The Ames Test for
mammalian environmental mutagenicity
combines a bacterial revertant
mutation assay with a simulation of mammalian metabolism to
produce a highly sensitive test for mutagenic chemicals in the
A rat liver homogenate is prepared to produce a
metabolically active extract (S9).
[Above] The extract is combined with a strain of his- Salmonella
bacteria: in the absence of histidine,
the bacteria are unable to grow on minimal medium (control result). [Below] The homogenate and bacterial
strain are combined with a suspected mutagenic substance (X).
The induction of revertant colonies indicates that some his- bacteria have mutated
(reverted) to his+ ,
and therefore that substance X is a mutagen.
Different bacterial strains are sensitive to different types
Initial experiments used the reversion assay
without a liver homogenate. However, It is important to realize
that mutagenicity, unlike toxicity, is not the result of ingestion
of a suspect substance, but rather the accumulation of the
substance and its breakdown products in the body. Use of a liver
homogenate simulates the metabolic breakdown of the suspected
mutagen in a mammalian system, and more accurately predicts
mutagenicity of substances ingested by humans. For example, sodium nitrate (NaNO3), which occurs naturally in smoked meat such as
bacon, hot dogs, ham, etc., is not itself mutagenic. However, when
acted upon by HCl in the
stomach,it is converted to nitrous
acid (HNO2), which has
been demonstrated to be a powerful mutagen by the Ames Test.
Bruce Ames (1928 - ) and his
undergraduate students tested large numbers of commercial products
in student labs at UC Berkeley when the test was first introduced
in the 1970s. Many common items, such as hairspray and food colours, were discovered to be mutagenic and were
withdrawn from the market. Ames also established that many
mutagenic compounds are also carcinogenic, an early
indication that changes in DNA sequence led to cancer.
Griffiths et al. © 1996; All text material © 2014 by Steven M. Carr