Pleiotropic consequences of nucleotide substitution in the Beta-Hemoglobin gene

    Pleiotropy is the phenomenon of secondary, tertiary, and more remote consequences of gene expression or a gene mutation. In the case of of the sickle-cell mutation, a single-base mutation alters the sequence of amino acids in the beta-hemoglobin that directly results in sickle-cell anemia, which produces pleiotropic effects in the circulatory system, spleen, and overall physical appearance.

Figure © 2000 by Griffiths et al. ; text © 2012 by Steven M. Carr