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Habitats of Newfoundland

There are 5 habitats, or ecozones, of Newfoundland:

Forest (Boreal Forest)

Wetlands (Bogs, fens)





All, excluding the ocean, can be seen on the Botanical Garden property:

Trail 1: Old growth boreal forest, fen, secondary sucession boreal forest

Trail 2: Secondary sucession boreal forest

Trail 3: Barrens, secondary sucession boreal forest

Trail 4: Old growth boreal forest, bogs, freshwater

Trail 5: Freshwater, old growth boreal forest, secondary succession boreal forest

Main Trail: Old growth boreal forest, secondary sucession boreal forest, freshwater.*


Learn a little bit more about the types of plants you will find in each of these zones:
Please keep in mind that this is not a comprehensive list, and also indicates what zone the plant is most likely found in.  Because nature is not black and white, a variety of plants can be found in the ecotones: the area where two ecozones meet and overlap.

Boreal Forest

-Old growth boreal forest
This is the climax forest in Newfoundland.  It is primarily comprised of three speciec of trees:
Balsam fir
Black spruce
White spruce

As the forest floor is often shadowed by the everygree trees the ground cover diviserty is minimal an is often comprised of mosses.  Where a little light may break through you will commonly find Bunchberry/Crackerberry (Cornus canidensis), starflower, the twinflower, ghost flower, pink lady slipper,...

-Secondary succession boreal forest
This forest area had once been a climax forest, but something (forest fire, hurricane) disruped the mature tree growth, allowing sunlight to reach the soil.  Decidious trees are faster growing than evergreen trees so will be predominate on the landscape.  With time the evergreen trees will shade out the other plants, and the forest will return to the old growth boreal forest.  In the secondary sucession forest you will find:
   Trees & Shrubs
Balsam fir
Black spruce
White spruce
Dogberry/Mountain Ash
White birch
Yellow Birch (not found on the Botanical Garden property)
Pin cherry
Mountain Alder
Mountain Holly
Northern Wild Raisin
red osier dogwood


   Herbeaceous plants and ground covers
Berry plants: Bunchberry, raspberry, blackberry, dewberry, 
Ground covers: Starflower, Twinflower, Clintonia, 
Taller herbaceous plants:Fireweed, goldenrod, cow parsnip, 
Invasive plants: black knapweed, tansy ragwort, 


Fen & Bog
What make a fen a fen?  The main indicator is a direct watercourse.  Fens, like the one found on our Trail 1, are on a hill, causing water to run in, stay for sometime, then flow out.  A bog will form in a bowl shape in the landscape, and water will only leave by evaporation.
The predominate plant found in both locations is the sphagnum moss.  Prized for its sponge like abilities for being able to hold 20 times its dry weight in water, our fens and bogs help prevent flooding.
Because of the inflow of nutrients, fens tend to be more biodiverse.  In this zone you may find:
Balsam fir - stunted from lack or nutrients
Black spruce - stunted from lack or nutrients
White spruce - stunted from lack or nutrients
Larch - thrives in wet areas


Carniverous: Pitcher Plant, round sundew, 
Orchids: Arathusa, scent bottle, rosa?, bog orchid, 
Berry plants: marshberry, creeping wintergreen, cloudberry
Cotton grass
Bog laurel
bog rosemary
Leather leaf
Labrador Tea

Balsam fir - stunted from lack or nutrients or exposure
Black spruce - stunted from lack or nutrients or exposure
White spruce - stunted from lack or nutrients or exposure

    Herbs & Shrubs
Berry plants: blueberry, crowberry, partridgeberry 
Sheep laurel
Heaths and heathers?

many water edge plants are similar to what would be found in the fens or bogs.