Brian E. Staveley, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology
Department of Biology
Memorial University of Newfoundland

University of Guelph:
B.Sc.  (Specialized Honours Genetics) 
&  M.Sc. (Molecular Biology & Genetics; 1989)
University of Alberta:
Ph.D. (Genetics; 1995)
University of Toronto:
(Ontario Cancer Institute)
PDF (Cellular & Molecular Biology; 1995-8)
(Zoology & Botany)
Visiting Assistant Professor (1998-99)
Memorial University:
Assistant Professor (tenure track, 1999)
Assistant Professor (with tenure, 2004)
Associate Professor (2005)
Professor (2011)
Professor & Graduate Officer (2014)

Molecular Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics Laboratory
Department of Biology
Science Building (SN-3017)
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador   A1B 3X9
Canada

e-mail: bestave@mun.ca
Telephone: (709) 864-4317
Telefax: (709) 864-3018 (Department of Biology)
 

Laboratory Research:
One of the most important decisions a cell makes during both developmental and pathological processes is the choice between continued survival and death.  For the normal processes of life to occur, cell survival mechanisms must function to oppose cell death.  Of special interest is the realization that some proto-oncogenes maintain the balance between cell death and cell survival and that the initiation of cancer may result from the loss of such fine control.  Drosophila has become an ideal model organism in which to manipulate programmed cell death. 

The objectives of my laboratory's research program involve four closely related goals.  Firstly, my research program strives to understand the phenomenon of cell survival and the signaling mechanisms that prevent cell death.  Secondly, I would like to develop a particular understanding of the subtlety of the cellular decisions that control and differentiate between cell survival and cell growth. Thirdly, as the akt kinase and it's target foxo are key to the above processes, I hope to identify and characterize additional components of the akt signaling pathway and to discover the extent of the biological consequences of these genes such as anti-starvation mechanisms.  Fourthly, due to the fundamental importance of cell death mechanisms in neurodegeneration, we are developing models of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Huntington Disease.

The mechanisms that distinguish between cell death and cell survival and between aspects of cell growth, the increase in cell size and number, are of fundamental importance to many aspects of biology.  The origins of many human diseases may be due to errors in these basic biological functions.

Laboratory Members:
Photos of the Current and Former Members of the Staveley Lab can be found here.

    Undergraduate and Graduate Teaching:
Undergraduate Course Pages:
Principles of Cell Biology (BIOL2060)
Molecular & Developmental Biology (BIOL3530)
Graduate Course Pages:
The Molecular Biology of Development (BIOL7530)

Previously Taught Course Pages:
Principles of Genetics (BIOL2250)
Research Methods in Genetic Biotechnology (BIOL4900)
Research Methods in Genetic Engineering (BIOL7931)

Guest Lectures:
Principles of Evolution and Systematics (BIOL2900)
Applied Biology (BIOL4306)
Graduate Programme in Teaching "How to Build a Course"

Supervision: Positions in my Laboratory

Graduate Opportunities:
Ph.D. and M.Sc.: As my current number of graduate students is near a maximum, I am not recruiting new graduate students for the next few years. However, highly qualified NSERC-PGS-D award holders and other graduate scholars may be considered.

Undergraduate Opportunities:
Honours:  If you are interested in starting an MUN Honours Biology or Honours Biochemistry or Honours Cell Biology and Biochemistry in 2015, please contact me ASAP as my laboratory fills up quickly.  Next opportunities to start are in September of 2015.
NSERC-USRA:  If you are interested in becoming an NSERC-USRA (Undergraduate Student Research Award) scholar for the summer of 2015, from any Canadian University, or as a Science SURA please contact me by early January of 2015.

Thank you to BIOS (MUN's Biology Undergraduate Society)
BIOS Award: Educator of the Year, 2013

     Publications:
 Staveley B.E., 2014. Drosophila Models of Parkinson Disease (Chapter 20) in Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models, Second Edition, Mark S. LeDoux (Ed.) (published October 29, 2014).
 Lipsett, D.B., and B.E. Staveley, 2014. A blueberry extract supplemented diet partially re-stores [alpha]-synuclein-dependent lifespan loss and developmental defects in Drosophila. Advances in Parkinson's Disease 3: 3-9.
 McGuire, M.K., A.D.S. Grant, and B.E. Staveley, 2013. Chronic exposure to tunicamycin during development has little effect upon the eyes of GMR-Gal4 UAS-lacZ males. Drosophila Information Services 96: 153-155.
 Merzetti, E.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2013.  Mitochondrial dynamics in degenerative disease and disease models. Neuroscience Discovery 1: 8 (12 pages).
 Todd, A.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2013. Pink1and parkin demonstrate multifaceted roles when co-expressed with Foxo. Advances in Parkinson's Disease 2: 5-10.
 Merzetti, E.M., C.B. Connors, and B.E. Staveley, 2013. Thinking inside the box: Drosophila F-box protein models of human disease. Journal of Biology 3: 7-14.
 M'Angale, P.G., and B.E. Staveley, 2012.  Effects of alpha-synuclein expression in the developing Drosophila eye. Drosophila Information Services 95: 85-89.
 Todd, A.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2012. Expression of Pink1 with alpha-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila leads to increases in both lifespan and healthspan. Genetics and Molecular Research 11:1497-502.
 Staveley B.E., 2012. Successes of Modelling Parkinson Disease in Drosophila, Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease - Models and Treatments, Juliana Dushanova (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-876-2, InTech, available from: http://www.intechopen.com/source/pdfs/27853/InTech-Successes_of_modelling_parkinson_disease_in_drosophila.pdf (Chapter 12: 233-250).
 Woodman, P.N., A.M.Todd, and B.E. Staveley, 2011.  Eyer: Automated counting of ommatidia using image processing techniques. Drosophila Information Services 94: 142-145.
 Mawhinney, R.M.S., and B.E. Staveley, 2011.  Expression of GFP can influence aging and climbing ability in Drosophila. Genetics and Molecular Research 10: 494-505.
 Todd, A.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2010.  Co-expression of a-synuclein in Drosophila dopaminergic neurons does not affect lifespan reduction resulting from PI3K overexpression. Drosophila Information Services 93: 21-23.
 MacDonald, J.M., J.N. Moores, and B.E. Staveley, 2008. Microchaetae density is not greatly influenced by the overexpression of akt. Drosophila Information Services 91: 108-110.
 Todd, A.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2008. Pink1 suppresses alpha-synuclein induced phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Parkinson disease. Genome 51: 1040-1046.
 Moores, J.N., S. Roy, D.W. Nicholson and B.E. Staveley, 2008. Huntingtin interacting protein 1 can regulate neurogenesis in Drosophila. European Journal of Neuroscience 28: 599-609.
 Kramer, J.M., J.D. Slade, and B.E. Staveley, 2008.  foxo is required for resistance to amino acid starvation in Drosophila. Genome 51: 668-672.
 Slade, J.D., and B.E. Staveley, 2007.  Comparison of somatic clones of the eye in the analysis of cell growth.  Drosophila Information Services 90: 151-156.
 Mitchell, K.J., and B.E. Staveley, 2006.  Protocol for the detection and analysis of cell death in the adult Drosophila brain.   Drosophila Information Services 89: 118-122.
 Haywood, A.F.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2006. Mutant alpha-synuclein-induced degeneration is reduced by parkin in a fly model of Parkinson's disease. Genome 49: 505-510.
 Slade, J.D., J.M. Kramer, and B.E. Staveley, 2005.  A novel luciferase assay for the quantification of insulin signaling in Drosophila. Drosophila Information Services 88:118-122.
 Staveley, B.E., 2005.  Life and Death in the Staveley Lab.  The Genetics Society of Canada Bulletin 36: 97-98. We were the featured laboratory in the September 2005 issue!
 Todd, A.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2004.  Novel assay and analysis for measuring climbing ability in Drosophila.   Drosophila Information Services 87: 101-107.
 Haywood, A.F.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2004.  parkin counteracts symptoms in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. BioMed Central Neuroscience 5:14 (12 pages).  Designated as "Highly Accessed" by BMC.  (page PubMed Central)
 Saunders, L.D., A.F.M. Haywood, and B.E. Staveley, 2003.  Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K) in dopaminergic neurons dramatically reduces life span and climbing ability in Drosophila melanogaster.  Drosophila Information Services 86:107-112. (html)
 Kramer, J.M., J.T. Davidge, J.M. Lockyer, and B.E. Staveley, 2003.  Expression of Drosophila foxo regulates growth and can phenocopy starvation.  BioMed Central Developmental Biology 3: 5 (14 pages).  Designated as "Highly Accessed" by BMC.  Citations: here
 Kramer, J.M., and B.E. Staveley, 2003.  GAL4 causes developmental defects and apoptosis when expressed in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics and Molecular Research 2: 43-47.
 Haywood, A.F.M., L.D. Saunders, and B.E. Staveley, 2002.  dopa decarboxylase(Ddc)-GAL4 dramatically reduces life span. Drosophila Information Services 85: 42-45.
 Staveley, B.E., L. Ruel, & others, 1998.  Genetic analysis of the PKB/akt cell survival pathway in Drosophila. Current Biology 8: 599-602.
 Binari, R.C., B.E. Staveley, & others, 1997. Genetic evidence that heparin-like glycosaminoglycans are involved in wingless signaling. Development 124: 2623-2632.
 Staveley, B.E., T.R. Heslip, R.B. Hodgetts, and J.B. Bell, 1995. Protected P element termini suggest a role for IRBP in transposase-induced gap repair in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 139: 1321-1329. FlyBase Report
 Staveley, B.E., R.B. Hodgetts, S.L. O'Keefe, and J.B. Bell, 1994. Targeting of an 'enhancer trap' to vestigialDevelopmental Biology 165: 290-293.
 Staveley, B.E., A.J. Hilliker, and J.P. Phillips, 1991.Genetic organization of the cSOD microregion of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome 34: 279-282.
 Staveley, B.E., J.P. Phillips, and A.J. Hilliker, 1990. Phenotypic consequences of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome 33: 867-872.
    In the News:
 CBC:Newfoundland & Labrador: Blueberries and preventing Parkinson's Disease: Thanks to Leigh Anne Power (April 28, 2014)
 The Telegram: Better outcome with blueberries. MUN research suggests Parkinsonís patients may benefit from berry: Thanks to Andrew Robinson (April 25, 2014)
 Consultant 360: Blueberries Fight Parkinson's Disease: Thanks to Honor Whiteman (April 14, 2014)
 Today.MUN.ca: Linking the treating of neurodegenerative diseases with blueberries: Thanks again to Kelly Foss (April 9, 2014)
 Memorial University Faculty of Science News: Can blueberry extract prevent Parkinson's? Thanks to Kelly Foss (April 1, 2014)
 The Prattle, Parkinson Society Newfoundland & Labrador's Quarterly Newsletter: Announcement of Meta Sellars Memorial Lecture (Fall, 2013)
 The MUSE: MUN students get a step ahead Thank you to Sarah Predham for the story (March 2, 2011)
 NSERC Investments Newfoundland and Labrador: Disease Insights from Fruit Flies (September, 2010)
 The MUSE: Fly on the laboratory wall. (June 21st, 2010).  Thanks to Marie King for reporting on our talk at the Johnson Geo Centre.
 Memorial University 2006 President's Report:  Fruit fly research may provide a clue to a cure. (October 19th, 2006)
 Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations (OCUFA)'s Academic Matters: Research Matters (Fall, 2006)
 Memorial University Research Matters 2006 Report: Memorial University Professors, including Dr. Staveley, talk about Research (Summer 2006)
 Memorial University of Newfoundland Gazette: Getting busy with fruit flies. Research into Parkinsons disease continues (July 20th, 2006) Thanks once again to Deborah Inkpen for getting the word out!
 Parkinson Post: Focus on Dr. Brian Staveley (Winter 2005)
 Progress Research and Discovery Magazine: Memorial University of Newfoundland; An Ounce of Prevention (January, 2005) Thanks to Rob Antle for bringing our story to the R & D people of Atlantic Canada
 Memorial University 2004 President's Report: Survival of the Littlest; Year in Review | April and Year-in-Photos (October 22nd, 2004) Going Further!
 The Prattle, Parkinson Society Newfoundland & Labrador's Quarterly Newsletter: MUN biologists cure parkinson's in fruit flies  (Summer, 2004)
 Research Matters Memorial University's Research Magazine: Memorial University biologists cure Parkinson`s disease in friut flies(May 5th, 2004)
 Luminus Express: Researchers Make Important Step Towards Curing Parkinson`s Disease (May 4th, 2004)
 The Globe and Mail:Tiny fly is big in tests (May 1st, 2004) Stephen Strauss discusses our work and the use of Drosophila in understanding human disease
 Memorial University of Newfoundland Gazette: Biologists cure Parkinson `s in fruit flies: Lords of the flies (April 29th, 2004)
 CBC St. John's Afternoon Show: On the GO (This interview aired on Tuesday April 20th, 2004) Thanks to Ted Blades for making the interview process somewhat painless
 NTV's Weekly Headline news: MUN biologists cure Parkinson`s in fruit flies (April 20th, 2004) Thanks to Mike Connors for a great presentation of our work
 Memorial Today: Biologists cure Parkinsons in fruit flies (April 20th, 2004) Thanks to Deborah Inkpen for helping us bring this story to the public
 Memorial University of Newfoundland News Release (April 19th, 2004)
 Memorial University of Newfoundland Gazette: Meek fruit fly helps fight debilitating disease: Our flexible friends(October 18th, 2001) Thanks to Alexander Dalziel for a great story!
    Invited Presentations:
 Staveley, B.E, 2013.  Parkinson Disease genes & Drosophila models of disease.  Meta Sellars Memorial Lecture Parkinson Society Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, November 8th, 2013).
 Staveley, B.E, 2013. Understanding life and death: Drosophila models of degeneration. Seminars in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Oct 11th, 2013).
 Staveley, B.E, 2013. The Big Question: Life and Death. Presentations in Biology, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, March 13th, 2013).
 Staveley, B.E, 2012. Flying in the Face of Death: Modelling Degenerative Disease in Flies. Seminars in Biology, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, November 23rd, 2012).
 Staveley, B.E, 2010. Understanding Healthy Ageing through Research in Flies. Seminars in Biology, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, October 22nd, 2010).
 Staveley, B.E, 2010.  Tiny Patients: Fruit Flies in Medical Research.  Public Lecture Series, Johnson Geo Centre (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, June 8th, 2010.
 Staveley, B.E, 2010.  Small steps, large advances: Drosophila Models of Human Diseases.  University of New Brunswick Biology Graduate Students Society Seminar Series, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick. (Fredericton, New Brunswick, January 22st, 2010).
 Staveley, B.E, 2009.  Starving for Knowledge: Genetic Analysis of Growth & Starvation.  Medical Genetics Journal Club, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland. (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, January 26th, 2009).
 Staveley, B.E, 2008.  Modelling Aspects of Human Disease in Fruit Flies.  Neuroscience Journal Club, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland. (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, December 12th, 2008).
 Staveley, B.E, 2008.  Basic Research into Parkinsonís: What the flies have taught us.  Parkinson Society Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, November 8th, 2008).
 Staveley, B.E, 2008. Drosophila models of Parkinson Disease.  2nd Canadian Neuroscience Meeting (Montreal, Quebec, May 25-28th, 2008).
 Staveley, B.E, 2008. Insulin Signalling, Starvation and Nutritional Stress: Drosophila as a Model for Starvation.  1st Newfoundland Nutritional Genomics Symposium,  Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, January 31st, 2008).
 Staveley, B.E, 2008. Drosophila in Parkinson Research: Models of Neurodegenerative Disease.  1st Parkinson Alliance Meeting, University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario, January 18-19th, 2008).
 Staveley, B.E, 2007. Parkinson Disease & fruit flies: Models of Neurodegenerative Disease.  Department of Biology, Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario, June 15th, 2007).
 Staveley, B.E, 2007. Recent insights into Parkinson's Disease from fruit flies.  Parkinson Society Canada invests in Memorial  (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador,  April 12th, 2007).
 Staveley, B.E, 2006. Understanding Parkinson's Disease and other human conditions through fruit flies.  Department of Biology, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario,  August 17th, 2006).
 Staveley, B.E, 2006. Fruit flies & the Quest for a Cure for Parkinsonís Disease. Panelist Canadian Science Writers' Association 35th Annual Conference (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, June 26th, 2006).
 Staveley, B.E, 2005. The Drosophila Advantage: Fruit flies in the study of human disease.  Shad Valley Memorial (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, July 20th, 2005).
 Staveley, B.E, 2005.  Fruit flies & Understanding Parkinson's disease.   Memorial University of Newfoundland 30 years of Service Employee Recognition Luncheon. (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, February 17th, 2005).
Staveley, B.E, 2004. Insights into Parkinson's disease from studying fruit flies.  Parkinson Society Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, September 15th, 2004).
 Staveley, B.E, 2004. Flies are people too!  Studying human diseases with fruit flies.  Shad Valley Memorial (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, July 20th, 2004).
 Staveley, B.E, 2004. Lords & Ladies of the Flies: Studying human diseases with fruit flies. Canada Wide Science Fair: Mentorship Forum (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, May 20th, 2004).
 Staveley, B.E, 2004. Little People with Wings: Models of Human Diseases in Drosophila. Canada Wide Science Fair: Judges Banquet (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, May 18th, 2004).
 Staveley, B.E., 2003. Research on the Fly: Models of Parkinson's and insulin-related Diseases in Drosophila.  Seminars in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, November 20th, 2003).
 Staveley, B.E, 2002. Drosophila: Human Disease Models. Seminars in Biology, Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, November 1st, 2002).
 Staveley, B.E., 2001.  A Matter of Life and Death: Studies of cell survival signaling in Drosophila to model human disease.  Seminars in Cancer Research, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, January 16th, 2001).
 Staveley, B.E., 2000.  Life (and Death) on the Fly: Cell death & cell survival in Drosophila as a model of human disease.  Seminars in Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, October 16th, 2000).
 Staveley, B.E, 1999.  To be or not to be: the genetic analysis of cell survival. Devo Lunch, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, February 4th, 1999).
    Pictures of the Staveley Laboratory:
 For the interested, here are a few pictures of the lab and the people that have and do work here.
 The members of MUN Undergraduate Biology were kind enough to put us through the traditional Newfoundland Initiation, the "Screech In"!
 If any former lab members have news or new links, please send an e-mail to let me update the web-pages.
    Funding is/has been provided by:

NSERC Discovery Grant Program (GCS33-Molecular & Developmental Genetics) (individual):
Signalling mechanisms in cell survival and cell growth (2009-2015).
NSERC Discovery Grant Program (GCS32-Cell Biology) (individual):
Signal transduction in the control of cell survival, cell size and cell growth (2004-2009).
NSERC Research Grant Program (GCS32-Cell Biology) (individual):
Cell signaling in apoptosis and cell survival (2000-2004).

NSERC Engage Grant Program (individual): Nutraceutical Product Assessment in Drosophila models of Parkinson Disease (2014).

NSERC Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (group: Volkoff, Marshall and Staveley):
Real-time PCR system for Biology Department (2007).
NSERC Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (individual):
[Ultra-low freezer] for a Molecular Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics Laboratory (2007).
NSERC Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (individual):
[Thermocycler] for a Molecular Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics Laboratory (2005).
NSERC Research Tools and Instruments - Category 1 (group):
Memorial University Biology Imaging Centre: Digital Imaging (2005).
NSERC Equipment Grant Program(individual):
Cell signaling in apoptosis and cell survival (Refrigerated Microcentrifuge; 2000).

Parkinson Society Canada (Pilot Project Grant: Regional Partnership):
[Parkinson Society Quebec via Fond Saucier-Van Berkom-Parkinson Quebec and Parkinson Society Newfoundland & Labrador]
The Pink1-parkin-Paris-Pgc-1a pathway in Drosophila models of Parkinson disease (2012-2013)
Parkinson Society Canada (Friedman Pilot Project Grant):
Preliminary Analysis of PINK1 (PARK6) and LRRK2 (PARK8) in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease (2006-2007).
Parkinson Society Canada (Friedman Pilot Project Grant):
The role of parkin in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease (2004-2005).
Our sincere thanks go to the Friedman Family for supporting Parkinson's disease research.

The Banting Research Foundation Award:
Characterization of Dfoxo, a transcription factor target of insulin receptor/akt signaling (2001-2002).

MUN Dean of Science Start Up Funds:
The genetic, molecular and biochemical analysis of programmed cell survival in Drosophila melanogaster ($40,000: 1999).

People in the laboratory are funded through various programs including: 
Memorial's School of Graduate Studies Scholarship (Memorial University of Newfoundland), 
Memorial's Department of Biology Teaching Assistantship (Memorial University of Newfoundland),
NSERC Postgraduate Scholarships (PGS), (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)
NSERC Industrial Postgraduate Scholarships (IPS) (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)and 
NSERC Undergraduate Student Research Assistantships (USRA), (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)
Graduate Employment Program (GEP), (Provincial Government of Newfoundland and Labrador)
Canada Summer Jobs Program (CSJ), (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada)
Summer Career Placement Program (SCP), (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada)
Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Student Summer Employment (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada)
Student Work And Service Program (SWASP) (Provincial Government of Newfoundland and Labrador) and
Memorial's Undergraduate Career Experience Program (MUCEP). (Memorial University of Newfoundland) 

    Research Links:
 Flybase
 The Interactive Fly
 National Center for Biotechnology Information
 Web of Science
 Our guide to Microinjection & Making Transgenic Drosophila (by Chantel T. Barrett, B.Sc. NSERC USRA 2005)
    Thank you to the Biology Graduate Students of UNB:
I sincerely thank the graduate students and Dr. Denise Clark  of the University of New Brunswick for inviting me to speak.   You were great hosts and I had a terrific time.

email me at bestave@mun.ca