaic, Paleoeskimo, Recent Indian and Beothuk there. In addition, a number of quarry features and sites located outside Bloody Bay Cove show the spiritual value of this material, akin to that associated with Ramah chert and other lithics.
McNiven, Ian J. (Monash University)
Ritualised treatment of dugong bones and the transformation of Torres Strait Islander society
400 years ago Torres Strait Islanders of NE Australia fundamentally changed the way they discarded bones of dugong - a large marine mammal hunted for food. Instead of discarding the bones into village midden deposits, most of the bones were carefully arranged into specialised bone mounds, some containing the remains of 1000s of dugongs. Most of these bone mounds are ritual installations associated with large ceremonial site complexes (mostly for men) known as kod. Shell and bone shrines at kod sites reference community clan and moiety structure and were associated with male initiations, headhunting and mortuary practices, and legitimating community governance. Kod sites similarly extend back 400 years ago, suggesting a strong link between changing social structure and ritualised treatment of marine mammal bones. This paper explores this link and the importance of human-animal relationships in the transformation of Torres Strait Islander society 400 years ago.
What is Southern Inuit Territory?
Nothing is more germane to human existence than putting yourself in harm's way to defend your homeland. Eighteenth century Inuit, in southern Labrador and northern Newfoundland, had been described as 'wild', 'demons', 'villains', 'devils' and 'sauvages'. Because they were attacking Europeans, and would often keep the spoils of war, they were said to be greedy and treacherous thieves who didn't even live in southern Labrador. These notions were considered acceptable until recently. From current archaeological evidence, we know that Inuit occupation in southern Labrador, during the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, was year round and permanent in a typical northern forager lifestyle. This paper examines the nature of Inuit defense of their homeland from very recently discovered archival materials. Several attempts were made by Europeans to end this 'guerilla warfare' through treaty processes. We have no record of Inuit perspectives on these attempts. Most clashes were very well planned and implemented by the Inuit. Inuit men were victors in many of their fights; but ultimately they changed strategies in the 1760's and entered into a Peace and Friendship Treaty relationship with the British in their un-surrendered land. Some of their descendants are fighting with Canada today for that same land, thankfully without the violence.
Morrison, Adrian (Memorial University)
The Search for Robinson's Room: Archaeological Excavations at an Early Eighteenth - Century Fishing Station in Canso, Nova Scotia.
The Canso Islands National Historic Site has been recognized not only as a prominent setting for the early modern cod fisheries, but also for its lengthy and notable history of human occupation. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Canso became a popular staging ground for Basque and French migratory crews, and the area reached its pinnacle as an Anglo - American base in the 1720s and 1730s. During that time, Canso housed a significant New England fishing and trading centre with economic ties across the transatlantic world. Today, evidence of Canso's longstanding cultural history exists in the form of a rich archaeological record. Accordingly, the islands have been the subject of extensive excavations since the 1970s — particularly at the residences of a wealthy merchant and a commanding officer. This paper will introduce a new and ongoing archaeological research project aimed at identifying the social dimensions of Canso's eighteenth-century fisheries. It will focus on a single fishing station operated by Capt. Andrew Robinson from Gloucester, Massachusetts.
Munkittrick, Jessica (Memorial University), and Vaughan Grimes (Memorial University and Max Planck)
From Cod to Convoy: Dietary Life Histories from the St. John's Naval Hospital Cemetery, NL
The British Royal Navy defended a vast maritime territory during the 18th and 19th centuries, but this created difficulties in sustaining a large and geographically disperse group of sailors. Although, the navy had strictly defined rations, their effectiveness in controlling sailors' diets, particularly alternative foods, is not well defined. Naval vessels left England with months of rations, but were expected to resupply in the ports they entered. One such port was in St. John's, Newfoundland where sailors were also recruited from the local cod fishery to aid in the convoy and protection of the island's fishing industry. A cemetery on the south side of St. John's Harbour, associated with the British Royal Naval Hospital (ca. 1740-1825), was excavated in 1979 producing a minimum of 19 individuals. Here we present the results of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of bone collagen that address the diet and geographic origins of these individuals. By comparing the dietary results of individuals from St. John's to other British Royal Navy sites in England and Antigua, the study will provide unique insights into the global variability of diet of individual sailors within the British Royal Navy during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Murchie, Tyler (University of Calgary)
Glacial treks across the St. Elias Mountains: Investigating the antiquity of alpine travel between the northern northwest coast and the subarctic boreal forest using ancient DNA.
The antiquity of contact between Tlingit on the northern northwest coast of Alaska's panhandle and Athabaskans in the subarctic interior of southern Yukon remains poorly understood to date. These two linguistic groups are separated by the immense St. Elias Range, containing a number of North America's highest peaks, in addition to the extensive Icefield Ranges that expand across much of Wrangell St. Elias National Park and Preserve in the US, and Kluane National Park in Canada. The majority of archaeological evidence for the well documented ethnohistoric interactions between the coast and interior in this region (in terms of trade, intermarriage, and migration) are largely confined to the late prehistoric and protohistoric periods. This stands in contrast to linguistic and oral-historic data which is indicative of movement across the Saint Elias Range over millennia. In 2012, an unmodified stick, micro-anatomically identified as Willow (Salix), was recovered from the Quintino-Sella Glacier in Kluane National Park. The object, which is believed to be archaeological because of its overall size and recovery location, was determined to have a 14C range of 2370 to 2630 BP. This paper presents the work to date of a research project attempting to use contemporary Salix population genetics combined with ancient DNA to identify precontact movement across the St. Elias Range.
Murray, Maribeth S. (University of Calgary), Peter Schledermann (University of Calgary), and Charles G. Hannah (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Polynyas, Sea Level History and Human Settlement in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
In this paper we discuss the relationship between polynyas and archaeological site distribution in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Polynya formation is driven by tidal flow or by latent heat, and past changes in sea level may have affected polynya size, location and nature. Polynyas are important locations for primary production and provide key habitat for Arctic top predators, including people. Because they are ice free, they can also serve as locations for the methylation of mercury in the water column. Holocene-era human settlement in some places appears to be strongly correlated with polynya location, and possibly also tidal heights. Sea level impacts on polynyas and tides may explain, in part, why some regions experienced fluctuations in settlement density at various times during the Holocene. Importantly, past feedbacks among climate, sea level and polynya characteristics may serve as predictors of future conditions under continued climate warming, with concurrent implications for ecological productivity and mercury bioaccumulation in marine food webs.
Myrup, Mikkel (The Greenland National Museum & Archives)
Neogeography and Remote Sensing in Greenlandic Archaeology: Experiences from a 2014 UAS Technology Pilot Project
The benefit of collecting spatial data with millimetre precision using differential GPS equipment loses a considerable part of its value if one is not able to place the data output in a larger topographic context. Although still in its infancy, the use of drone mapping technology, or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), seem to be an applicable solution to the problem of producing accurate maps. This is why the Nunatta Katersugaasivia Allagaateqarfialu/Greenland National Museum & Archives (NKA) in collaboration with the Danish National Museum endeavoured to undertake the task of introducing this technology to Greenlandic archaeology on the July-August 2014 expedition to the Savissivik region, Northwest Greenland.
Nagy, Murielle (Université Laval)
Reinterpreting the Early Human Occupation of Ivujivik (Nunavik, Canada)
Abstract: The first human populations in the Eastern Arctic, the Pre-Dorset people, arrived about 4,500 years ago. Changes in archaeological remains between 2800 and 2500 BP (uncalibrated) have been interpreted as part of a transition period from which emerged the Dorset culture. However, continuity between Pre-Dorset and Dorset cultures in Nunavik (Arctic Quebec) has been questioned by archaeologists who think that the Dorset people represent a new colonisation. Ivujivik's location at the extreme northwest of Nunavik was strategic for its initial peopling. Populations that moved into Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, as well as the Labrador Coast, had to pass by the Ivujivik Peninsula. This paper presents the results of 36 new radiocarbon dates obtained to determine whether the Ohituk (KcFr-3) and Pita (KcFr-5) sites of Ivujivik belonged to the Pre-Dorset/Dorset transition period, as originally thought, or to both Pre-Dorset and Dorset periods. Taking into consideration these dates and those obtained earlier, it appears that the sites were indeed occupied between 2800 and 2500 BP. However, people also lived at the Ohituk site during the whole range of the Dorset period. As for the Pita site, it was mainly inhabited during the Pre-Dorset period and one of its dates seems to be the oldest gathered so far for Nunavik.
Newcombe, Simon (Memorial University)
Household Theory and its Application to the Interpretation of Military Installations
A shortfall in the study of military archaeology is a tendency towards descriptive investigations as opposed to research-centered inquiry. The reason for this lies, perhaps in part, with a lack of theoretical interpretive framework from which to approach military sites. Household theory is one type of theoretical analysis that can be applied to the examination of military sites where individuals lived for a significant amount of time. Such an approach is valuable for drawing attention to military installations as being more than defensive structures. Through the lens of household theory, artifacts are also examined as representations of everyday activities not necessarily pertaining to combat. Household theory also guides research into consumer patterns and hierarchical relationships within military domestic settings. Finally, household theory, when applied to a military context, draws attention to the unique "family" unit that develops among soldiers in an ostensibly single sex environment.
Newsome, Bonnie (University of Massachusetts Amherst)
Pots along the Penobscot: an archaeological case study exploring human agency, identity and technological choice
In Maine, the prevailing archaeological model for Ceramic Period (3050-400 B.P.) settlement patterns is one in which people organized themselves into two distinct populations inhabiting the coast and interior respectively. This "two population hypothesis" was introduced by Sanger (1982, 1996a, 1996b) following two decades of archaeological research on Maine's coastal shell middens. Support for this hypothesis
is evident in archaeological data showing distinctions in coastal and interior cordage twist patterns among fiber perishables used in pottery manufacture (Petersen 1996; Petersen and Hamilton 1984). However, cordage twist is only one of many choices potters make during the ceramic manufacturing process. Studies of cordage impressions on ceramics in Maine rely heavily on patterns of similarities within and across geographic regions, and while the pattern identified by Petersen and Hamilton (1984) may support the two population hypothesis, it masks many other choices potters make during the manufacturing process. This paper presents results of my comparative study of technological choices made by potters in coastal and interior settings in Maine. Through this work, I highlight the importance of choice and human agency in the ceramic production process using the two population model as a testable hypothesis
Norman, Lauren (University of Toronto)
Ethnohistoric Designations of Cape Espenberg: Using Subsistence Patterns to Investigate Territorial Divisions
In the Seward Peninsula and Kotzebue Sound area, the detailed ethnohistoric accounts from Ernest S. Burch, Jr. and Dorothy Jean Ray are used to interpret archaeological material. However, the accounts of Burch and Ray differ in their territorial designations and subsistence strategies for the Cape Espenberg area. Burch (1984; 1998; 2006) includes Cape Espenberg in his description of the Pittagmiut subsistence rounds of southern Kotzebue Sound. In Ray's (1964; 1984) designation, Cape Espenberg subsistence strategies are described as part of the Shishmaref territory patterns. With limited information on the Cape in the ethnohistoric accounts, prehistoric evidence is necessary for understanding the culture history of the area and to further inform the ethnohistoric records. The recent excavations at Cape Espenberg are continuing to investigate the prehistory of the area. At Feature 87, excavations have resulted in a well-preserved, high-resolution faunal data set that is used to compare the different ethnohistorically-described subsistence strategies outlined by Burch and Ray. Although both subsistence strategies focus on small seals, the secondary resources may indicate where the people at Cape Espenberg had connections, either through seasonal movement or trade, and if the subsistence strategy fit in to either of the ethnohistorically described patterns.
Nuna, Richard (Innu Nation Environment Office, Innu Nation)
Reflections on Innu History
Unraveling and connecting the paths and trails that connect Innu to their land, their ancestors and the animals. The question today is how to reconcile aboriginal knowledge and country-based experiences with scientific knowledge, principles and practice. With the passing of the nutshimiu tshenut (elders belonging to the country) a unique vision and way of life is eroding. By honoring our past (our heritage) and our elders, we look to shape our future and the future of Nitassinan.
Nuttall, Laura Roskowski (Stantec Consulting Ltd.)
Digging for gold: Teasing a single Plano Occupation out of a quarry assemblage
Archaeological assemblages recovered from sites associated with the Quarry of the Ancestors, within the Athabasca Oilsands region of Alberta are often given short shrift based on the lack of stratigraphic control and abundance of fragmented debitage. In an area where the cultural chronology is based on multicomponent assemblages and geographical proxy data, the identification of datable, single occupation sites is considered on par with striking it rich during the gold rush. However, recent mitigative excavations at sites in the region have produced what appear to be laterally defined concentrations representing a single episode of cultural deposition. Some of these assemblages include the recovery of datable, calcined bone and diagnostic projectile points. This presentation will focus on the identification of one such assemblage from site HhOu - 113. With bone dating to 7,220 +/ - 40 yBP, two types of diagnostic projectile points and an assemblage composed of a variety of local and non - local raw material types, this site bears witness to the activities conducted by Northern Plano groups travelling through this region and gives us hope that a culture history is within our grasps.
Nuttall, Laura (Stantec Consulting Inc), and Matthew Rawluk (University of Saskatchewan)
Movin' On Up: 45 Years of Advancing Boreal Forest and Subarctic Archaeology
The Athabasca Oilsands region contains some of the largest and densest archaeological sites in all of Canada. As archaeologists find and excavate sites, the data derived from these studies has driven substantial changes in both the methods and methodologies for finding and interpreting sites. From early pedestrian traverses focusing on inspection of cutbanks and exposures created by disturbances where little to no mitigation was recommended, to more recent intensive shovel testing programs using hand screens, resulting in excavation blocks over 100 m in size, these methodological changes have dramatically improved our understanding of precontact lifeways in this area. While these advancements are producing interesting results, archaeologists who wish to tackle the spatial problems presented by the typical lack of stratified deposits are severely restricted by the quality of data that is currently available. Preliminary studies that emphasize the importance of three point provenience measurements and spatial analysis, have yielded data that can be used to identify features and empirically segregated components, which have been almost impossible to identify using the current field methods. This paper will present the history of methods and methodologies employed in the boreal forest of Alberta, and present new techniques to further advance Boreal Forest and Subarctic archaeology.
Odgaard, Ulla (National Museum of Denmark)
"The Stairway of History" — An Overview of Jørgen Meldgaard's Work at Igloolik.
Abstract: In 1954, 1956 and 1965 the Danish archaeologist, Jørgen Meldgaard from the National Museum of Denmark, together with Guy Mary-Rousselière and a few assistants, conducted intensive fieldwork in the Igloolik area. They managed to record more than 7000 archaeological structures from the Pre-Dorset and Dorset cultures. They excavated a few of the structures and many test pits that produced abundant artifacts and animal bones. Based on this material, Meldgaard was able to resolve some of the questions about the Paleo-Eskimo culture. In 2007 Jørgen Meldgaard passed away before having fully published his Igloolik work, but leaving his archives from a long life of archaeological exploration. Currently, a group of researchers, The Carpenter-Meldgaard Endowment, supported by The Rock Foundation, are working on the contents of these archives, and one aim is to make them accessible to other researchers. The archives include field notes, drawings, diaries, photographs and films — from both the fieldwork and Meldgaard's meetings with the contemporary locals. This paper presents an overview of the 50-60 year old records from Igloolik and suggests how we might make use of them today.
Oetelaar, Gerald A. (University of Calgary)
A First Nation of Adventurers: Blackfoot Involvement in the North American Fur Trade
First Nations involvement in the Canadian fur trade has been studied by historians, anthropologists and archaeologists for decades now but few of these studies have incorporated indigenous worldviews in their interpretations of the interactions between Europeans and First Nations. Aboriginal groups in North America were involved in extensive trade networks well before the arrival of Europeans and they had established protocols and procedures for the exchange of materials, information and people based on their understanding of the world. The establishment of York Factory on the shores of Hudson Bay in 1670 and the subsequent movement inland by the fur traders introduced new products and new opportunities for First Nations communities. The new opportunities, however, came with their unique set of challenges because the First Nations and the newcomers were operating with very different mind sets. In this paper, I explore how the worldviews and previous exchange practices of the Blackfoot influenced their participation in the fur trade.
O'Rourke, Mike (University of Toronto)
It's worse than we thought! New observations on the erosion of coastally situated archaeological sites in the Mackenzie Delta region, NWT.
Much of the Inuvialuit archaeological record is situated along Western Arctic shorelines. These coastal sites are at substantial risk of damage due to a number of natural processes which continually reshape Arctic coastal zones. This paper outlines the preliminary results of a research program being undertaken as a component of the Arctic Cultural Heritage at Risk (Arctic CHAR) project, directed toward highlighting areas within the Inuvialuit Settlement Area which contain vulnerable archaeological materials. The identification of threatened heritage remains is critical in the Mackenzie Delta region given the rate at which changes to the landscape are taking place there, as well as the limited resources available to monitor and manage these materials. Coastal erosion rates have been calculated for over 200 km of shoreline, extending along the East Channel and adjacent Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. Helicopter surveys conducted during the 2014 field season confirmed that areas exposed to heavy erosive forces in the past continue to erode at alarming rates. Some of the calculated rates, however, were far too conservative. This paper outlines one possible cause of this discrepancy and highlights the value of using more recent, shorter time-span imagery in calculating rates of change with a higher degree of accuracy.
The Ekuanitshit archaeological research program: archaeology, first nations and finding ways of giving back.
This archaeological research program arose from the joint interest of the Innu community of Ekuanitshit (also known as Mingan on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence) and the author to better document and promotes the region's prehistory and cultural resources.
One of the main objectives of this project is to allow the community to find and express its voice regarding Innu heritage and archaeology. Taking some distance from general practices, we continually try to put the community's interests at the forefront of the process. This is exemplified from the consultations and the identification of research questions to the implication of community members in the field operations and most importantly also in the diffusion and promotion of the archaeological results and reconstructions. Archaeological reconnaissance and excavations conducted on the Mingan River has allowed the documentation of a fishing station dating back to 1900 years BP. Four years in the process we now stand at the end of a "first cycle" focusing on the Mingan River and potential salmon use in prehistory. These days, we are mostly concerned about developing approaches to promote our results in the community, stimulate discussions regarding archaeological interpretation and trying to find ways of giving back.
Patton, Margaret (University of Calgary)
Public Archaeology at Cluny Fortified Village (EePf-1)
In 2014, the University of Calgary launched a Public Archaeology Program that actively encouraged non-professional, public participation in archaeology. Public response was overwhelmingly positive, attracting many volunteers who had a lifelong interest in archaeology as well as volunteers who were looking for a unique summer activity. More than 70 volunteers participated in the project, learning excavation techniques and directly contributing to ongoing research. The excavation at Cluny Fortified Village (EePf-1) also benefitted from the presence of interested volunteers. The program used social media to share information with the general public and offer preliminary discussions of artifacts. Volunteer engagement continues with a laboratory program to catalog and clean artifacts, providing volunteers with an opportunity to be active in multiple stages of research. Education about the importance of archaeology is an ongoing challenge to academia and cultural resource management. The Public Archaeology Program demonstrated an existing public interest in archaeology while connecting people with scientific research.
Patton, Margaret (University of Calgary) and Lance Evans (University of Calgary)
Use of Magnetic Susceptibility in the Recreation of Hearth Substrate Thermal Characteristics
Human fire use creates magnetically enhanced anomalies allowing identification of hearths and other burned features through remote sensing. A magnetic gradiometer survey of the Cluny Fortified Village (EePf-1) revealed anomalies likely associated with prehistoric hearths; core samples confirmed this relationship. Hearth substrates at the site exhibit deep red staining indicating abnormally high fire temperatures and/or heat penetration. The relationship between increased soil temperature and magnetic susceptibility enhancement may provide a means of estimating the maximum temperatures attained in these hearths. The authors measured and compared the magnetic susceptibility of hearth and control samples at a variety of depths. Control samples were then heated to replicate the observed differences in susceptibility to recreate the temperature gradient experienced by the hearth substrates. The results provide insight into the types of fires being built and the thermal conductivity characteristics of the substrate at the time of burning.
Peuramaki-Brown, Meaghan (Athabasca University) and Tawny Tibbits (University of Iowa)
Granite use and extraction among the ancient Maya of Belize
The Maya lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, are typically characterized by a limestone karst topography; however, the Maya Mountains of Belize are known as the "Highlands of the Lowlands" and were the primary source of granite and other igneous and metamorphic materials in the pre-Columbian past. The Maya Mountains consist of three petrographically distinct granite plutons, although variation within each pluton is unclear. Despite the importance of pre-Columbian granite use in the lowlands, little research has focused on locating quarries or areas of extraction. This paper will discuss recent and ongoing work by the authors on sourcing granite artifacts and investigating extraction methods. We will review the history and study of granite use in the Maya pre-Columbian past; however, the main body of the paper will highlight our work on the Cockscomb Basin pluton and recent investigations at the centre of Alabama in the Stann Creek District of Belize. The Maya who lived in the vicinity of the Cockscomb Basin pluton utilized these granites to construct grinding tools such as manos and metates, but were also, most notably, using this material in their monumental and domestic architecture: a unique pursuit in the Maya world.
Playford, Tomasin (Saskatchewan Archaeological Society)
Sifting through the Stories: A Look Back and a Look Forward for the SAS
The Saskatchewan Archaeological Society (SAS) is a non-profit, membership based organization that has existed for over 50 years. The roots of the society lie in the province's agricultural history with avocational collectors playing a prominent role in the formation of the society. Since its inception, the SAS has fulfilled a variety of roles in the development of Saskatchewan archaeology. This presentation will highlight the current and past programs of the society and contemplate the future of the society in light of current technology and trends.
Playford, Tomasin (Saskatchewan Archaeological Society)
HBC or NWC Affiliation Identification? A Case Study on the South Saskatchewan River
From 2005-2014 the Saskatchewan Archaeological Society (SAS) undertook archaeological field investigations at FfNm-1 as part of its public programming. The site, located about 100 km upriver from the junction of the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers, was initially recorded by Arthur Silver Morton in 1944. This is one of six 'South Branch House' trading posts that operated in the area from 1786-1816. Based on historic records, local knowledge and visible surface features, Morton identified it as being the Hudson's Bay Company South Branch House that operated from 1786 until it was attacked and razed in June of 1794 by a group of Gros Ventre.
While the SAS operated under the assumption that Morton's identification was accurate, Markowski (2009) questioned the identification and suggested that the site was a result of a short-lived occupation by either independent traders or the North West Company. A review of the archaeological data will reexamine the identification conundrum of FfNm-1.
Poker, Christine (Innu Director)
Innuts Utashenimuau (Innu Rock)
Red ocher --Innuts Utashenimuau (Innu Rock)-has always played a prominent role in the ceremonial life of the Innu and their ancestors. In this documentary, Innu Director Christine Poker joins several Innu elders as they journey through Nitassinan (the Innu homeland - the Quebec/Labrador peninsula) in search of the location of Innuts Utashenimuau, the Innu rock red ochre. Filmed at the time that mining exploitation was on the rise in Labrador, this film documents the reactions and stories that were told by the elders as they encounter the mining damaged in Nutshimit (the country). Poker's film provides a perspective on the disjunction between western perceptions of land and mineral resources with those of the Innu.
Pollard-Belsheim, Ariel (Memorial University) and Trevor Bell (Memorial University)
Current practices in the prioritization of at-risk archaeological resources for management action and their application to eroding coastal sites in Bonavsita Bay, Newfoundland
Prioritizing at-risk archaeological sites for management response, whether for engineered protection or rescue excavation, is not an easy task and rarely documented in the literature. The goal of the Coastal Archaeological Resource Risk Assessment project (carra-nl.com) is not only to develop a vulnerability assessment tool for at-risk coastal sites but also to provide heritage managers with practices and methods for selecting highly vulnerable sites for management response. Of the 59 coastal archaeological sites visited in Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland, 44 (or 75%) of them are either currently eroding or at high risk of damage in the next decade or so. It is not plausible to think that all of these 44 sites can be protected from coastal erosion or inundation. Using criteria that include historical, scientific, fiscal, and community values can help heritage managers prioritize these 44 sites for action. Through an analysis of current practices, this paper describes the ways in which heritage managers have prioritized at-risk sites in published case studies, and then combines the most relevant of these practices for a prioritization exercise of at-risk archaeological resources in our Bonavista Bay study area.
Pope, Peter E. (Memorial University)
Seasonality and Gender: Reconsidering Fisher Men at Work
From about 1500 to 1904, migratory European fishing crews built processing stations along North America's Atlantic coasts. Fishing rooms were gendered: the material expression of men living without women. But these shore stations were also seasonal, a situation which creates an ambiguity in archaeological interpretation: does the character of assemblages reflect gender or seasonal use? This paper discusses the Breton shore station Champ Paya, at Crouse in northern Newfoundland. Previously, I suggested a simplistic analysis: no over-wintering + no women = no homes. A comparison with the seasonal but non-gendered Dorset Paleo-eskimo seal processing site at Phillip's Garden prompted the late M.A.P. Renouf to observe that the seasonality of historic fisheries assemblages is easier to see than evidence of gender. This challenge is engaged here, in an effort to rethink the interpretation of sites created seasonally by early-modern fisher men at work.
Pothier Bouchard, Geneviève (Université de Montréal)
Grotte du Bison : deux chasseurs pour un gibier Zooarchéologie et paléoécologie en contexte moustérien
Le site moustérien de la Grotte du Bison est situé au cur des cavernes préhistoriques longeant la rivière de la Cure à Arcy - sur - Cure (Yonne, France). Face ß l'instabilité du climat à la fin du Paléolithique moyen (transition entre l'OIS4 et 3), les groupes chasseurs - cueilleurs néandertaliens doivent faire des choix en termes d'acquisition des ressources alimentaires. Différents comportements de chasse, de transport et de traitement des carcasses peuvent représenter la subsistance de ces groupes. Quels sont les modes d'exploitation de la faune employés par les Néandertaliens à Arcy - sur - Cure? La présente conférence se veut une démonstration de l'application de la zooarchéologie à la collection faunique moustérienne (plus de 30 000 fragments osseux) mise au jour durant la mission de fouilles 2014 sur le site de la Grotte du Bison. Le contexte particulier du site permet d'aborder la zooarchéologie sous l'axe de la paléoécologie. En effet, le sol archéologique présente une alternance d'occupations entre les Néand ertaliens et une compétitrice carnivore, la hyène des cavernes. Comment distinguer l'auteur de l'accumulation des carcasses herbivores convoitées par ces deux prédateurs? Les processus taphonomiques et l'utilisation de modèles écologiques contemporains son t essentiels à la compréhension de la formation de ce site en grotte.
Grotte du Bison : two hunters for the same game Zooarchaeology and paleaoecology in a mousterian context
The "Grotte du Bison" is a Mousterian site located along the Cure riverbanks at Arcy - sur - Cure (Yonne, France). The end of the Middle Palaeolithic is characterized by a strong instability of the climate (transition between OIS 4 and 3). While they are exposed to sudden drastic temperature changes, Neanderthal populations have to make c hoices regarding the acquisition of their preys. Subsistence patterns can be defined by various behaviours such as hunting strategies, population mobility in a given territory, carcass transport and butchery. How can we describe the subsistence strategies adopted by Neanderthal groups who occupied the "Grotte du Bison " over 50 ky ago? This conference presents a zooarchaeological analysis of the faunal assemblage (over 30 000 bone fragments) excavated du ring the 2014 dig on the "Grotte du Bison" site. The particular context of this cave site gives us the opportunity to adopt a palaeoecological perspective towards the application of zooarchaeological methods on a faunal assemblage. The stratigraphy presents an occupational palimpsest between Neanderthal groups and their main competitor: the cave hyena. How can we distinguish the author of the carcass accumulation between those two predators who are sharing the same food preferences? Taphonomic processes and today's ecological models are essential to the comprehension of this cave site formation.
Pyszczyk, Heinz W.
Trends in the Color of Glass Trade Beads, Western Canada
Glass trade beads are one of the most common artifacts present in fur trade archaeological assemblages. They come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and in colors covering the entire spectrum, ranging from bright blues to solid, dark reds. The very small 'seed' beads are also one of the most difficult artifacts to deal with, in terms of recovery and interpretation. This paper will focus on how a difference in the color of glass trade beads, especially those tiny 'seed' beads, might potentially affect their recovery, and whether there are any trends in bead color, either temporally or spatially in fur trade assemblages. Results of controlled experiments at Alaskan fur trade sites by Bundy and McCartney (2003) indicate that the color of a glass bead does not affect their rate of recovery during normal archaeological excavations. This experiment was repeated at the late 18th - early 19th century NWC/HBC Fort Vermilion post in northern Alberta to determine whether there was bias in the recovery of certain colors of glass trade beads during excavations when fine screening methods were not employed. These results were compared to other fur trade assemblages where fine screening methods were employed and total seed bead recovery had been attained. It was first necessary to explore this topic before investigating whether there were any bead color preferences in the fur trade assemblages. The results of the comparisons of bead colors from fur trade assemblages throughout Alberta and other parts of western North America indicate that glass bead color preferences differ both temporally and regionally, and often provide insight into color preferences of the surrounding Indigenous populations
Ramsden, Peter (McMaster University)
Public vs Private Use of Style as a Mode of Resistance: Pre-contact Huron/Wendat Pipes and Pots.
This paper examines the public vs private display of style, as represented in the decorations on clay pipes and pots in 14th to 16th century Huron/Wendat communities. Some decorative motifs, such as those at times used on pipes, probably had public and socio-political functions, insofar as pipes were probably used in situations of social and political negotiation. Whether these motifs may have had any discernable and intentional "meanings" is a difficult and ultimately pointless question. The point is that the motifs were publicly displayed, and associated with particular kinds of social and political interactions. Two particular cases examined here suggest that there were situations in which it may not have been prudent to continue to display these motifs publicly, or on artifacts associated with power negotiations. In these cases, the motifs on pipes changed, and the original motifs were transferred to pots. I argue that the pots, unlike the pipes, were used in a more private but still communal context, namely a household. Moreover, pots, and the shared food they contained, were under the control of women rather than men, and thus even when in view they may have been perceived as less overtly threatening or challenging. This public-to-private, men-to-women shift in the use of certain styles can be interpreted as a form of resistance, and a means of maintaining ethnic identities during times of dramatic social and demographic changes.
Randall, Asa (University of Oklahoma)
An Ocean Runs Through it: Freshwater Shell Mounds and Steady Seascapes on Florida's St. Johns River
The many rhythms of seascapes are central actors in the reproduction of coastal social histories. In dynamic environments the maintenance of long-lived places, such as shell middens, can promote the sedimentation of community biographies during ritualized depositional practices. Yet the networks of these places, and the communities they enabled, are vulnerable in times of significant coastal change. This paper considers an example of communities who reproduced durable seascapes along an interior body of freshwater in the context of drastic sea-level change. Indeed, the freshwater St. Johns River in northeast Florida USA is effectively an interior ocean in its ecology and channel characteristics. So, too, the many residential, mortuary, and ceremonial shell mounds are seemingly more characteristic of coastal communities. The communities responsible for the construction of freshwater shell mounds appear to have traveled routinely from the St. Johns to the Atlantic Coast (40 km) and perhaps even to the Gulf of Mexico (100 km). Histories of shell mound construction and movement at multiple scales will be used to consider how resituating the coast within interior Florida provided a stable seascape, with its attendant mythic and historical dimensions, for regional populations that was not always possible on the coasts proper.
Rast, Tim (Elfshot), and Christopher Wolff (SUNY- Plattsburgh)
Instruments of Change: Late Dorset Palaeoeskimo Drums and Shamanism on Coastal Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada
The two most complete Dorset Palaeoeskimo drum frames ever recovered come from Button Point (PfFm-1) on Bylot Island, Nunavut, and date to the centuries surrounding A.D. 1000. The wooden drums were salvaged decades ago along with thousands of other Late Dorset Palaeoeskimo artifacts from the eroding coastal site. The collection is now housed in the Canadian Museum of History. In the spring of 2014, the authors re-examined the Button Point wood fragments and recorded more than a dozen new and previously identified drum frame fragments. These pieces represent instruments in a range of sizes, but with a consistent and uniquely Late Dorset Palaeoeskimo style. In this paper we discuss the physical characteristics of the drums and drum fragments, including the functional aspects of how the drums were assembled and the use of coastal resources in their construction, as well as insights gleaned through experimental reproductions. We also offer an interpretation of the driftwood-constructed drums within their coastal context as part of a Late Dorset Palaeoeskimo artistic tradition that is loaded with shamanic symbolism and transformational imagery.
Reader, David (Independent Scholar), Tim Rast (Elfshot, St. John's, NL) , Latonia Hartery (Memorial University) and Stephen Hull (Provincial Archaeology Office, St. John's, NL)
Big Droke 1 and Caines: A Maritime Archaic Indian Habitation Site and Lithic Heat Treating Workshop
The Big Droke 1 (EgBf-11) and Caines sites (EgBf-15) in Bird Cove, NL, lie 500m inland. However, when the Maritime Archaic Indians (MAI) occupied these sites between 4500 and 3400 BP, they were on the landward side of an island. The habitation site of Big Droke 1 contains features, as well as assemblages which suggest that the resources and raw materials used originated in both the local area and perhaps Labrador. The Caines site was more specialized and had heat treating pits to improve chert quality. Undisturbed Archaic habitation sites with an array of artifactual evidence like those at Big Droke 1 are rare in Newfoundland, and the Caines heat treating site is the lone known example on the island. Specifics are known about the MAI ceremonialism from their elaborate burial sites. Ironically, less is known about their day-to-day lives. Their non-mortuary sites on the Island tend to be disturbed, are mixed with cultural material from later occupations, are often destroyed by rising sea level in the south, or hidden in forests in the north. Fortunately, at Bird Cove there are well preserved and carefully excavated sites that help reveal the everyday life of Newfoundland's earliest residents.
Rick, Torben (Naitonal Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution) and Courtney Hofman (University of Maryland)
Why Translocate? Evaluating the Reasons for Ancient Human Translocation of Mammals to California's Channel Islands
Hunter-gatherers are known for the translocation of a variety of animals and plants to islands around the world. With evidence from island Southeast Asia dating back some 20,000 years, hunter-gatherers translocated dogs, rodents, foxes, and a variety of plants during the Holocene. Here we draw on our recent work exploring ancient mammal translocations, especially foxes and mice, on California's Channel Islands to explore the question: Why translocate? Although many instances of hunter-gatherer translocation appear to be for subsistence (i.e., to supplement limited terrestrial fauna or for hunting), many translocations also appear to be tied more broadly to ritual and other ideological systems. These data highlight the deep social bonds between humans and animals and the complex interplay between domestic life and broader worldview.
Robinson, Brian (University of Maine), Sky Heller (University of Maine), and Rob Ingraham (Joint POW-MIA Accounting Command)
Maritime Culture Patterns and Animal Symbolism in Eastern Maine
Coastal and Maritime Environments provide a whole series of environmental and geographical factors that are integrated into cultural landscapes, including enhanced bone preservation that provides a window on the many ways that people interacted with varied species of animals. Oral traditions have abundant transformations, social qualities, powers and spiritual expectations of different animal species. In Maine and the Canadian Maritimes these may represent broad Algonquian beliefs or more local identities, made visible by and integrated with maritime subsistence and landscapes.
Robertson, Elizabeth (Amec Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure)
The Pointy and the Blunt: Blade and Microblade Technology in the Culture History of Northern Alberta and Saskatchewan
Due in large part to ongoing cultural resource management activity triggered by resource extraction in the boreal forest regions of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, large quantities of new data on the archaeology of these regions has been accumulated over recent decades. These data have provided grist for ongoing efforts to reconstruct accurate culture histories in a zone where lack of stratified sites and organic artifacts suitable for radiocarbon dating have inhibited efforts to build either relative or absolute chronologies. As such, particular attention has been given to lithic tools displaying formal variation with the potential to inform on temporal and geographical patterning. Projectile points have dominated many such efforts, but blade and microblade technology has represented another focus, with associated studies displaying considerable insight but also marked differences how they define and interpret the evidence for this technology across these regions. This paper will attempt to provide an integrated review of these perspectives, arguing that critical analysis of their differences is required in order to realistically assess the potential and limitations of using blade and microblade technology as an analytical unit in the reconstruction of this area's culture history and past lifeways.
Robinson, Christina (Memorial University)
The ever-changing story of Phillip's Garden: A reassessment of dwelling densities at the Dorset Palaoeskimo settlement using three non-intrusive techniques.
The Dorset Palaeoeskimo settlement site of Phillip's Garden, Port au Choix has long been recognised as the largest of its kind in Newfoundland, with 68 recorded dwellings and evidence for many others. Through three non-intrusive surveys the first complete topographic and subsurface map of the site has been created. Through this map the number of potential dwellings identified has increased to 198. This increase in potential dwelling numbers has not only redefined the density of occupation at Phillip's Garden, but challenges previous concepts of spatial, social and chronological organisation with newly observed distribution trends.
Robinson, Christina (Memorial University) and Trevor Bell (Memorial University)
Building adaptation knowledge through practice: Case studies of coastal archaeological site protection measures in Canada
This paper presents eight case studies that outline management responses to eroding archaeological sites in coastal Canada. Each case study examines different approaches to site protection by heritage managers, ranging from inexpensive and impromptu to costly and engineered. The goal is to inform heritage managers about potential responses to eroding coastal sites and lessons learned from these various strategies. We also review site nature (type, preservation) and context (coastal dynamics), construction methods and materials, anticipated longevity, capital investment and projected maintenance costs where available for each case study. Our examination of current practices in coastal site protection in Canada is an initiative of the Coastal Archaeological Resources Risk Assessment project (carra-nl.com), which is building a community of practice for heritage managers to respond to the impacts of rising sea level and changing climate on coastal heritage.
Rosenmeier, Leah (Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kma) and Sharon Farrell (Curatorial Assistant at Mi'kmawey Debert Cultural Centre).
How long is this going to take? A Discussion
Using a skit approach, we engage the session participants in a dialogue about the experience of integrating archaeological thought and practice at the Mi'kmawey Debert Cultural Centre. Facing a complex set of realities including ongoing assumptions about relatedness through time, funding of community-based and curation-research driven initiatives, aggressive industrial development endangering the Debert-Belmont sites to simply bridging language and thought, the project embodies a group of experiences that convey the slow progress of strengthening and changing the discipline's relationship to First Nation communities and thought.
Ryan, Karen (Canadian Museum of History)
The Archaeology of Extinction: Exploring Parallels in the Disappearance of Dorset and Beothuk cultures
Abstract: Priscilla Renouf spent much of her career studying Palaeoeskimo and Recent Indian cultures in Newfoundland and Labrador, in the process identifying factors relevant to their decline and eventual disappearance. Incorporating insights from her research, this paper seeks to explore the archaeology of extinction as it relates to the Dorset and Beothuk, northern cultures which each disappeared during a period of climatic instability and following prolonged extra-cultural contact with expanding immigrant populations. The recorded response of the Dorset and Beothuk to these changes is intriguingly similar, involving strategies which ultimately restricted and marginalised them in ways that contributed to their extinction. By combining information contained in archaeological, ethnohistorical, and oral histories, a more complete picture of the processes involved with human cultural extinction begins to emerge.
Sanders, Mike (Cultural Resource Management Group Limited)
Gaspereau Lake Reservoir: Resources of and for the Ages
In 2007, Nova Scotia Power Inc. began refurbishment of a hydroelectric facility consisting of a concrete dam, earthen dykes and gated spillways on Gaspereau River south of Kentville, Nova Scotia. Known as the Lane's Mills and Muskrat Cove Dam, this facility is situated at the outflow of Gaspereau Lake - in a position that has been demonstrated archaeologically to have been strategic to the Mi'kmaq. The utility retained Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Group Limited to investigate archaeological potential within the impact area for the refurbishment work. Research, reconnaissance and testing soon delineated several pre-contact habitation sites and two reported areas of Mi'kmaw burials. Consequently, the plan for refurbishment of the dam was abandoned and various options for replacement of the dam were considered, each of which required archaeological assessment. By 2012, five-years of archaeology had resulted in the delineation of 21 archaeological sites. The design for the dam ultimately avoided 15 of the 21 sites, including both of the reported areas of Mi'kmaw burials. Despite all efforts to completely avoid impacting known archaeological resources through careful design, six sites still required mitigative archaeological excavation. Beginning in 2012, the mitigation project yielded an abundance of archaeological resources illustrating a history of occupation and trade spanning roughly 6,000 years.
Sassaman, Kenneth E. (University of Florida), and Neill J. Wallis (Florida Museum of Natural History)
Crisis of Opportunity: How Rapid Sea-Level Rise at A.D. 200-300 Inflected the Structural Realignment of Communities of the Northern Gulf Coast of Florida and Beyond
Retreating 250 km since the late Pleistocene, the northern Gulf Coast of Florida has long been vulnerable to transgressions of the sea. A cryptic record of inundated coastlines attests to human settlement since at least the mid-Holocene, when the rate of postglacial rise slowed to an average of about four centimeters per century. Still, within this span of 4,500 years-during which time coastal communities left residues on extant terrestrial landforms-episodes of rapid change challenged the persistence of traditional living. One such "event" occurred at A.D. 200-300, when rapid transgression of sea followed a period of cooler global temperatures, causing communities to abandon many coastal sites. Appearing at this time were large civic-ceremonial centers at Crystal River, Shell Mound, and Garden Patch, among other locations, each involving not only the consolidation of dispersed communities at less vulnerable locations, but also alignments through mortuary ritual to communities distributed widely across the interior Southeast. The convergence of a panregional religion that gathered together persons and objects from far and wide with the local circumstances of sea-level rise provides an opportunity for us to interrogate the entanglements of local and nonlocal interests in the complexities of climate change today.
Sinclair, Jacinda (Manitoba Museum), Kevin Brownlee (Manitoba Museum) and Carolyn Sirett (Manitoba Museum)
The Importance of Comparative Collections in the identification of Fur Trade Material
Studying the material culture of the Fur Trade is highly specialized with experts publishing analyses of specific artifact classes in various journals. Ideally specialists would assist in identification, but this may not occur. The Manitoba Museum's collections include a number of fur trade posts with known dates and affiliations and abundant materials from multi-component sites. A synthesis of the Fur Trade requires access to both types of collections. To improve the identification process, the Museum began to establish a comparative collection.
Focusing on 5 northern and 2 southern posts dated from 1790s to 1820, many of which were short-term occupations affiliated with the HBC and NWC, the Museum hopes to demonstrate the changes to material culture on a range of archaeological materials. Additionally this comparative collection can assist non-specialists with artefact identification and can further be used in examinations of collections from archaeological sites to improve identification of both company affiliations and changes over time and space. A final intention for this collection, once conservation is complete, is for it to be accessible to other researchers. The Museum hopes to encourage other institutions to create similar collections to foster future collaborative projects examining the material culture of the fur trade.
Stevens, Jamie (Algonquin College)
"Remember This... and You Will Live a Good Life": Talking about the past through a travelling exhibition in Eeyou Istchee
As former participant and then coordinator of the Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Program, I worked on the Eastmain River prior to the flooding of the Eastmain 1 reservoir in the fall of 2005. Later I helped develop a major exhibition that travelled throughout the Cree communities in 2011 and 2012. The exhibition-the first travelling exhibition ever to reach the Cree communities-showcased both the stories of the elders and the results of the archaeological research on the Eastmain. This paper presents the work on the Eastmain with Cree elders, the development of the exhibition, its contents and the community tour.
St. John, Amy (Western University)
Late Woodland Ceramic Manufacture in Southern Ontario: From Ceramic Types to Recognizing the Complexity of Craft Production and some Implications for Micro CT Analysis
The study of Late Woodland ceramic manufacture in Southern Ontario is evolving with the recent application of new analytical techniques and theoretical approaches. In the past archaeologists used a culture-historical approach to ceramics (e.g. MacNeish 1952; Wright 1973), allowing us to orient ceramics and sites in time and space and within tenuous ethno-linguistic boundaries. However, these classifications and typologies can limit the understanding of how these ceramics were manufactured. In Ontario, ceramic manufacture has been generally assumed rather than explored. Some more recent studies, including but not limited to: Braun 2012; Cunningham 2001; Howie 2012; Martelle 2002; Michelaki 2007 and Watts 2008, examine the technical properties, techniques, and social organizations surrounding the craft production of Late Woodland ceramics. These researchers have begun to recognize the individuals and communities who were making ceramics and the complex negotiations and decision making processes that went into the production of every vessel. With a focus on regional borderland environments in the Early Late Woodland of Southwestern Ontario I will address what we know about pottery manufacture in this region and some future research directions; specifically the potential of micro computed tomography analysis being undertaken at the Sustainable Archaeology research facility at Western University.
Stopp, Marianne (Parks Canada)
Across the Straits from Port au Choix: The Dorset Landscape of Southern Labrador
Priscilla Renouf's more than 30 years of study at Port au Choix was longue-durée in execution as well as in perspective and contribution, resulting in notable insights into the lengthy span of human occupation of the Great Northern Peninsula. This paper finds inspiration in Renouf's work on Dorset society and considers Dorset settlement on the "other" side of the Strait of Belle Isle. To date, no Dorset site quite like Port au Choix has been recorded in southern Labrador despite similar species availability, climate, favourable camp settings, and plenty of evidence of Dorset. Why is this, what could be determining factor(s), and is this even a correct observation? Integrating multiple lines of data, these questions are examined while also presenting a picture of Dorset along the coast of southern Labrador.
Storey, Marc A. (Memorial University), Ariel Pollard-Belsheim (Memorial University), Christina Robinson (Memorial University) and Trevor Bell (Memorial University)
Assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to coastal inundation in Newfoundland and Labrador: a management tool to scope the issue
This paper describes the development and application of a vulnerability assessment tool for coastal archaeological sites at risk of inundation by rising sea level and storm surges over coming decades in Newfoundland and Labrador. The tool is a major contribution of the Coastal Archaeological Resource Risk Assessment project (carra-nl.com), which is informing heritage management options and responses to at-risk coastal archaeological resources. In particular, we are testing the effects of data resolution, specifically topographic data, on the results of the site vulnerability assessment (SVA). To our surprise, accurate site georeferencing has a greater potential impact on the accuracy of the SVA than topographic data resolution in our study regions. Site locations were up to several hundred metres distance from where official records document them and site boundaries were typically much farther seaward than the arbitrarily chosen site reference point. We visited 260 coastal archaeological sites and documented 67 (or 26%) of them as currently eroding. Our SVA tool, incorporating the most up-to-date sea level projections (2015), re-surveyed site locations, and LiDAR topographic data, predicts that 75 of the visited sites are highly vulnerable to inundation within the next decade, a close approximation of what we observed in the field.
Surette, C. (Lakehead University) and C. Vickruck (Lakehead University)
New Perspectives on the Variability of Lithic Material in the Thunder Bay Area
Little is known about the variation of lithic raw material used in Northwestern Ontario. This often reflects superficial macroscopic raw material description in the literature, limited comparative collections, and a misunderstanding of regional geological characterizations. During the cataloguing process many archaeologically recovered lithic material types are erroneously categorized, and only well-known types are published in the literature. This case study addresses the range of lithic raw materials found in the Thunder Bay area, with special attention on the siliceous rocks of the Gunflint Iron Formation (GIF). Our understanding of the local geology has been crucial in determining possible quarry locations and selection of raw lithic material types. Our preliminary research indicates that there are many under-documented and previously undefined types within the GIF, which may be confused with other local and non-local lithic materials from other formations. Using established non-invasive geological techniques and collecting large samples from various outcrops, we hope to bring a more comprehensive understanding of the types of materials utilized from the GIF.
Szpak, Paul (UBC), Christyann M. Darwent (University of California, Davis), and John Darwent (University of California, Davis)
Changes to Marine Ecosystems in Nares Strait: Post Little Ice Age and Recent Patterns
This study presents stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions for fauna from five sites in southern Nares Strait (western Greenland and eastern Ellesmere Island) representing approximately the last 1,000 years of human occupation. Isotopic compositions for planktivorous seabirds (little auks, Alle alle) reveal stability in biogeochemical cycling at the base of the food web since c. AD 1100, but in recent years little auks have dramatically shifted their foraging habits to lower trophic level prey. This dietary shift is most likely caused by changes in zooplankton community compositions brought about by recent warming in the Arctic. Marine mammals (ringed seal, bearded seal, walrus) exhibit stability in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions until after AD 1850, when carbon isotope values decrease for all three species at contexts dating to between AD 1850 and 1930. This pattern is consistent with a decrease in sea ice-derived productivity and an increase in pelagic phytoplankton productivity driven by warming following the end of the Little Ice Age.
Tanner, Adrian (Memorial University)
Local Indigenous Knowledge and Praxis
Archeologists use local indigenous knowledge to help them find and understand prehistoric sites. Existing approaches to such knowledge, including recent ontological approaches, generally treat such knowledge as a unitary thing. However, Northern Algonquian language structure may be the basis for the idea that, for the speakers themselves, there are multiple local knowledges.
Taylor-Hollings, Jill (Lakehead University/University of Alberta)
Learning from All the Experts: Examples from Community Archaeology Projects within Anishinaabe Traditional Territories in Northwestern Ontario
The Canadian boreal forest provides an unusual opportunity to integrate different evidentiary lines for learning about the past through archaeology, ethnohistory, ethnographies, oral histories, and even protected areas management (e.g., forest fire history and biology). In 2003, archaeological collaborations began with Ontario Parks as well as Pikangikum, Lac Seul, and Little Grand Rapids Ojibwe First Nations in their traditional lands along the Miskweyaabiziibi (Bloodvein River) within Woodland Caribou Provincial Park. The partnerships developed on a basis of equality, respect, and combining information from different epistemologies (Indigenous ways of knowing, archaeological perspectives, and natural resource management expertise) for everyone to learn more about the ancient past. Because all research partners should benefit, the results from these ongoing community archaeological projects include finding sites and recording contextualized information about traditional use locales for future generations. Both Anishinaabeg and Ontario Parks employees gain tangible land use planning information for community-based plans, the park, and the Pimachiowin Aki World Heritage nomination. Elders and other community members provide insightful oral history with some unexpected interpretations of artifacts and site locations. Some of these examples will be shared in order to highlight the benefits of working in the boreal forest and within community archaeological projects.
Temple, Blair (Gerald Penney Associates Limited)
Urban Archaeology as an Archaeology of Governance: Examples from 19th Century St. John's, Newfoundland
With population increase and urbanization, the role and reach of governance expands. The archaeological record is reflective of this increasingly active and direct role governance plays in people's daily lives. This is an issue of arguably greater impact for people in urban rather than rural areas, in 18th and 19th century Newfoundland. At an increasing rate from the late 18th through the 19th century, the archaeological record in St. John's — the what, where and why — can be viewed with growing frequency, as a direct result of regulation. This paper will look at the impact and role that the various applications of governance has had on the creation of the archaeological record in St. John's. Specifically, the frequent scourge of major fires — possibly the most prominent event providing impetus for government action and regulation — and more importantly, the subsequent rebuilding processes, will be examined with respect to governance and its impact on the archaeological record and landscape of the city.
Thomas, Christian (Government of Yukon) and Margarita de Guzman (Altamira Consulting Ltd)
Early human occupation in the Britannia Creek valley: Preliminary results of exploratory excavations at KfVi-3
In June 2013, Altamira Consulting conducted exploratory excavations at six sites in the Britannia Creek Valley. One site, KfVi-3, proved to be highly significant in terms of size and age. Preliminary analysis shows KfVi-3 to be a large, multi-component site consisting of microblades, cores, bifaces, and scrapers, with over 600 pieces of debitage and 1,000 fragments of bone. Radiocarbon dating indicates KfVi-3 is approximately 13,000 years old, making it one of the oldest sites in the region. This paper will present the results of the excavations, and provide a preliminary context for which sites of this age can be investigated.
Tobiasz, Mary Lynn (McMaster University)
The Spatial Patterning of Shell Middens from the Central Coast of British Columbia Based on Site Sizes
My project explores the relationship between site sizes and environmental settings by modeling the location of shell middens on the Central Coast through the use of GIS. Results indicate that the environmental qualities that were the most distinctive between small and large shell middens were those that relate to resource use and shoreline characteristics. The areal extent of a shell midden is representative of the inhabitants' activities and intensity of usage since these affect the form and quantity of materials deposited in the midden. Some activities require particular environmental settings and therefore it was expected that different locational patterns would be evident as a factor of shell midden size. Variations in the spatial distribution were detected most notably between the inner and outer coast, and distinctions were seen between Pre-Contact and Historical settlements. GIS was crucial for utilizing multiple scales to find an appropriate balance between regional and local contexts for site distribution. Inventorying the physiographic setting of shell middens based on their sizes rather than treating all middens as a homogenous group will increase our understanding of settlement patterns on the Central Coast.
Toft, Peter Andreas (National Museum of Denmark)
Moravian and Inuit landscapes in West Greenland — Transculturation of Settlement Structure and Material Cultures
From 1733 to 1900 Moravian missionaries settled in West Greenland to mission and teach. These activities resulted in local mission and settlement layouts following Moravian principles and at the same time adapting to the local landscape and Inuit culture. Although prohibited from organized trade by the Danish state, the Moravian missionaries did exchange European commodities for Inuit artifacts. This exchange did, in some cases, also result in an Inuit industry creating souvenirs for the missionaries. At the same time local Inuit material culture was influenced by the Moravian presence, e.g. introduction of written language, birth records, goats and new crafts such as basket weaving. In this paper the transculturation of landscape use and material culture of Moravians and Inuit will be demonstrated by cases of recent field work done during the Steatite Objects Analysis Project in 2007 and the People of all times project in 2012/13. The paper will explore spatial data, objects, oral tradition and written sources from sites at Nuuk, Uummannaq, Akunnaat and Kangillermiut.
Toupin, Rémi (Université de Montréal and UQUAM), Isabelle Ribot (Université de Montréal and UQUAM), and Jean-François Hélie (UQUAM)
The Evolution of Protestants' Dietary Habits through the 19thCentury in Quebec City: the Contribution of Multi-Material Stable Isotope Analyses
As a population consisting mainly of immigrants, the Protestants buried in Saint-Matthew's cemetery (Quebec City) during the19thcentury had to adapt to a new environment when they first settled in the St-Lawrence Valley. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the stable isotope geochemistry of several materials of the human skeleton (bone collagen, bone apatite, dentinal collagen and enamel carbonate) can help us understand how dietary behaviours have evolved through the life of these individuals. As diet is closely related to socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, it can inform us about individual adaptation and identity through a person's lifespan. While data acquired from a previous project focusing on bone collagen showed they maintained a European-style diet, our results show a significant increase in C4 plants (maize, sugarcane, etc.) usage through adulthood amongst36 individuals. Results from our study combined with previously obtained data on second molar enamel suggests significant dietary changes among most individuals, changes that could be the consequence of individual adaptive processes and socio-economical choices.
Treyvaud, G (INRS ETE, Québec)
The Use Of Metals And Metal Products On Urban And Rural Archaeological Sites: Reconstructing Technologies Employed by Native American and European Artisans in New France During the 17th and 18th Centuries.
Cette recherche vise à documenter le contexte métallurgique des périodes de transition et coloniale en Nouvelle-France et par l'application de concepts théoriques apporter une meilleure compréhension d'une période importante de l'histoire de l'Amérique du Nord. Les sujets spécifiques de la transformation des métaux, de la fabrication des objets métalliques, des connaissances et du savoir-faire des artisans ainsi que l'impact social et économique de leur métier et de l'influence de la technologie sont abordés dans cette étude. Notre travail se concentre sur l'étude des chaînes opératoires et des techniques métallurgiques employées par les artisans des Premières Nations et Européens, ainsi que les choix technologiques effectués tout au long du processus de production au cours d'une période d'adaptation technologique à l'environnement de la Nouvelle-France. Les artefacts sont étudiés par les méthodes de tomographie, fluorescence X (XRF), et par microradiographie dans le but d'identifier les sources des métaux, la signature technique des artisans, et les problèmes technologiques liés au climat, à l'énergie du carburant et au manque de matières premières.
This research aims to document the context in which metallurgy occurred during the transition period and the colonisation of New France, through the application of theoretical concepts to provide a better understanding of an important period in the colonial history of North America. Topics specific to the processing of metals, the craftsmanship of objects, knowledge concerning metalworkers as well as the social and economic impact of their craft and the influence of technology are discussed in this study. Our work focuses on the study of the chaînes opératoires and the metallurgical techniques employed by Native American and European artisans, as well as the technological choices made throughout the process of metal production during a period of technological adaptation to the environment of New France. Artefacts are being studied using tomography, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning and micro-radiography with the goal of identifying metal sources, the technical signature of the artisans, and technological problems related to climate, fuel and a lack of raw materials.
Turney, Michael (Golder Associates Ltd.)
Ruminations on projectile points recovered from Middle Prehistoric occupations of the Quarry of the Ancestors, Northeastern Alberta
The Quarry of the Ancestors, north of Fort McMurray Alberta, is a highly significant complex of workshop sites associated with the Beaver River Sandstone (BRS) quarry. This site complex is dominated by two large activity areas, HhOv 305 and HhOv 319, both of which have been protected as part of Quarry of the Ancestors "archaeological preserve" under Provincial Notation PNT 050083 since 2006. Fieldwork conducted on the northern lobe of HhOv-305 and HhOv-319, which extends north past the Quarry of the Ancestors protected boundary, has garnered a large assemblage of projectile points manufactured both from BRS and other lithic raw materials. It is suggested that the projectile points manufactured from BRS and other lithic raw materials recovered from these sites represent an internally consistent point style. Projectile points produced from non-BRS tool stone have been transported to these sites to be repaired, re-sharpened, or in some cases replaced by newly manufactured BRS projectile points. Inferences are supported through analysis of non-metric and metric attributes from the projectile point collection, and further contextualized by a presentation of radiocarbon assay and geomorphological data.
Vallejos, Susana (Memorial University)
Mobile Materials and Solid Identities: Interpretive Issues Concerning Ships and National Identity
Recent findings within ship archaeology have drawn attention to issues about the use of the discipline for nationalistic argument/symbolism purposes. The archaeological representation of material culture as indicative of a specific cultural group has implications for the interpretation of, and claim to, archaeological material. This representation is not always appropriate as material culture can cut across boundaries, and the belief that an artifact is tied to an identity limits its history. This paper addresses this topic from a maritime archaeological perspective. Ships have a complex and dynamic nature that provide an opportunity for archaeologists to re-address important questions concerning the cultural identity of material culture and the nature of the relationship that exists between artifacts and people. This reanalysis would allow us to move away from simplified interpretations which suggest that artifacts are tied to a single cultural group. This paper seeks to disentangle and discuss issues of interpretation of shipwrecks apparent in the intersection between ship biographies/histories and the national narratives surrounding them.
Venovcevs, Anatolijs (Memorial University)
From Text to Database to… Sites?: Challenges and Hidden Potentials of Text-Derived Spatial Analysis
While many GIS applications in archaeology employ detailed and extensive collections of spatial and non-spatial data or collect that data through innovative and extensive/intensive geomatics work, how can a spatial analysis be undertaken when there is a lack of geographical information to begin with? This is the challenge of investigating the European winter transhumant tradition and its associated winter house sites that are thought to be widespread on the island of Newfoundland. This way of life, despite persisting for almost 300 years and representing a unique and highly unorthodox method of European New World adaptation, represents a significant gap in our archaeological knowledge of the island where almost no data has been generated for its analysis. Therefore, other sources such as toponymy and historic accounts must be used in order to spatially analyze this long-lasting tradition. Combining techniques drawn from archaeology, history, and historical geography, this paper brings various sources together to articulate the broader pattern of geographic distribution of this tradition as it is currently understood. In so doing, it discusses the challenges, limitations, and hidden potentials of conducting a spatial analysis from non-spatial sources and offers a framework of how such gaps in the archaeological record can be addressed.
Vickruck, C.R. (Lakehead University), McEvoy, C.J. (Lakehead University), Mason, R. (Lakehead University), and Matheson, C.D. (Lakehead University)
Mysterious sphero-conical vessels reveals ancient explosives from Jerusalem
Thick-walled small stoneware Sphero-conical vessels have been found throughout the Middle East between about the 10th and 14th century. Researchers have proposed that these vessels could have been used as smoking pipes, grenades or small containers holding medicines, mercury, beer or perfume. Experimental archaeology maintains the plausibility of all these hypotheses The unusual nature of the ceramic, being the only highly fired stoneware produced in the Middle East, together with the very thick walls of at least 1 cm on a typical c, 10 cm diameter vessel, would indicate an unusually dedicated function that only existed between the 10th and 14th century. Although incendiary devices are well-known in this period, the properties of sphero-conical vessels would suggest an explosive function but there is actually no evidence for gunpowder in the Middle East at this time. However, all the components of gunpowder are well-attested, and it was certainly known in China. Archaeological chemistry has been applied to a set of sphero-conical vessel fragments from the 11th century, Jerusalem. The results of this research will be presented here and the interpretation of the analysis maintains the possibility of weaponry.
Walde, Dale (University of Calgary) and Gerald Oetelaar (University of Calgary)
Identifying the Snake: A New Look at the Historical and Archaeological Evidence
The identity of the people identified as Snake in southern Alberta during the 18th century has been a matter of some controversy for decades. Many researchers have suggested that the Snake were Shoshoni and some simply substitute "Shoshoni" for "Snake" in their narratives. While it is clear that some Shoshoni groups were identified as Snakes by southern Alberta Blackfoot groups, it is not at all clear that only Shoshoni were referred to by this pejorative term. In this paper we explore the anthropological, historical and archaeological literature and find that "Snake" was a relatively common epithet used by Algonquians generally to refer to peoples of whom they disapproved. Integrated study of historical and archaeological records here supports earlier suggestions that the Snake of southern Alberta were more probably Siouan speakers who first appeared in the area by about the mid–17th century and disappeared from the region by about 1875.
Wells, Patricia J. (University of Western Ontario)
An illustrated reflection on the life of Priscilla Renouf
Priscilla Renouf's dedication to her life as a scholar, teacher and colleague was exemplary and an inspiration to those who knew and worked with her. This presentation is a pictorial journey through Priscilla's early childhood growing up in St. John's Newfoundland. It will focus on those who inspired her as a young person and influenced the way she approached her work and her social relationships. While many are aware of her academic achievements, this warm reflection on her as a person with extraordinary humour, kindness and determination will hopefully lend a fuller understanding of how she accomplished so much in her professional life.
Whitridge, Peter (Memorial University)
Fractal Landscapes: Nested Spatial Scales in Northern Archaeology
Although people inhabit post-adolescent bodies of somewhat fixed dimensions, we nevertheless continue to experience the world at a variety of spatial scales. We focus our sensorimotor attention on a task close at hand, or gaze out across a vast landscape. We also imagine spaces we cannot readily sense, from subatomic to interstellar, belonging to this reality or others. The archaeological record suggests some of the ways this spatial complexity was experienced in the past. The configuration of objects, dwellings, and settlements organized everyday practices in durable, culturally distinctive ways: a tool designed to be handled in a particular fashion, a tent set up for the usual domestic activities, a village laid out to coordinate households or provide them with privacy. Some of the evidence - figurative art, ritual objects and spaces, the residues of symbolic practices - also points to associated imaginary worlds. As archaeologists we construct discrete analytic categories for parsing these data, but rarely attempt to reassemble the evidence in a fashion evocative of authentic past experience. The body, which perceives, imagines and acts in the world at all of these scales, provides the integrative frame that helps resolve the fractal dissolution of past realities.
Williams, Duncan (Wilfrid Laurier University)
GIS and Military Archaeology: Investigations at Old Fort Erie, Ontario
Wilfrid Laurier University field schools in 2012 and 2013 examined the eighteenth and nineteenth century military landscape at Fort Erie on the southern Niagara Peninsula. Between 1764 and 1823, the site was intermittently occupied by the British military. A series of forts were constructed during this time to support the British position on the Lower Great Lakes. The site played a particularly important role in the 1814 Niagara Campaign, acting as a staging ground for the American invasion, and playing host to the decisive battle of that campaign. The Siege of Fort Erie in August and September of 1814 ended up being the bloodiest engagement of the war (resulting in approximately 3000 casualties). Data collected at Fort Erie has recently been analyzed using a multi-scalar GIS approach. This analysis builds on similar investigations pairing GIS with military archaeology, and suggests that a GIS framework is very well suited to this type of data. This paper will review and summarize some of the results of the analysis. Viewshed analysis from the British siege batteries (informed by historic maps) and intrasite spatial analysis of various artifact groups formed the bulk of the analysis. Methodological issues (and their relationship with accompanying theoretical frameworks) surrounding the importing of the data and its subsequent analysis in a GIS will also be reviewed.
Woollett, James (Université Laval and Centre d'études nordiques), Céline Dupont–Hébert (Université Laval and Centre d'études nordiques), Najat Bhiry (Université Laval and Centre d'études nordiques), Natasha Roy (Université Laval and Centre d'études nordiques), Paul Adderley (University of Stirling), Guðrun Gísladóttir (Fornleifastofnun Íslands, Iceland), Uggi Ævarsson (Minjavörður Suðurlands, Iceland), and Véronique Forbes (University of Aberdeen)
Two contrasting boom and bust cycles in the Svalbarð estate (northeastern Iceland, 10th to 19th century AD).
Since 2008, the Archaeology of Settlement and Abandonment of Svalbarð project (NE Iceland) has investigated conjonctures of settlement, subsistence and landscape history in light of concepts of historical ecology and resilience. Fifteen years ago, these themes were part of discussions of the LINK Small-Scale Societies of the North Atlantic working group, which explored examples of the persistence, transformation and collapse of societies and socio-economic institutions across the North Atlantic. Dr. M. A. P. Renouf played a critical role in development of the LINK programme and applied it in her research thereafter. This presentation reviews multidisciplinary research addressing regional settlement patterns and land use and subsistence activities at major sites on the Svalbarð estate, over a scale of approx. 1000 years. Two major cycles of settlement expansion have been identified (11th to 14th century, 18th to 19th century), each followed by widespread abandonments. While both cycles coincided with climatic cooling and shared similar subsistence economies (herding, fishing, hunting), socio-economic vulnerabilities in particular figure prominently in later cycle. Projections of climatic thresholds of farm viability and failure for particular farm sites will be proposed through preliminary modeling of productive potential of different sites coupled with results of zooarchaeological and geoarchaeological studies.
Woolsey, Cora (McMaster University and University of New Brunswick)
Preliminary Results on Analysis of the Gaspereau Lake Reservoir Ceramic Assemblage
The Gaspereau Lake Reservoir (GLR) site complex, located inland from Nova Scotia's Eastern Shore, has yielded the richest and largest assemblage of Aboriginal ceramics in the Maine-Maritimes Region to date. Consisting of over 18,000 sherds and a number of near-complete vessels, the assemblage spans the Middle (2150-1000 BP) and Late (1000-500 BP) Woodland periods and may include Early (3000-2150 BP) Woodland sherds as well. The assemblage affords a unique opportunity to observe the evolution of a local ceramic manufacturing practice through time as well as the site's use history, evident from discard patterns, use wear, and chemical analysis of organics. This paper will detail preliminary findings on the GLR ceramic assemblage with a particular focus on the End of Dyke site, the largest of the 21 identified sites in the GLR site complex. A number of ceramic micro-traditions are discernible, and variability among and within them may indicate several social dynamics at work (such as moments of increased production marking unusually important events or periodic influxes of potters from other groups). Nevertheless, there is little evidence of regularly imported pots; rather, the high degree of homogeneity evident in the grit temper likely indicates an in situ manufacturing context. Firing temperatures appear to have changed through time, and first impressions of the pattern of these changes are that they were more likely the result of shifting socio-economic boundaries than of changes in technological function.
Woywitka, Robin (Archaeological Survey of Alberta and University of Alberta), Duane Froese (University of Alberta) and Krista Gilliland (Western Heritage Inc.)
Telling time in the oil sands region of northeastern Alberta
Boreal forest archaeological records are notorious for their lack of chronological control. This shortcoming is mainly due to site formation processes that inhibit the preservation of organic material suitable for radiocarbon dating. As a result, boreal forest temporal frameworks are commonly constructed from artifact typology studies that rely on comparisons from neighbouring or even farther removed areas. Although these far flung chronologies can be insightful if particularly time diagnostic artifacts co-occur in widely separated regions (e.g., Clovis points), the lack of primary temporal data undermines their reliability. This paper examines primary temporal data available in the oil sands region of northeastern Alberta. Recent work on landform stabilization and sedimentation at archaeological sites using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating is presented along with a compilation of all available archaeological radiocarbon dates. A new temporal framework is constructed from these data. Although this framework is not as detailed as previous typology based studies, it does provide an independent temporal model for the region.
Yang, Dongya (Simon Fraser University)
Ancient DNA Preservation in Archaeological Faunal Remains from the Northwest Coast
In the past 10 years, numerous ancient DNA analyses have been conducted on a great number of faunal remains from the Northwest Coast of North America. This paper aims to review the success rates of the ancient DNA recovery in order to better understand the ancient DNA preservation mechanisms in the region. The data have shown an expected reverse correlation between success rates of DNA recovery and antiquity of faunal remains but also revealed a general pattern of high success rates of ancient DNA recovery in the region. This study attempts to identify these factors that may have favoured ancient DNA preservation in the region and hopes that some of these insights can be used to shed new light on the assessment of DNA preservation in other coastal regions of the world.
Anstey, Robert (University of Cambridge)
Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates from the Strait of Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador: Amerindian and Palaeoeskimo Occupations
This poster presents the results of an analysis of radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites on either side of the Strait of Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador dating to 3000-1200 BP. The goal of this analysis was to provide a temporal context for interpreting contemporaneity and potential for cross-strait interactions between resident Palaeoeskimo and Amerindian populations. Contemporaneity is examined critically at multiple spatial and temporal scales using a variety of statistical methods.
Barry, Jacqueline (Lakehead University, K. Speirs (Lakehead University), and C. Surette (Lakehead University)
Determining Archaeological Significance of unflaked Stones from Paleoindian Sites Using Micro-Analytical Techniques
Many unidentified stones are recovered during archaeological excavations, however it is often difficult to assess whether they are truly artifacts in the absence of unequivocal use wear or flaking evidence. During excavations at the Mackenzie 1 (DdJf-9) Paleoindian site in Thunder Bay, many stones without flaking but with possible grinding facets were encountered and retained for further lab analysis. Using micro-analytical techniques, we hope to determine if some were used to grind plant or other organic matter, or were used in tool fabrication or other purposes. This involves a multi-stage process of residue extraction, chemical treatment and microscopic examination. We selected stones that exhibit some signs of possible use, as well as some unmodified ones to serve as controls. Preliminary results have revealed plant microfossils or other organic residues, and perhaps also inorganic particles of possible cultural origin. Ongoing research is addressing the character of these recoveries to more fully infer the function the object served.
Bohms, Jeralyn (Memorial University)
Illuminating Inuit Life at Double Mer Point:The Excavation of an 18th-Century Communal Winter House
In 2014, excavation was completed of the first of three late 18th-century Inuit sod houses at Double Mer Point in Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. This was a time of dramatic changes in the lives of the Labrador Inuit. European and Canadian explorers, settlers, traders and fishers were arriving in increasing numbers, challenging traditional Inuit lifeways with new goods and technologies, economic strategies, and social relationships. While Hamilton Inlet may have been a comparative refuge between the Moravian missions of the north and livyers in the south, it was not free from European influence, as is apparent in artifacts from the site. However, the persistence of traditional aspects of communal house culture at this late date strongly suggests that the transition to single-family living and dependence on the fur trade took place relatively
quickly thereafter. Using photographs and maps, this presentation highlights some of the more significant artifacts uncovered during the 2014 excavation. Combined with text and discussion, these exhibits can illuminate not only the relationship between the Inuit at Double Mer Point and some of Labrador's earliest European "livyers", but more generally help illustrate how human societies respond to change actively, selectively, and - where possible - on their own terms.
Burchell, Meghan (Memorial University), Anna Sparrow (Memorial University), Margaret Way (Memorial University) and Matthew Betts (Canadian Museum of History )
Interpreting Shellfish Harvesting in Port Joli, Nova Scotia: A New Technique Using Microgrowth Pattern Analysis
The soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria is a reliable biomonitor of both environmental and cultural events since annual lines are recorded in the chondrophore. We compare and contrast variability in shellfish harvesting strategies between two sites on the south shore of Nova Scotia by counting the microscopic annual growth lines to determine the absolute age of the harvested shell populations. To ensure consistency in age estimates, we tested inter-observer variability in identifying annual growth lines from a live-collected population of Mya arenaria. In addition to microscopic analysis, we also use biometric data to evaluate the relationship between shell size and harvest pressure. By using the absolute age of the animal is it possible to produce a detailed population profile of the intensity at which shells were harvested and develop a more nuanced understanding of the role of shellfish in Nova Scotia's pre-contact subsistence economies. We demonstrate these techniques on samples from two very different types of shell midden sites from Port Joli Harbour, AlDf-24 and AlDf-30, which were both occupied ca. 1450 BP.
Burgess, Neil M. (Memorial University; Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland and Labrador) and Ken Keeping (Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland and Labrador; Maritime Survey Services Ltd.)
Survey and Identification of Three 20th Century Whaling Shipwrecks in Newfoundland
Volunteers from the Shipwreck Preservation Society of Newfoundland & Labrador (SPSNL) worked in partnership with the Town of Conception Harbour to study the underwater wrecks of three abandoned whaling ships, identify them, promote their history to visitors, and improve the facilities and information for scuba divers. SPSNL divers were trained in underwater archaeology techniques and completed 2D and 3D surveys of the three wrecks. Historical research of the ships and the company that last owned them indicated that five whaling ships were berthed in Conception Harbour throughout the 1960s. Measurements of the wrecks were compared to shipyard specifications obtained from Britain. The ships were identified as S.S. Charcot, S.S. Southern Foam and S.S. Sukha. The results of the project have been shared with the local community, the media and the Provincial Archaeology Office. This project offered an excellent start-up exercise for SPSNL members to develop their skills in underwater archaeology, historical research and community engagement.
Carlson, Ivan (State University of New York, Plattsburgh)
Synchronic and Diachronic Spatial Organization of Dorset Lithic Production at the Stock Cove Site (CkAl-3)
The research presented in this poster is the result of spatial analyses of formal tools and aggregate analyses of debitage recovered from excavation of the Dorset Paleoeskimo levels of the Stock Cove Site (CkAl-3) of southeastern Newfoundland. I documented several different attributes of the Dorset lithic assemblage, including size, weight, and raw material, and mapped their provenience vertically and horizontally. My research suggests distinct synchronic and diachronic patterns in the organization and use of lithic materials and their production. I present interpretations of those patterns regarding the design and organization of Dorset lithic production at Stock Cove and what it may reveal about Dorset social organization and mobility in the region.
Carter, Kari (McMaster University) and Aubrey Cannon (McMaster University)
Elemental indicators of human occupational intensity at shell midden sites on the central coast of British Columbia.
We present the preliminary results of low-resolution reagent colorimetric analysis to determine variability in phosphorus concentrations within the fine fraction matrix of shell midden deposits. Although chemical analyses of archaeological deposits in other contexts have focused on distinguishing cultural from non-cultural deposition, exploring on-site spatial patterning, and detecting and analyzing activity areas, we explore the potential for extending application of this technique as an independent indicator of the relative intensity of occupation. Research showing a clear relationship between relative densities of fish bones and site area has been the basis for inferring variability in the scale, frequency, or duration of occupation at sites on the central coast of British Columbia. Comparing phosphorus concentrations with densities of fish bone provides a basis for independent evaluation of this inferred pattern, and shows promise for broader application of elemental analysis in addressing variability in activities and the intensity (or intermittency) of occupation at and between shell midden sites.
Colligan, Paddy (The Graduate Center, CUNY)
Thule Tools Across the Arctic
Between AD1000 and 1400, people from the Thule culture spread across the North American Arctic. They are the ancestors of today's Iñupiat, Inuit, and Greenlandic people. The Thule were skillful hunters harvesting bowhead, muskox, bear, caribou, walrus, narwhal, beluga, birds, seals, and other prey using tools made from available resources. Thule artifact collections are dispersed in many museums and cultural centers in North America and Europe. To show how these artifacts are similar and dissimilar across the Arctic, my poster presents a selection of objects I have examined while researching my dissertation on precontact iron use in the Arctic.
Couture, Andréanne (Université Laval), Najat Bhiry (Université Laval), James Woollett (Université Laval) and Yves Monette
Household Geoarchaeology : Micromorphological analysis of Inuit communal sod houses in northern Labrador
Micromorphological samples were collected as part of a multidisciplinary study undertaken at Uivak Point (HjCl-09) and Oakes Bay-1 (HeCg-8) to document the archaeological sediments of three 18th-century Inuit communal sod houses. This type of house is unique to Labrador and Greenland and is one of the transitions that were documented in the Inuit lifestyle when contacts with Europeans were intensifying and climatic changes associated with the Little Ice Age were taking place. By sampling different sections of each house, it was possible to create a micromorphological portrait of the Inuit domestic space. Many anthropogenic microfeatures that could be associated with human activity residues were identified in the thin sections. By combining our results with the archaeological, anthropological and historical records, we were able to link some of those residues to specific cultural practices of the 18th-century Inuit communities in Labrador. Although our sampling strategy did not allow us to locate activity areas within the communal houses, we observed that the frequency of the different anthropogenic indicators that we identified through our analysis varied from one part of the house to the other. This variation seems to reflect the building and cleaning practices documented by many anthropologists and archaeologists.
Crann, C.A. (University of Ottawa), S. Murseli (University of Ottawa), G. St.-Jean (University of Ottawa), W.E. Kieser (University of Ottawa), I.D. Clark (University of Ottawa)
The new radiocarbon facilities at the A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, Ottawa: a review of the performance, research, and development
The Lalonde AMS system was commissioned in early 2014 at the Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa. Since then, the radiocarbon sample preparation laboratory has successfully completed a quality control program and has been routinely analyzing collagen containing material (bone, antler, tusk), carbonates, and organic materials (wood, sediment, peat). Here we present a performance review of standard, blank, IAEA, and SIRI samples; an overview of the projects we have worked on thus far including a case study on the re-dating of Aïn Berriche Skeletons 3A-4 and 3A-7 from eastern Algeria (Capsian site); and an illustration of the custom equipment designed and built in-house for sample combustion, gas cleanup, and graphitization.
Foury, Y. (Université Laval), N. Bhiry (Université Laval; Centre d'études nordiques), and J. Woollett (Université Laval; Centre d'études nordiques)
Micromorphological and zooarchaeological analyses of Labrador Inuit midden deposits
This presentation presents an overview of current research combining the zooarchaeological analysis of a Labrador Inuit winter settlement with high-resolution micromorphological analyses of midden stratigraphy. Excavations at the site of Oakes Bay 1 (HeCg-08) on Dog Island near Nain, Nunatsiavut, have documented several dwellings that comprised an Inuit winter settlement inhabited from the late 17th to the later 18th century. Previous zooarchaeological studies of the site have defined a remarkably consistent mode of subsistence centred around ringed seal (Pusa hispida) hunting at breathing holes and at the ice edge. These studies, however, rely on relatively coarse stratigraphic sub-sampling of middens that obscure individual, short-term occupations. Micromorphological studies of middens can distinguish deposits resulting from anthropogenic and natural sedimentation processes and guide the sub-sampling of zooarchaeological assemblages. This approach provides a novel opportunity to observe economic impacts of short-term environmental variations during the "Little Ice Age" or historically-documented site occupation events. Micromorphological samples for this study have been obtained from the middens of houses 1 and 2 of the HeCg-08 site, occupied in the mid-18th century. These samples will used to re-assess the stratigraphies of these middens and to aid the analyses of faunal assemblages recovered during their excavation.
Hacking, Krystyna (University of Calgary), Bjorn Peare Bartholdy (University of Calgary), Tyler James Murchie (University of Calgary)
Wolf, Coyote, Dog, or Hybrid? Phylogenetic Study of Canid Remains
This poster is based on a recent study involving the ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of six canid bones performed in the aDNA facility at the University of Calgary. The samples were obtained from two Late Period sites on the Canadian Plains; FM Ranch (EfPk-1) and Cluny (EePf-1). The results were compared to data obtained from a previous study of canid remains from the Lake Midden (EfNg-1) site in Saskatchewan; also a Late Period site. Utilizing reference sequences and the obtained sequencing data to create a phylogenetic tree, the analyses provided a more accurate taxonomic classification of the canid remains, and included Canis familiaris (domestic dog) and Canis latrans (coyote). This type of phylogenetic analysis can compliment cultural evidence in order to provide useful insights regarding the degree of relatedness spanning geographic regions. Though aDNA analysis has become an invaluable tool in archaeology, it is not without its limitations, some of which will be addressed.
Hodge, Glen (St. Mary's University), Jacob Hanley (St. Mary's University), Katie Cottreau-Robins (Nova Scotia Museum), Chris McFarlane (University of New Brunswick), Graham Layne (Memorial University), Bruce Stewart (Cultural Resource Management Group Ltd), and Mike Sanders (Cultural Resource Management Group Ltd).
Constraints on the geochemical provenance of refined copper and brass artifacts from the Gaspereau Lake area, Kings County, Nova Scotia: insights into the metallurgical and trace element systematics of European contact-era trade alloys
16th and 17th century, copper-based archaeological artifacts from the Gaspereau Lake area, Nova Scotia were analyzed with virtually non-destructive microanalytical methods (SEM-EDS, LA-ICPMS, SIMS) to provide constraints on the European geographic origin of the contained metals, and timing and nature of trade activities between Europeans and contact-era indigenous peoples of the Atlantic Northeast. The artifacts are composed of pure (refined) copper, gilding metal, bronze, and various brass alloys. Their compositions were compared to copper coinage of relevant European provenance and age. Inclusions of Pb-As-Sb-rich "speiss" (contaminant inclusions from smelting) in the artifacts are similar to those seen in Swedish and Spanish coinage minted between 1560 and 1680. Oxidation destroys the speiss inclusions and leaches Zn and other metals out of brass objects, whereas ~pure copper objects are largely unaffected by oxidation. Thus, even their patina compositions can be used for provenance determination. Bulk Sb-As-Ni concentrations differentiate Swedish from central European sources of Cu, reflecting the mineralogy of the original mined ores. Lead isotope data suggests that the artifact Cu was manufactured using Cu from the primary Swedish source (Falun, Great Copper Mountain) mixed with variable amounts of Zn-Pb-bearing ores or fluxes from central European sources (e.g., Poland, Germany).
Jankunis, Vincent (Memorial University)
Chaloupes and Sail Technology : 17th and 18th Marine Transportation in Southern and Central Labrador.
Although known as apt mariners the Inuit use of small European watercraft called chaloupes in Labrador is often overlooked. While the Inuit kayak and umiak provided the means of transportation and subsistence for the 15th century Inuit expansion south into Labrador the vessels differed greatly. The investment involved with constructing and maintaining the larger umiak s made them a sign of wealth and prestige. These attributes were later extended to chaloupes available through direct and indirect contact with Europeans throughout the 16th - 18th century. First acquired through raids on French and Basque caches during the 16th century and later as trade items during the 17th and 18th centuries, chaloupes were a more robust watercraft that could utilize sail technology. Focusing on the 17th and 18th centuries in southern and central Labrador this poster will investigate how sail technology may have influenced the shift of settlement locations and the development of communal houses. This will include a comparison of chaloupe characteristics and capabilities to that of the Inuit kayak and umiak to investigate how the chaloupe was incorporated into Inuit marine transportation.
Jolicoeur, Patrick (University of Glasgow)
Arctic Mettle: Interaction and Exchange Expressed through Late Dorset Metal-Use
A growing body of evidence is beginning to suggest that metal was an increasingly important raw material source for the Late Dorset in the eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland. However, there are only five known sources of metal in the Arctic. First, meteoric iron, telluric iron, or native copper could have been collected from the Cape York meteorite spread in northern Greenland, Disko Bay in western Greenland, or the Coppermine River area in the central Arctic respectively. Alternatively, metal could have been acquired through Asiatic or Norse trade routes. The limited number of points of origin makes metal one of the best material types to better understand exchange and cultural contact in the Arctic during the Late Dorset period. This poster will analyse instances of Late Dorset metal-use and attempt to understand not only the source of the raw material but also the importance of the material itself to the Late Dorset people. The results will hopefully compliment ongoing research into metal-use and cultural contacts in the Arctic and perhaps give insight into not only the extent of inter- and intra-cultural trade networks that existed at this time but also perhaps the nature of interaction between different cultural groups.
Kotar, Kathryn (University of Western Ontario) and Lisa Hodgetts (University of Western Ontario)
Variability in the Banks Island Thule-Inuit Subsistence Economy: A Preliminary Faunal Analysis of OkRn-1, Banks Island, N.W.T.
Little is currently known about Thule migration, settlement, and subsistence patterns on Banks Island NWT (the westernmost island in Canada's arctic archipelago) in comparison to those in surrounding regions, such as the Mackenzie Delta and the central Canadian Arctic. Recent syntheses are increasingly recognizing the wide range of regional, temporal and seasonal variability in Thule lifeways, which have yet to be thoroughly documented on Banks Island. This paper is a preliminary zooarchaeological analysis of animal remains excavated from the OkRn-1 archaeological site (ca. 1450 - 1650 AD) on Banks Island. As the first investigation of late Thule faunal remains from Banks Island, it represents a unique opportunity to study temporal change in Thule subsistence on the island through comparison with the previously excavated early Thule site of Nelson River (OhRh-1). It will further allow comparisons with the better known late Thule occupation of the Mackenzie Delta to position Banks Island Thule within broader regional subsistence trends. In addition, the OkRn-1 dwelling is one of few excavated Thule qarmats in the western Canadian Arctic and this work will help resolve uncertainties about their seasonal use.
Macfie, Ramsay (Western University)
Hot Rocks: Reigniting Fire-Cracked Rocks in the Great Lakes Archaic
Fire-cracked rocks (FCR) are conspicuously presence in a broad range of North American archaeological contexts, yet they remain virtually unacknowledged for their analytic potential in research. Pit features with high numbers of associated FCR have been recorded as a characteristic of Archaic sites in the Great Lakes region, and have been described variously as earth ovens, hearths, and roasting pits, as well as general refuse and storage features. While these descriptions can be useful in site interpretation, their classifications often go untested. This research aims to better the understanding of FCR features of the Great Lakes Archaic through the careful analysis of FCR pit contents and through experimentation with hot rock cooking techniques. This poster presents a preliminary discussion of the methods and context of fire-cracked rock analysis as it pertains to food processing technology in region. It situates hot rock cooking within the archaeological and ethnographic record of North America and outlines the ways in which analysis of FCR thermal properties, as well as FCR refitting studies, can help confirm or refute interpretations of feature function, and inform the experimental construction of hot rock cooking features.
Morry, A.K. (Memorial University)
Washed Away: a Case Study of the Tors Cove Cemetery
The 19th Roman Catholic cemetery in Tors Cove, NL is a representative example of traditional Newfoundland burial practices. The cemetery lies on a high cliff overlooking both the ocean and community, representing the close ties between the dead and the living in small communities. However, the cemetery is currently under threat of erosion and human remains continuously fall out of the embankment. This poster presents findings based on these salvaged remains and aims to illustrate what could possibly be learned from a full-scale salvage operation of the cemetery.
Pennanen, Kelsey (Lakehead University) and Matthew Boyd (Lakehead University)
Microscopic charcoal analysis of a stratified Boreal site
Microscopic charcoal analysis, a technique used to study fire frequency and intensity from lake sediments, has rarely been utilized in archaeological investigations in the Boreal Forest. Fire, however, is an important ecological force in this region, and historical evidence points to the use of deliberate burning by subarctic Aboriginal populations. In this study, matrix samples were collected from the Tache site, a rare stratified boreal archaeological site located near the confluence of the Hay and Meander Rivers in northern Alberta. The stratigraphy of this site is dominated by fluvial sediments with parallel, fine-grained, sand and silt-laminae. At least 8 buried soil horizons are distinctly interbedded between these probable floodplain deposits. The earliest soil was radiocarbon dated at cal 3243-3398 BP. The initial human occupation of this site dates to cal 2760-2866 BP, with a subsequent occupation at cal 1263-1340 BP. Samples were obtained from the paleosols and analyzed for phytoliths and microscopic charcoal in order to reconstruct the local fire history, and determine the source of ignition (whether anthropogenic or natural), through time.
Tobiasz, Mary Lynn (McMaster University)
The History of Archaeological Investigation on the Central Coast of British Columbia
Poster Abstract: This poster displays the sample of shell midden sites that have been the focus of archaeological work on the Central Coast, showing that the collective research effort has been biased towards large villages and fails to recognize the diversity of small and medium shell middens. To determine whether the quantity of investigations are proportional of the variety of shell midden sites, groups are constructed based on midden dimensions then evaluated to see if subsurface testing was preformed, and whether faunal analysis or direct dating was conducted. Results show that the sample of sites that archaeologists have relied on for constructing the region's prehistory is not evenly representative of the variety of settlements that exist. Suggestions are made for what future archaeological projects should target in order to fill in data gaps. Moving towards a more representative sample of the range of shell middens will improve our perceptions of British Columbia prehistory.
Venovcevs, Anatolijs (Memorial University)
Fisherfolk in the Off Season: The Curious Case of Newfoundland's Winter Transhumance
The vast majority of research dealing with European coastal communities in Newfoundland has been centered on the cod fishery and its social and economic ramifications. However, the fishery, while undeniably the single, most important factor in the development of present-day Newfoundland, was limited to the warmer months of the year. Thus, previous research has generally overlooked the winter life ways of European fisherfolk and one of the most interesting and unorthodox chapters of New World colonization - the independent development of a semi-migratory lifestyle by the European settlers. The transhumant tradition they developed revolved around seasonal rounds between coastal communities in the summer and secluded cabins in the winter and challenges most of the current preconceptions on European settlement of the Americas. This poster explores this understudied tradition by tracing its known geographical and chronological extents as derived through archaeology, historical geography, and place name toponymy. In doing so, this work showcases the tremendous scope of the tradition, reveals the untapped research potential of this topic, and explores some tantalizing avenues for further inquiry.
Vickruck, C. (Lakehead University), C. Matheson (Lakehead University), C. Surette (Lakehead University)
Using Ultraviolet Light as a Discriminator for Similar Looking Lithic Material
The use of ultraviolet light is a well-known technique employed by geologists and defines added characteristics for differentiating rocks and minerals. This method has been used sparingly for lithic identification by archaeologists. There are also discrepancies in the literature as to how effective this method is at discriminating between lithic materials. Since many archaeologists use visual means to identify lithic material, we decided to re-evaluate the utility of this technique. Our preliminary research shows that materials that exhibit similar features when examined macroscopically can be separated in some cases using ultraviolet light. With the use of an extensive reference collection, we can demonstrate the added value of this technique as a non-invasive and cost effective means for raw lithic material identification when incorporated with other visual or physical attributes.
Way, Margaret K. (Memorial University), Anna J. Sparrow (Memorial University), Daniel Rees (Memorial University), Megan J. Webb (Memorial University) and Emma A. Culligan (Memorial University)
Shellfish Analysis from Hakai, British Columbia
This research presents the results of shellfish analysis from a column sample obtained from the shell midden site at Hakai (EjTa-4), on the central Northwest coast, dating between 3000-300 years BP. Shell midden matrix was washed through 2 mm and 4 mm mesh sieves and shells greater than 4 mm were identified then quantified by weight. Growth increment analysis of shell fragments of Saxidomus gigantea (butter clam) was conducted to determine relative levels of shellfish harvest pressure. Previous research from nine sites on the central coast of British Columbia indicates that long term residential sites have a lower percentage of (younger) mature shells and a higher percentage of (older) senile shells. In contrast, short term encampments have a higher percentage of mature shells. The data from Hakai will be integrated into existing frameworks of zooarchaeological data in order to develop a broader understanding of shellfish use on the Pacific Northwest coast.
Updated April 25, 2015