Modern English to Old English Vocabulary




A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

A
abandon
anforlætan; forlætan; ofgiefan (5)
abbess
abbudisse, f.
abbot
abbod, m.
abduct
forwgan
abide
anbidian
ability
cræft; mæð
able, be
magan
about
abutan; be (+dat)
above
onuppan
accept
onfon
accomplish
forðian; fremman
according to (prep)
æfter (+dat)
accost
nægan
acknowledge
oncnawan
acquaint (s.o. with s.t.)
acythan
acquire
begietan (sv 5)
act
gefaran
active (adj)
from; hwæt
active, be
onettan
adder
nædre
address
næfan
admonish
manian
adorn
bywan; fægrian; frætwan; ge-frætwan; glengan gyrwan
advance
faran (6)
advanced
gelyfed
advantage
duguð
adversary
andsaca, m
advice
ræd, m
advise
læran; ge-læran; rædan
advisor
rædbora
affectionately
luflice
afflict
bysigian; gedrefan
affliction
myrðu; niþ, m
afraid
forht
afraid, be
ondrædan
after
æfter; ofer
afterwards (adv)
æfter; eft
again
eft; ongean
against
on; ongean
age (n)
ealdor, n
age (v)
forealdian
agreeable
leof
air
lyft, f
ale
ealu
alien
ellorgæst; elþeodig
alight
lihtan
alive
cwic
all (adj)
eall
all (adv)
eall
allow
alyfan
allowed
be allowed to: motan
almighty
ælmihtig
alongside
onemn
also
eac; eac swa; eac swelce (swa); swelce eac
always, adv.
a; awa; æfre
amid
mid
amidst
onmiddan
among
betweox, betwux; ongemang
ancestor (paternal)
rihtfæderencyn
ancestors
ieldran
ancient
eald; gamol
and
ac; and; ond; eac; ge
angel
engel; gast
angry
hatheart
animal
deor
announce
abeodan, sv 2; beodan;
another
elra; oðer
answer (vb)
answarian; andwyrdan (+dat); oncweðan
answer (noun)
answaru, f
anxious
nearo
any
ænig
anything
awiht, n.; owiht
anywhere
ahwær
appear
ætywan
appearance
onsyn, f
apply
befæstan
apply oneself
befeolan
approach
gretan
archer
sceotan
arise
arisan (sv 1)
aristocratic
indryhten
arm
earm, m
armour
herepad
army
fyrd; here; prass, m
around
abutan
arouse
aweccan
arrange
endebyrdan; gefadian; ge-logian
arrangement
fadung
arrest
gehætan
arrive
gelendan
arrogance
byldu; ofermod; ricceter
arrow
flan; onga
art
list, f
artifice
searoþonc
ascend
astigan
ash
æsc, m.
ask
ascian; acsian; biddan; frignan (3)
asleep
fall asleep: onslepan
ass
assa, m
assembly
mæðd, n; meðelstede
astonished, be
ofwundrian
at
æt
at last
ænextan
attain
geferan
attention
pay attention to: onmunan
attitude
gebæro, n.
audacious
frecne
authority
onweald, m
autumn
hærfæst
await
abidan (sv 1); bidan; gebidan
awaken
aweccan; onwæcan
away (adv)
from; onweg
awe
egesa, m
awesome
egeslic
awl
awel, m.



B
bachelor
hagostealdmon
back
bæc, n; hrycg
back (adv)
eft; ongean
bag
fætels, m
bait æs, n.
bake (vb)
abacan; bacan
baker
bæcere, m
band
heap
bane
bana
banner
fana
baptism
fulwiht
baptismal rite
fulluhtþeaw
bath
bæð, n.; gecamp
bathhouse
burnsele
bathe
baþian
batter
cnyssan
battle
beadu, n.; fæhðo, f; feoht; gefeoht; folcgewin; garræs guð; hild; orlege, m
be
beon, wesan (irregular)
beacon
beacen, n.
beam
beam, m.
bear
beran (sv 6)
beast
nieten
beat
beatan
beautiful
ænlic; fæger; freolic
beautify
fægrian
beauty
fægernis
become beautiful
fægrian
become gloomy
drysmian
bed
bedd, n.; leger
befall
alimpan; gesælan
befit
gedafenian
before (adv)
ær, æror, ærest
before (prep)
ætforan
beforehand
foran to
beg for
giernan
begin
beginnan (sv 3); onginnan (3)
beginning
anginn, n.; fruma, m.; or, n
beguile
lytegian
behind (prep)
beæftan (+dat)
behold
behealdan; sceawian
belief
ge-leafa
believe
geliefan
belligerent
aglæca
bellows
bielg, m
belly
hrif, n
belonging to
gelong
beloved
deore; leof
belt
belt, m
bemoan
begnornian; mænan
bench
benc, f.
bend
gebigean; bugan; hyldan; lutan; onbugan; onhnigan
bend down: onlutan
benefit (v)
dugan; fremman
benefit (n)
duguð fiorm, f.; fremsumnes; nyttnes, f
benefit from
brucan
bequeathe
læfan
beset
besettan
besides
eac; eac þon
bestower
brytta
best
betst; cyst (n); selest
better
betera
between (prep)
betweonan (+dat); betweox
bewail
cwiðan
beyond (prep)
begeondan (+dat)
bid
biddan
bin
binn
bind
bindan; gebindan; sælan
binder
bindere, m.
bird
bridd; fugol, m
birdlime
lim, m
bishop
biscop
bite (v)
bitan
bite (n)
bite, m
bitter
biter; heard
black
blæc
blacksmith
isensmiþ
bladder
bielg, m.
blame (v)
lean (6)
bless
bletsian; segnian; ge-segnian
blessed
eadig; ge-sælig; ge-sæliglic; ge-sælice
blessedness
eadignes
blessing
bletsung, f
blind (vb)
ablendan, wv 1
blink
bryhtm, m
bliss
bletsung, f.; eadignes; hyht
blood
blod; heolfor
bloody
blodig
bloom
blowan
blossom
blostma
blow
blawan
blow (n)
dynt
blow upon
bewawan; biwawan
bluff
næss
boar
bar, m; eofor
board (naut)
bord, n.
boast
beot, n.; gylpword
boastful
beotlic
boasting
gylp
boat
bat; naca, m; sæbat
bodily
lichomlic
body
bodig, n.; feorgbold, n; feorhhus, n.; flæschama; lic; lichama
boil
brædan
bold (adj)
bald; caf; deor; gedyrstig; frecne
boldly
baldlice; caflice; cene; modiglice
boldness
byldu
bond
bend
bone
ban
book
boc
border
mearc, f
bosom
bearm, m.; bosm, m.
both
ægðer; begen; butu
in both respects: gehwæðeres
both ... and (correl conj)
ægðer ... ge; (ægðer) ge ... ge
bottle
flasce, m
boundary
mearc, f
bow
boga, m.
bow (v)
hyldan; onlutan
bow down: hnigan; onhnigan
boy
cnapa; cniht
braid
bregdan
brandish
acweccan
brass
mæstling
brave
caf; cene; collenferð; deor; heard; heardhicgende; heaþodeor heaþorof; hildedeor; modig; secgrof
bravely
caflice; cene; modiglice
bread
hlaf
break
brecan
breast
breost; ferðloca; hreðerloca
bridge
bricg
bridgeguard
bricgweard
bridlepath
horsweg
brief
medmicel
brier
brer
bright
beorht
bring
beran (sv6); brengan; bringan; gebringan; lædan
bring forth
acennan; asprytan; forþbringan
bring in
inlædan
bristle
byrst, f
broad
brad
broth
broþ
brother
broðor
buddy
gefera
build
betimbran
build around
bewyrcan
building
edor; foldbold, n; hof, n; reced
buildings
scurbeorg
burden
hefigan
burdensome
hefigtyme
burial place
byrgen
burn
byrnan; forbærnan; ontendan
burn down: forbeornan (3)
burn up: forbærnan
burning
bærnett, n.; brond, n.; bryne
burst
berstan (sv 3)
bury
bebyrgan; bedelfan; burgan
busy
bysig
but
a; butan, buton; hwæðere; nefne
butter
butere, f
buy
bycgan; gebycgan; ceapian; geceapian
buy off
forgyldan
by fram (+dat)
by means of: mid



C
call
ceallian; clipian, clypian; hatan; nemnan
call out
clipian, clypian
can
cunnan; magan
canon
canon
cape
hoh, m
capital
heahburg
captive
hæft, m
capture
læccan
care
reccan
care about
gyman; reccan
care for (v)
freoþian; gyman
care
bisgu; cearo, f.; heord, f
careless
recceleas
carry
beran (sv 6); ferian
carry away; oðberan
carry out
forðian; ge-læstan
carve
ceorfan (sv 3)
catch
betræppan; fon (7); gefon (7); gehæftan; læccan
cathedral
mynster
cattle
neat, n; nieten; orf, n
cause
intinga
causeway
bricg
cave
eorðscræf; hlæw
cellar
cleofa
certain
cuðlic
certainly
hura
chamber
bur, m
champion
cempa
chance
gesælan
change
awendan; hwierfan; onhweorfan (3); onwendan
chapel
gebedhus
chase
bedrifan; ehtan
cheerful
bliðe
cheerfully
rotlice
cheese
ciese, m.
chest
breost; hreðerloca
chest (i.e. container): scryn
chew the cud
eodorcan
chicken
cicen
child
bearn, n.; cild; lytling
childbearing
geacnung
chill
ciele, n
chipped
sceard
choose
ceosan
church
cirice, circe; mynster
circuit
begong
citizens
ceasterware; leod, m
city
burgsteall; burgstede; burgtun; eard
city building
burgræced
city dweller
ceasterbuend
clash
hnitan
clasp
beclyppan
claw
grap, f
clean (ad)
clæne
clean (vb) feormian
cleanliness
clænnis
cleanse
fæsian
cleanser
feormynd
clear
geryman
clearly
andgitfullice
cliff
clif, n.
close (adj)
nearo
close (v)
betynan
clothe
scrydan
clothing
scrud
coal
gled
coast
særima
coffer
scryn
cold (ad)
cald;
cold (n)
cald; ciele, n.
collapse
gedreosan
colour
bleo, n.
combatitive
aglæca
come
becuman; cuman;
come after
æfterfylgan
come to pass
alimpan
comfort (n)
eðnis
comfort (v)
frefran
comfortable
sefteadig
coming
cume
command (v)
bebeodan; beodan; hatan
command (n)
hæs; onweald, m
commander
heretoga
commend
bebeodan
(be) committed to (s.t.)
cnodan
community
geferscipe, m.
companion
gefera; heorðgeneat; ge-selda
company
gedræg; heap
compell
abædan
complete (adj)
full
complete (v)
geendian
completely
clæne; eall; ful
comrade
eaxlgestealle; gefera; geneat
conceal
behydan; deagan; gehydan; miþan
concern
bisgu
concerning
be (+dat)
conclude
betynan
conclusion
ende
confess
andettan
confidant
gehola, m; runwita
confirm
befæstan
conflict
guðplega, m
confront
nægan
conscience
ingehygd, f
consecrate
halgian
consolation
frofor
console
frefran
consult
run
consume
gefeormian
contain
belucan
contempt
forhognis
contend
lacan; genæstan
contest (n)
geflit
contest (v)
flitan
continue
ge-læstan
control
ge-reccan
convenient
hyþelic
cook
coc
cool (v)
colian
copper
ar, n
corpse
hræw
correct (v)
gerihtan
correctly
rihte
corrupt
geblandan
costly
deorwierþe
cottage
bur, m
coulter
culter, m
council
gemot
counsel (n)
larcwida
counsel (v)
rædan
counsellor
runwita
country
eard; folclond; land, lond; londstede
courage
ellen, n; hige; mod
course
drohtoð; for, f.
courageous
heaþorof; heaþodeor; modig
cover (v)
besettan; bewreon; bihreosan
cover (v)
helm, m
cover with liquid
begeotan (sv 2)
cowardly
earh
crab
crabba, m
craft
cræft
create
scieppan; ge-scieppan
creation
frumsceaft; ge-sceaft, f; ge-sceap, f
creator
meotod; scieppend
creature
ge-sceaft, f
crime
fyren; man; mandrinc; morð; mor;thorn;or
cross oneself
segnian; ge-segnian
cross
gealgu; gealgtreo; rod
sign of the cross: rodetacn
cross-beam
eaxlgespann
cruel
reþe
crust
rind
cry
cyrm, m; hleoðor
cuckoo
geac
cudgel
sagol
cunning
list, f
cup
bune; druncfæt
curse
awiergan
custody
heord, f
cut (n)
bite, m.
cut (ad)
sceard
cut the hair
efsian
cut down
aheawan (sv 7); forheawan (7); fyllan; heawan
cut off
beheawan
cut through
forslean (6)



D
damage (n)
hearm
damn (vb)
awiergan
danger
frecennis; pleoh, m
dangerous
frecne; pleolic
dare
durran
daring
gedyrstig; frecne
dark
deorc; fealu
darken
nipan, genipan
darkness
heolstor, m; ge-nip; sceadu
dart
onga
dejected
hean
demon
scynscaþa
desirable
lustbære
desire
geornfulnes; lust, m; neodlaðu
desiring
gelysted
desolate
feasceaftig
despair
forðencan
despondent
ormod
despoil
forhergian
determined
higeþigtig
determinedly
eornoste
dash
cnossian; (against) cnyssan
daughter
dohtor
dawn
dægræd
day
dæg; dogor (poet)
day, number of
dægrim, n.
day's work
dægweorc, n.
days gone by
geardagas
days of life
ealdordagas
daybreak
ærdæg, m.
dead
dead
deadly
ættryne
dear
deore; leof
death
cwalu, f; deaþ ealdorgedæl; forðfor; forðweg; fyl, m. guðdeað, m; lifgedæl
decay
afeallan; brosnian
deceitful
geap
deceive
bepæcan; beswican; lytegian
decide
ge-rædan
declare
gecyðan
decline
dreosan; oðfæstan
decorated
fah; ge-regnad
deed
dæd
deep
deop
deeply
deoplic
deer
heorot
defence
gebeorg, n.
defend
beorgan, gebeorgan; ealgian
defile
afylan
delight
dream
deliver (a message)
abeodan (sv 2)
deliver (s.t.)
betæcan
densely
nearolice
depart
afaran, sv 6; geleoran
departure
forðweg; fromsiþ
deprive
bedæan (+dat); beniman; bidreosan; biniman; bistelan;
deprived
befeallen
deride
ahliehhan (sv 7)
descent
æþelo, np
deserve
geearnian
despise
forseon
despoil
behlyþan
destroy
bereofan; fordon; forleosan; ofslean
deviate from
ahyldan
devil
helsceaða
devour
ge-etan (5); forswelgan; fretan
die
gefaran; forðferan
dig (v)
delfan
digging (n)
gedelf
diligently
neodlice
diminish
lytlian
dire
ealfelo
direct (v)
gedihtan; gerihtan
directions, in all
æghweder
dirt
greot
discard
aweorpan
disclose
iewan; onwreon
discover
geascian; onfindan
disease
adl, f
disengage
geæmetigan
disgrace
bysmor; edwit
disgraceful
scand
dish
disc
dishonourable (adj)
arleas
dismount
lihtan
dispense with
forþolian
dispose
endebyrdan
dispute
geflit
dispute (v)
flitan
distant
fierlen
distort
aweorpan
distress
hreðerbealo; nearones; oncyðð
disturb
drefan
disturbance
myrðu, f
dive
dufan
divine
godcund
divinely
godcundlice
divinity
godcundnes
do
don; gefremman
do without: forþolian
doctrine
lar
donor
goldgiefa
door
duru, f
down
dun; ofdune
drag
bregdan
dragon
draca; wyrm
drape with (s.t.)
behon
draw
ateon
draw near
nealecan
draw (a sword)
bregdan
dreadful
atelic; egeslic
dream
gemætan
drench
begeotan (sv 2); besteman; beswillan
dress (v)
gyrwan
dress (n)
hrægl
drink (v)
drincan
drink (n)
drynce
drive
bedrifan (sv 1); cnossian; drifan
drive out
adræfan (sv 1)
drown
besencan
dumb
dumb
during
on
dust
dust; greot
dwell
buan
dwelling
byht; eardgeard



E
each
ægðer; ælc; gehwa; gehwelc
eager
eallgearo; fus (+gen); georn; geornful
eagerly
georne; geornlice
eagle
earn, n
ear
eare
earlier
æror
early morning
ærnemergen
earn
geearnian
earnestly
eornoste
earth
eormengrund; eorð folde; grund, m; hruse, f; molde, f
ease
eðnis
easily
eaðe
east
east
from the east: eastan
eat
brucan; etan (5); ge-etan (5); forswelgan
eat up
gefeormian; fretan
ebb-tide
ebba
edge
ecg
edit
endebyrdan
eel
æl, m.
eight
eahte
either
gehwæðer
elders
ieldran
eleventh
endlyfta
else
elles
ember
gled
embrace (v)
beclyppan; clyppan
embrace (n)
fæðm
emperor
casere
employment
notu, f
empty (adj)
æmettig
empty (vb)
geæmetigan
enclose
befon (sv 7); lucan
enclosure
burg, byrig; geard; hege; loc, n
encounter (n)
gemot
encounter (v)
metan
encourage
byldan
end
ende
end (v>
geendian
endow
ge-godian
enemy
andsaca, m.; feond, m.; feondsceaþa, m; fynd, feond
England
Angelcynn
English, the
Engle
English (adj)
Englisc
English language
Engliscgereorde
enjoy
brucan; notian
enmity
fæhðo, f; feondræden, f.
enough
genog
enrage
gebelgan; gremian
enraged
bolgenmod
ensnare
beswican; besyrwan
entertainment
gomen
entice
atyhtan
entire
full
entirely
clæne; eall; fullice
entrap
besyrwan; betræppan
entreat
giernan
entrust
betæcan
entry
ingong, m.
envelop
bewindan (sv 3)
equip
gescyrpan
error
gedwol; gedwyld
escape
ætberstan; losian
especially
huru
essential
niedbeðearf
establish
arædan; astellan; (a truce) fæstnian; onstellan
esteem
eahtian
eternal
ece
eternally
ece
eucharist
husl
even
efne; furþum
evening
æfen; æfentid, f.
evening speech
æfenspræc,f
event
gelimp
eventually
ænextan
ever
æfre
everlasting
ece
every
ælc
every one (pro)
æghwa; gehwa
everything
æghwa
everywhere
æghweder; gehær
exalt
onhebban
examine
beseon; geondsceawian
examination
sceawung
example
gebisnung; bysen, f
excellence
fægernis
excellent
ærgod; betlic
except
butan, buton
except (con)
nefne; nemne; nymþe
exemplar
bysen, f
exhort
manian; gemanian
exile
adræfan
experience
gebidan
experienced
frod
extend
astreccan; ryman
explain
reccan
exult
ahliehhan (sv 6)
eye
eage, n.



F
fable
leasung
face
andwlita, m.; onsyn, f
fade
searian
fail
abreoðan
faith
ge-leafa
faithful
ge-leafful
fall
fyl, m.; hryre, m
false
leas
fall
befeallan; crincgan (sv 3); feallan; gefeallan; hreosan
fall apart
berstan (sv 3)
fall off
afeallan
fame
hlisa, m; mærðu, f
familiar
cuð
family
cynn
famine
hungor
famous
mære
far (adj)
feor
far (adv)
feor
as far as: oð
fare
feran
farmer
ierþling
farming
eorþtilþ
fast (adj)
fæst
fast (n)
fæsten
fast (adv)
fæste
fast (v)
fæstan
fasten
besmiþian; fæstnian; gefæstnian; sælan
fat
fæt
fatal
ættryne
fated
fæge
father
fæder
favour
ar, f; geearnung; milts
fear (n)
ege, m; fyrhtu
fear (v)
forhtian
fearful
egeslic
feast
gebeorscipe; fyllo, f
feather
feðer
feed
afedan; fedan
feel
gefelan
fell (v)
fyllan
fellowship
geferscipe, m
fence
hege
festivity
mondream
fetch
gefecgan; fetian
fetter
clomm, clamm, n.; feter, f.
feud
fæhðo, f
few
feawe; hwon; lyt
fiction
leasung
field
æcer, m; feld, m.
fierce
biter; gram; grim; heard; reþe
fiercely
grimme; heardlice
fifty
fifteg
fig
fic
fight (v)
feohtan (3); gefeohtan (3); lacan
fight (n)
feohte, f
figleaf
ficleaf
file (n)
feole
file (v)
feolian
fill (v)
fyllan; ge-fyllan
fill (n)
fyllo, f
fill up
filled (adj)
full
find
findan; gemetan
find fault with: lean (6)
find out: cunnian; gefrignan (3)
finger
finger, m.
fingernail
nægl
fire
brond, n.; bryne; lig
firm (adj)
fæst
firmly (adv)
fæstlice
first (adj)
ærest; fyrmest
first (adv)
ærest; forma
firstborn
frum-bearn, n.
fish (n)
fisc, m
fish (v)
fiscian
fisherman,
fiscere, m
fitness
mæð, f
fitting
gedefe; riht; gerisenlic
fittingly
gerisenlice
five
fif
fixed
fæst
flame
lig
flammable
libgysig
flask
flasce, m
flee
fleon (2); forbugan (2); sceacan
fleet
sciphere
flight
fleam, m; flyht
fling
bregdan
float
fleotan
flood (n)
flod, m
floor
flet; flor, m
flow (v)
flowan (2);
flow (n)
gang, m
flow around
beflowan
fly
fleogan (2)
fly away
ætfleogan
fodder
fodor
follow
æfterfylgan; folgian; fylgan; læstan
folly
dysignese
food
bileofa; fodor; mete
foolish
dol; dysig
foolishness
dysignes
foot
fot, m
footstep
fotstapol
for, in place of
fore (+dat)
forbid
forbeodan (2)
force
cræft; mæenþise
ford
ford, m
foreign
elþeodig
foremost
fyrmest
forest
holt; holtwudu
forever, adv.
a; awa; æfre
forgive
forgiefan
forgiveness
forgifenes
form (n)
hiw
formerly
geo
fornication
forliger
forsake
forlætan
forsee
foresceawian
forth
forð
fortress
fæsten
forward
forð
foul
ful
four
feower
fourteen
feowertyne
fowler
fuglere
free (vb)
geæmetigan
free (adj)
freo; freolic
frequent
gelome
frequently
geneahhe
freight
hlast
friend
freond; heorðgeneat; gehola, m
friendless
freondleas
friendship
freod, f
friendly
bliðe; bliðemod; hold
friendship
freondscipe
from
æt; fram (+dat); of (+dat)
from afar
feorran
from here
heonon
from near
nean
from the north
norðan
from within
innan
frost
forst, n.; hrim, m
frosty
hrinde
frozen
freorig
fulfilment
gefillednys
full (adj)
full
fully
fullice
furious
reþe
further
furþur



G
gain
begietan (sv 5)
gallop
ærnan; hleapan (7)
gallows
gealgu; gealgtreo
game
gomen; huntoþ
gannet
ganet
garden
neorxenawang
garment
hrægl; reaf
gate
geat, n
gather
ge-gaðerian
gathering gaze
behealdan (sv 7)
gem
gimm, m; searogim
generous
cystig
gentle
liþe; monðwære
get
begietan (sv 5); gegongan (7)
gesture
gebære
get up
astandan
ghost
gast
giant
ent; eoten
gift
giefu, f
gird
gyrdan
give
forgiefan; giefan (5)
give birth
acennan
give thought
hogian
give up
alecgan
give way
abugan; onirnan (3)
given
gifeðe
giver
brytta
gladly
bliðelice; lustfullice
glas
glæs
gleeming
scir
glide
sriþan
glorious
mære
glory
blæd; mærðu, f
go
faran (6); feran; gan; gongan (7); hweorfan
go mad
awedan
goad
gad, f
goat
gat
goathair
gatehær
goblet
bune
god
god, n.
godson
godsunu
gold
gold, n.
goldsmith
goldsmiþ
good
god
good deed
fremu, f
goodness
god
goods
god
gore
helofor
gospel
godspel
grace
ar
gracious
glæd hold
grain
corn
granted by fate
gifeðe
grapple
genæstan
grasp
grap, f; gripe
grave
byrgen; eorðscræf; græf; moldern, n
great
mæst; micel; rice
greatest
mæst
greatly
miclum
greedy
gifre; grædig
green
grene
greet
gretan; halettan
grey
græg; har
grey-haired
feaxhar; gomelfeax; har
grief
hearm; oncyðð
grim
biter
grimly
grimme
grind
grindan
grip
clomm, n; clamm, n; grap, f.; gripe
ground
folde; grunde
grove
bearu
grow, grow up
aweaxan (sv 7)
grow dark
nipan, genipan
grow old
forealdian
grow over
beweaxan
grow pale
blacian
grow desolate
dreorgian
grow old
ealdian
guard
bewitan
guardian
hyrde
guardianship
hyrdræden, f
guilty
fah; scyldig



H
hail (v)
halettan
hail
hægl
hailstorm
hæglfaru
half
healf
hall
dryhtsele; gifheall; goldsele, m; heall, f; reced; sæ, n; sele
hand
folme; hand, f
handgrip
mundgripe
hang
hangian; hon
hanged, be
hon
happen
alimpan; befeallan; limpan; ge-limpan; ge-sælan
happily
ge-sælice
happiness
bliss, f; sæl, m/f
happy
fægen; gesæliglic
hard
forheard; heard
hardship
gedeorf; earfoð
hardship, time of
earfoðhwil
harm (n)
bealo, n.; frecennis; hearm
harm (v)
derian
harness
gerædu
harp
gleobeam; hearpe
hasp
hæpse
haste
hreading, f
hasten
efstan; onettan
hasten away: sceacan
hateful
atol; lað
hatred
niþ, m
have
agan; habban
have to: sculan
hawk
hafoc
head
hafela; heafod
headland
næss
headless
heafodleas
heal
halian; hælan
healthy
halwende
hear
hieran; gehieran
hearing
gehyrnes, f
hearsay
gefræge
heart
breostcofa; breosthord; ferðloca; heorte, f; hige; hordcofa, m hreþer, n; modsefa; sefa, m
heat
hat, n
heathen
hæþen
heaven
heofon, m; rodor
heavenly
heofonlic
heavy
hefig
hedgehog
igl
heed
onmunan
heel
hoh, m
heirloom
laf, f
hell
hell, f
helmet
helm, m
help (v)
fultumian; ge-fultumian; fylstan (+dat); helpan
help (n)
fultum; geoc; help, f
hence
heonon
herder
hyrde
here (adv)
her
hereafter
heræfter
heresy
gedwol; gedwyld
heretic
gedwolmann
hero
hæeþ, m; hererinc, m
herring
hæring
hew
heawan
hidden
deogollice
hiding place
heolstor, m
high
heah
hide (n)
hyd
hide (v)
behydan; deagan; hydan
hill
beorg, m.; dun
himself, herself
self
hinder
ge-lettan
hither
hider
hoard (n)
hord, m
hoard (v)
hydan
hoarfrost
hrim, m.
hoarse
has
hoary
har
hold
habban; heabban; gehealdan
hold fast
gebindan
holly
holen
holly
holen
holy
halig
home (adj)
ham
home (n)
ham
homeland
eard; eþel
homewards
ham
honourable
arweorðe; gerisenlic
honourably (adv)
arlice
hook
angel, m
horn
horn, m
horrible
atelic
horror
fyrhtu
horse
eoh; hengest; hors, n; mearh
horseguard
renweard
host
husl
hostage
gisl
hostile
bealohydig; gram
hostility
anda
hot
hat
how
hu
however
hwæðere
house
hus; sele
human beings
firas
humble
eadmod; eaðmod
humble (v)
hnæan
humbly
eadmolice; eaðmodlice
humiliating
heanlic
hundred
hund
hunger
hungor
hunt (n)
hunta; huntoþ
hunting
huntoþ
huntsman
hunta



I
I, me, my
ic, me, min
icecold
hrimceald; isceald
icicle
hrimgicel
idle
idel
if
gif
ignorant
dysig; læwede
illustrious
mære
image
anlicness, f; onlicnes, f
imagine
asmeagan
imitate
geæfenlæcan
immediate
hrædlice
immigration
ingong, m.
imminent
neah
impel
afysan (wv 1)
improve
gebetan
impulsive
hatheort
in (adv)
in
in (prep)
binnan; in (+dat); on
in addition to
eac
in advance
foran to
in front of
ætforan; biforan (+ dat)
incarnation
menniscnis
incite
hwettan
incline
onhyldan; onlutan
increase (n)
eaca
indicate
gebicnian
infantry
feða
infect
geblandan
inform
cyðan
ingenuity
hwætred; searoþnc
inhabit
buan
inhabitants
landbuend
inheritance
laf, f
injure
hynan; sceðan
injury
bealo, n.
innocent
bilewit
inquire
frignan (3)
inside (adv)
in; inne
insolently
orhlice
inspiration
inbryrdnes
inspire
onbærnan
institute (v)
onstellan
intact
gehal
intelligence
andgit; orþonc
intelligently
andgitfullice
intend
hogian; myntan
intention
gehygd; ingehygd, f
intersection
eaxlgespann
interval
tæc
into
on
invite
laðian
iron
isen
island
ealond; eglond
ivory
elpendban



J
javelin
gafeluc
jewel
eorcanstan; gimstan
jewelry
eorcanstan
join
lucan
joint
banloca
joke
gleowian
journey
for, f
joy
bletsung, f; dream; hyht; liss; sæl, m/f
joyfully
glædlice; gliwstafum
joyous
gloædmod
judge (v)
deman
judgment
dom, m.
judgment day
domdæg; domesdæg
jurisdiction
onweald, m
justice
riht



K
keel
ceol
keen
cene
keep
healdan
keeper
hyrde
kidnap
forwegan
kill
acwellan; cwellan; gefyllan; heawan; hynan; ofslean
killer
bana
kin
cynn; cyþþ
kind
gecynd; cynn
kind (adj)
glæd; liþe; milde; monðwære
kindness
liss
kindle
onæan; onbærnan; ontendan
king
cyning
kingdom
cyneric; rice
kiss
cyssan
knee
cneo, n
knit
bregdan
know, know how to
cunnan
knowledge
ongytenes, f



L
ladder
hlæder
lament
begnornian; cwiðan
lake
mere
land (n)
land, n
land
gelendan
language
-geþiode
lap
bearm, m.
large
micel
larger: mara
Latin
læen
laugh
hliehhan
laugh at: ahliehhan
laughter
hleahtor
law
æ, f
lawful
gecynde
lay (n)
læwede
lay (v)
lecgan
lay down
alecgan
lay hold of
begietan (sv 5)
lay waste
awestan
lead
lædan; ge-lædan
leader
ealdor, m.; folctoga; heafodman; heretoga; leodfruma
leap
hleapan
leap upon: gehleapan (7)
leap up: ahleapan (sv 7)
learn
learnian; ge-leornian
learn (by asking)
geascian; gefrignan (3)
learning
liornung
least
læsst
leather bag
bielg, m.
leave
afaran, sv 6; læfan; geleoran
leave unfulfilled
aleogan
leggings
leþerhose
lent
lencten
less
læs; læssa
lest
þy læs þe
let
lætan
let go
forlætan
letter
ærendgewrit
liberate
onlysan
lichen
ræg
lie
licgan; restan
life
ealdor, n.; feorh, n.; lif; lifdagas
life-sustaining
frþfriðende
lift
lædan
lift up
ahebban (sv 7); hebban; ræran
light
leoht; scima
like
gelic; gelice
likewise
eac swa
limb
lim, n; liþ
limited
mæte
linen
linen
listen
hieran; hlystan; gehlystan
literature
boccræft
little
fea; hwon; lyt; lytel
live
libban
livestock
orf, n
lo (inter)
hwæt
load
hlast
lobster
loppestre
lock
belucan; lucan
lock (n)
hæpse
log
beam, m.
long (adj)
lang, long
long ago
ealdes; geara
longing
langoþ
look
beseon
look at: sceawian
lord
drihten; frea, m; freadryhten; goldgiefa; goldwine; heorra; hlaford
lordly
dryhtlic
loss
demm, m
lost (be, get)
losian
loud
hlud
loud (adv
hlude
loudly
hlude
love (n)
frendscipe; lufu
love (v)
freogan; lufian
loved
felaleof
lover
freond
lovingly
freondlice
lower
onhyldan
loyal
hold
luck
hælo, f
lumber
healwudu
lurk
lutian
lust
lust, m
lying
leasung



M
magnificence
onmedla
magnificent
dryhtlic
maiden
fæmne; mægð
maintain
gehealdan
make
don; macian
make beautiful
gef&elig;rian
make famous
mæran
make glad
gef&elig;nian
make known
acythan; cyðan; gecyðan
make use of
neotan
make wet
besteman
male
mann
malice
anda; niþ, m
man
beorn, m.; esne, m; guma; mann; hæle, m; leod, m; mann, m; mæcg; reordberend; rinc; scealc, m; secg
manger
binn
mankind
feorhcynn, n.; foldbuend; mancynn
many
fela; manig
many a: manig
maple
hlin
mare
myre, f
marsh
fen; fenhlið; mor
marvel
ofwundrian
master
frea; hlaford
masterless
hlafordless
may
motan
mead
medodrinc; meodo
meadhall
meodoheall
meaning
andgit, n.
measure
gemet
meat
flæscmete
meditate
geondþencean
mediation
run
meet
findan; metan; gemetan
meet with
geferan
meeting
gemot
meetingplace
meðelstede
melt
gemeltan
memory
gemynd
men
ælde, mp
merchant
ciepemann
merciful
milde; mildheort
mercy
ar, f; mildheortnes; milts
message
ærende, n.; ærendgewrit
messenger
ar, m.; ærendraca; boda
metre
gemet
mew
mæw
midday
middæg
middle
midd
in the middle of: onmiddan
midnight
middeneaht, f
might
miht
mighty
mihtig
milestone
milgemearc
milk
melcan
mind
ferð; hige; mod; gemynd
mindful
gemyndig
mingle
gemengan
misdeed
misdæd, f
miserable
earmlic; earmsceapen
miserably
earmlice
misery
iermðu
misfortune
demm, m; gelimp
misleading
gedwolsum
missile
flan; scotung
mist
ge-nip
mock
bysmerian; gebysmerian
moderate
medmicel
moderately,
mid gemete; gemetlice
monastery mynster
monastic orders
munuchad
monasticism
munuchad
money
feoh; sceatt
monk
munuc
monster
sceadugenga
month
monað
moor
mor
more
ma; mara
any more than: þon ma þe
moreover
eac swelce (swa); swelce eac; eac þon
morning
morgen r
most
mæst
mostly
mæste
moth
moð&eht;e, f
mother
modor
mound
hlæw
mount
gehleapan (7)
mountain
beorg, m.; dun; munt
mountainside
beorghliþ, n
mountain slope
beorghliþ, n
mountain stream
fyrgenstream
mountainwood
fyrgenholt
mourn
gnornian; murnan
mouth
muð
move
astyrian; onhreran
much
miccle; micel
must, be obliged
sculan
much (n)
micel, n
mudcrust
lamrind
multiply
gemanigfealdan
multitude
dryht; menigu
murder
morþor
mutilate
sceard
my, mine
min



N
nail, fingernail
nægl
naked
nacod
name (n)
nama, m
name (v)
hatan; nemnan
narrative
ge-recednis
narrow
nearo
nation
folc, n; leodscipe; mægð
natural
gecynde
nature
cynd
navy
flothere; sciphere
near (adj)
neah; nean
near (adv)
neah
near to
gehende (+dat)
nearby
gehende
necessary
niedbehefe; niedbeðearf
neck
hals, m
need
beþurfan
needle
nædl
neglect
forlætan
negligent
recceleas
neighbourhood
neawest
neither
naþer; nohwæðer
neither ... nor
ne .... ne; nohwæðer ... ne
nephew
nefa
net
nett, n
never
na; næfre
nevertheless
hwæðere; noht þon læs
new
niwe
newly
niwan
next
oðer
night
niht, f; nihthelm
nightcrawler
sceadugenga
nightshift
nihtweorc, n
nightwatch
nihtwaco
nightwork
nihtweorc, n
ninety
hundnigontig
no
na; nic
nobility
eorlscipe; indrhyto, f
noble
æðele; cynelic; freolic; hærlic; indryhten
noble kinsman: freomæg
nobleman
ealdorman; eorl
nobly
manlice
noise
breahtm
none
nænig
noon
middæg
nor even
ne eac
nor
ne ... ne
northwards
norð
nostril
nosþyrl
not
ne; nic; noht
not at all; by no means
na; nateshwon; næs; nealles; noht
nothing
nanwuht; nawiht
notorious
mære
now
nu
now that: nu



O
oak tree
actreo, m
oar
ar, f
oath
obedience
gehiersumnes
obey
hieran; hiersumian; ge-hiersumian
obliged, be
sculan
observe
healdan
observer
sceawere, m
obtain
begietan (sv 5); gegongan
occasion
mæl; sæl
occupation (=worry)
bisgu
occupy
bysigian
occurrence
gelimp
ocean
geofon, m/n; gelagu; mereflod
ocean current
sæstream
ocean path, route
brimlad
offer
beodan; gebeodan; offrian; ge-offrian
offer up: ge-offrian
offering
lac; offrung
office
had
offspring
eafore; ofspring; sæd
often
geneahhe; oft
oil
ele, m
old
eald; frod; gamol
on (adv)
on
on
on (+d,a)
on this side of (prep)
behionan
one
an
one (indef pro)
man
only (conj)
butan, buton
only (adv)
efne
onto
on
onward (adv)
on
open (adj)
open
open (v)
openian; geryman
openly (adv)
openlice
opponent
andsaca, m
opportunity
byre
oppose
ongeanstandan
oppressive
hefig
or
hwæþer þe; oþþe
oratory
gebedhus
ordain
hadian; ge-scrifan
order (n)
endebyrdnes, f; fadung; had (=religious order); hæs
order
hatan
origin
æþelo, np; ; gecynd
original
bysen, f
ornament
fæt; frætwe (pl); hyrst, f
ornament (v)
frætwan
ornamented
fæted; ge-regnad
orthodox
rihtgeleaffull
other
oðer
otherwise
elcor; elles
ought to
sculan
outcast (adj)
fah
outcry
gebære, n.
over
ofer (+dat/acc)
overcome
ofercuman
overconfidence
ofermod
overhang
oferhelmian
overrun
gegongan (7); ofergan
overshadow
oferhelmian
overtake
beridan
own (adj)
agen
own
agan
ox
oxa, m
oxherd (a useful word in modern English)
oxanhierde, m



P
pain
sar; sarnes
painful
sar; sarlic
pantry
cleofa; hedærn
paradise
neorxenawang, n
pardon
arian (wv 2)
part
dæl
part (v)
sceadan
party
gebeorscipe
past (n)
geardagas
pastime
gomen
pasture
læs, f
path
foldweg; pæð, m
pay
gieldan
payment
sceatt
peace
freod, f; frið
peasant
ceorl
penetrate
feolan
penitence
dædbot, f
penance
dædbot, f
people
firas; folc, n.; leode
perceive
oncnawan; ongietan (5)
perform
began (anom); dreogan; ge-læstan
perish
gecringan, gedreosan; forweosan; losian
permanence
fæstnung
permit
alyfan; lætan
person
mann
pertain
belimpan
pervade
geondhweorfan (3)
phrase (v)
gefadian
pike
hacod
piety
arfæstnis, f; æfæstness, f;
pious
æfæst
pit
seaþ
piteable
earmlic
pitiably
earmlice
pity
mildheortnes
place
lecgan; ge-logian
plan
hicgan
plated
fæted
pleasant
fæger; leof; lustbære; lustbære
pleasantly
fægere
please
lician
plenty
fyllo, f
plough
erian
ploughman
ierþling
ploughshare
scear
plunder
herehuð, f
plunder (v)
rypan
plural
menifealdlice
poem
leoð; leoðsong
poet
scop
poetics
leoðcræft
poetry
leoð; leoðsong; scopgereord
point
ord, m
poisonous
ættryne
polish
bywan
polisher
feormynd
pomp onmedla
ponder
geondþencean
pool
hringmere (circular); mere
poor
earm
pope
papa, m
population
burhwaru
portent
beacen, n.; niðwundor
possess
agan
possessions
æht, f
pouch
fætels, m
pound (n)
pund, n
pound (vb)
beatan
pour
geotan
power
mægen; miht; onweald, m
powerful
mihtig; rice
practise
began (anom)
praise (v)
eahtian; herigean
pray
gebiddan
prayer
gebed, n.
preach
bodian
precede
foregangan (7)
precious
deore
precious stone
eorcanstan
preordain
foresceawian
prepare
bywan; gearcian; gearwian; ge-gearwian; gyrwan
prepared
gearo
present (adj; as in "the present day")
andweard; ondweard
preserve
gehealdan
press out
oðspringan
presume
medan
prevent
ge-lettan
previously
ært1anðe, ært1æmt1e
pride
gylp; ofermod
priest
mæssepreost; preost, m
prince
æþeling; ealdor, m.; leod, m
prison
carcern; clustor
proceed
astigan; gefaran; feran
proclaim
mærsian
produce
acennan; atyhtan; forþbringan
profound
deop
profoundly
deoplic
promise (vb)
behatan (sv 7); gehatan
promise (n)
gehat, n
proper
gecynde; gerisenlic
properly
rihte
property
æht
prosperity
ar, f
prostrate (adj)
neowol
protect
beorgan, gebeorgan; bewerian; freoþian; ge-nerian
protection
helm, m; hleo; mundbyrd
protective clothing
hleosceorp
protector
hleo
proud
gilphladen
provide
foresceawian; ge-fremman
provisions
metsung, f
public
folclic
pugnacious
aglæca
pull
bregdan
pure
clæne; hluttor
purge
fælsian
purity
clænnis
purpose
inwitþanc (hostile); modgeþanc
pursue
æfterfylgan; ehtan
push
scufan
put
ge-logian
put to flight
aflyman



Q
queen
cwen, f
quick
caf; hraðe; hwæt
quickly (adv)
arodlice; færlice; hrædlice; ofstlice; recene



R
race
cynn
rage
grymetian
rain
rinan
raise
ahebban; ræran
raise up, raise aloft
hafenian; hebban; onhebban
ram
ramm, m
rancour
inca, m
ransom
lysan
rare
selcuþn
ravage
awestan; bereofan; forhergian; hergian
ravaging
hergung
raven
hremm
ravenous
gifre
raw
grene; hreaw
reach
geræcan
reach out: ræcan
read
arædan; rædan
readily
geare; georne; geornlice
ready
fus (+gen); gearo
realize
onfindan
rebuilder
betend, m.
receive
ge-geopan; onfon
recently
niwes
recite
gieddian
reckless
recceleas
recognize
oncnawan
recommend
bebeodan; befeolan;
red
read
red-stained: readfah
redeem
lysan; onlysan
regal
cynelic
regally
cynelic
region
mearc, f; sceat, m
regret
besargian
regular
regollic
reign (n)
rice
reign (v)
ricsian
reject
forseon
rejoice
gægnian; gefeon
rejoicing
fægen
relate
mænan; reccan
relative
magan; mæg
release
alysan; lysan
relics
haligdom
religion
æfæstness, f; halignes
religious
godcund
relinquish
alecgan
remain
restan
remain behind
belifan
remain standing
ofstondan
remedy (v)
gebetan
remedy (n)
bote, f
remember
gemunan; gemyndgian
remind
gemanian
remnant
laf, f
remove
afierran, aferran (wv 1); astyrian; aswipan; forniman
rend
scieran
render
areccean; gieldan (3)
renew
niwian
render useless
aidligan
renounce
anforlætan
repay
leanian
repel
abaedan
repent
behreowsian
replenish
gefyllan
reproach
ætwitan; edwit
reputation
hlisa, m; lastword
rescue
ahreddan; hreddan
resolute (adj)
anræd; heard; hygerof
resound
dynnan; hlimman; hlynsian
rest (n)
rest, f
rest (v)
restan; ge-restan
restore
niwian
restorer
betend, m.
restrain
abædan
resurrection
ærist
retainer
dryhtguma; selesecg
return
gecierran
return (n)
eftsið
reveal
cyðan; onwreon
revelry
breahtm; mondream
revile
bysmerian
reward (v)
leanian
rich
fæt
riddle
giedd
ride
ridan
ride up to
beridan
right
riht
righteous
rihtwis
righteousness rind
rind
ring
beag, m.; hring
rise up
hlifian
risk (n)
pleoh
rivalry
geflit
river
ea, f; lagustream
riverbank
easteð; ofer
roar
grymetian; hlimman
roast (v)
brædan
rob
bereofan; forstelan
robber
feondsceaþa, m
roebuck
ra
rolling
gelac
rood
rod
roof
hrof
row (v)
rowan
rowing
rewett, n
ruin (n)
hryre, m
ruinous
hreorig
rule
rædan
ruler
anwealda, m; ealdorman; heretema
run
ærnan; irnan
rush
ræsan



S
sack
abrecan
sacrifice (n)
lac; offrung
sacrifice (v)
geoffrian
sad
dreorig; geocor; geomor; geomormod; hygegeomor; ormod; sarlic
sadfaced
dreorighleor
sadhearted
hygegeomor
sadness
geomerung
safe
hal
sailor
brimliðend; brimmann; flota, m; flotman; lidmann; s&aelida; sæmann; særinc
saint
halga; sanct
salmon
leax
salt
sealt
salt-maker
sealtere, m
salutary
halwende
same
ilca; self
sanctuary
herig
sand
sandceosol
satisfy
fyllan
save
ahreddan; beorgan; gebeorgan; hælan; hreddan; ge-nerian
say
cweðan; gecweðan; secgan; ge-secgan
saying
cwide
scholar
bocere; leornere
scorn
forhicgan
sculpt
ceorfan
sea
brim; flot, n; geofon, m/n; holm; holm; hwælweg; sæ
seabird
brimfugol; fleotend
seagull
mæw
sealane
brimlad; lagulad, f
sea voyage
sæfor
sea water
lagu
seamonster
nicor, m
seaman
flota, m.
search
secan
search for: secan
secret
deogol; dyrne
see
sceawian
seek
secan; ge-secan
seed
sæd
seize
begietan; cepan; fon (7); ge-niman; oferfon
seldom
seldon
self
self
self-employed
hlafordleas
sell
ciepan
send
asendan; onsendan
send forth
fysan; onsendan
sense
andgit, n
separate (v)
gedælan
sepulchre
moldern, n
sequence
endebyrnes, f
serious
geomormod
serpent
nædre
servant
cnapa; cniht
service
manræden
set (vb)
asettan; oðfæstan
set an example: bisnian, gebisnian
set in motion: hreran
set out on a journey: siþ asettan; feran; fundian
set up: asettan
severely
miclum
shade
scead; sceadu
shadow
sceadu
shaft
sceaft, m
shake
asceacan; acweccan; bifian
shame
scand; scomu, f
shameful
bysmorful; heanlic
shamefully
huxlice
shape
hiw
share
dælan
sharpen
grindan (3)
shatter
gebrecan
sheath
sceð, f
shed
scipen, n
sheep
sceap, n
sheepfold
loc, n
shellfish
sciellfisc
shelter (n)
hleo; scurbeorg
shepherd
sceaphierde, m
shield
bord, n; scield
shine
scinan
shining
beorht; goldbeorht
ship
ceol; flota, m; scip;; merehengest; naca, m; sæbat
shipwreck
forlidennes, f
shoe
sco
shoes
gescy, n.p.
shoemaker
scowyrhta
shoot
fysan; ofsceotan; sceotan
shore
ofer
shoulder
eaxle
shout
ceallian; clipian, clypian
shouting
clypung; hream
shove
scufan
show
ætywan; gecyðan; iewan
shower
scur
shrine
scryn
shrink
scrincan
sibling
geboren
sick
healf, f
sickness
adl, f.
sign (n)
beacen, n.
signify
gebicnian
similar
gelic
simple (adj)
anfeald
sin
fyren; leahtor
sinner
manshliht
sing
asingan; singan; galan; gieddian
single (adj)
anlepe
sink (cause to)
besencan
sir
leof
size
micelnes, f
skilful
ge-rad
skill
cræft; list, f; orþonc; searoþonc
skin
fell, n; hyd; rind
skulk
lutian
sky
lyft, f; rodor
slaughter (v)
ofsniðan
slay
ofslean; sægan
slayer
bana
small
mæte
smaller
læssa
smash
gebrecan
snake
nædre
snare
grin
snow
hrið
snowswept
hryðig
soak
beswillan
solace
frofor
soldier
beorn, m.; cempa; fyrdrinc; guðrinc, m; hererinc, m; hildemecg, m; hilderinc, m; hiredmann; hyse, m.; lindwigend; rinc; scealc, m; sceotan; secg
solitary
ænlic
someone
hwa
something
hwa; hwæhwugu
somewhere
forhwega
son
bearn, n; eafora
song
leoð; leoðsong
soon
hraðe
sore
sar
sorely
sare
sorrow
cearo; hearm; inwidsorH
sorrowful
hreocearig; sarig
soul
gast; sawol
sound (n)
ansund; hleoðor
sound (v)
galan
space of a foot
fotmæl
spacious
brad; geap
spare
arian (wv 2)
speak
gecweðan; hleoðrian; maðelian; mælan; gemælan
speak of
mænan
spear
franca; gafeluc; gar; ord
species
gecynd
spectral
gæstlic
speech
giedd; gereord
speech, make a
maðelian;
spirit
ferð; gast; mod; modsefa
spirited
modwlonc
spiritual
gastlic
spiritually
gastlice
splendid
betlic
splendour
gleomu
sport (n)
gomen
sport (v)
gelac
spread
brædan
spring (n)
lencten
spring (v)
spring apart: onspringan
spring open: onirnan (3)
sprout
asprytan
stab
ofstician; ofstingan
staff
sagol; sceaft, m
stag
hæstapa; heorot
stain (vb)
afylan
stained
fah; -fah
stake (a claim)
mærsian
stand alongside
bestandan
stand fixed
ætstandan
stand up
astandan
stalk
bestealcian
start
beginnan (sv 3)
statement
cwide
steadfastly
fæstlice
steadily
fæstlice
steal
forstelan
step forth
ætsteppan
still (adv)
giet
stir
hreran (cf. Du "roeren); onhreran
stir up
drefan
stoop
lutan
stop
ætstandan
storekeeper
ciepemann
storeroom
hedærn
storm (v)
abrecan
storm (n)
scur
story
ge-recednis
straighten
gerihtan
stranger
gyst, m
stream
flod, m
strength
ellen, n; mægen
stretch out
astreccan
strife
orlege, m
strike
hnitan
strip
behlyþan; ongyrwan
strike down
gefyllan
strong
forstrang; from
stronghold
burg, byrig; fæsten
student
leornere
study
leornian
submit
bugan; gebugan
succeed
fon to rice
succession
endebyrnes, f
sudden
færlic
suddenly
færlice
suffer
dreogan
suitable
gehæp; gelimplice; gemæc; gerisenlic
summon
bonnan; clipian, clypian; laðian
supplies
metsung, f
supply
onstal, n
support (n)
fultum
support (v)
fultumian
surface
sceat, m
surround
began (anom); bewyrcan
survey
geondsceawian
survive
belifan; gedygan
swallow
gegeopan
sweep away
aswipan
swift
from
swiftly
hrædlice
swimmer
fleotend
swimming pool
burnsele
swing open
onbregdan
sword
bill, n.; ecg; guðbill, n; iren; mece
symbol
beacen, n.



T
table
beod, m.; bord, n.
tailor
seamere
taint
geblandan
take
don; niman; geniman
take away
forniman
take heed
geman
take out
ateon
take up
onfon
taste
byrigan; onbyrigan
teach
læran; ge-læran
teacher
lareow; magister, m
teaching
lar
tear (v)
scieran
tell
asecgan; reccan; secgan
temple
herig
temporary
læne
terrible
atol
terrified
anforht
terrifying
gæstlic
territory
eþel
terror
broga, m; ege, m; egesa, m
test
fandian
the, that
se, seo, þæt
Note: See chart for forms
therefore
forðy
they (indef pro)
man
think
hicgan; hogian; myntan
thought
hige; gehygd
threat
beot, n.; feorhbealo, .
threatening
beotlic
throne
cynestol; giefstol
through
geond
throughout
geond
throw
sceaotan
throw away: aweorpan
thrust
sceotan
tide
flod, m; mereflod
tilling
eorþtilþ
time
first, m.; hwil; -hwil; mæl; sæl
for a long time: lange; langlice
timid
forhtmod
tired
meðe
together
ætgædere; ætsomne; endemes; geader; samod
toil
gedeorf
too toss
cnossian
totally
clæne
touch
æthrinan; gretan; hrepian; hreppan; hrinan; ge-ræcan
tower (v)
hlifian
town
burg, burig; burgtun; burgsteall; ceaster
track
feorhlast, m; last
trade
cræft
translate
areccean; awendan
trap
betræppan
trapping
hyrst, f
trappings
gerædu
travel
faran (6)
treasure
beahhord, n.; goldhord, m; hord, n.; maðm
treasurer-giver
maþþumgyfa
tree
beam, m.
tremble
bifian
tribute
gafol, n; manræden
troop
heap
trouble (v)
bysigian; gedrefan
trouble (n)
cearo, f; myrðu; niþ, m
troubled
earmcearig; hreoh; hreocearig
troublesome
hefigtyme
trout
sceota, m
truce
grið
trust
geliefan
try
cunnan
tub
byden
tumult
gedræg; gelac
turn
hweorfan; hwierfan; gehwierfan; oncierran
turn around: onhwyrfan
turn away: bugan



U
uncle
eam
unclothe
ongyrwan
uncooked
grene
understand
asmeagan; gecnawan; forstandan; ongietan (5)
undress
ongyrwan
unfortunate
heardlice
unhappy
heardselig
unhurt
hal
unimportant
leohlic
unique
ænlic
unite
geanlæcan
unity
annis, f
unless
nymþe
until
hwænne; oð
unyoke
ongeocian
up
up to: oð
upon
on
upright
rihtwis
uproar
cyrm, m
urge
manian; gemanian
use (v)
befæstan; brucan; neotan; notian
use (n)
fiorm, f; nytt, f
useful, be
dugan
useful
usefulness
nyttnes, f
utensil
fæt
utility
nytt, f
utter
acweðan (sv 5); gecwðan
utterance
cwidegiedd
utterly
clæne; eallunga



V
vain
idel
valley
denu, f
valuable
deorwierþe
various
manigfeald; mislic; missenlic
vat
fæt
vein
æder, f
venom
attor, m.
venture
ge-neþan
vernacular
folclic
verse
fers, n.
very (adv)
ful; geneahhe
very much
ealfela
vice
leahtor
viewing
sceawung
vigorous
c; hwætaf
vile
fracod; ful
violence
ecghete; mæenþise
violent
hæste
virgin
mægð
voice
hleoðor; reord; gereord
vow (n)
beot, n
vow (v)
beotian; gehatan



W
wage (war)
ahebban
wait
anbidian
walk
gan; gongan (7)
wander
scriþan
war
guð, f; orlege, m
ward off
abaedan
warband
duguð
warrior
beadurinc, m.; beorn, m.; cempa; dreng, m.; dryhtguma; folcwiga; fyrdrinc; garbuend; guðrinc, m; hæle, m hæeþ, m hildemecg, m; hilderinc, m; hiredmann; hyse, m.; lindwigend magorinc; rinc; scealc, m; sceotan; secg
wasteland
mor
water
brim; lagustream; wæter
water, body of
flod, m
wave (v)
hwearfian
wave (n)
saltyþ
way
foldweg
way of life
drohtoð
wealth
blæd; ead, n.
weary
meðe
weave
bregdan
weave together
gebregdan
weep
greotan; reotan
weigh down
hefigan
well
fægere
well-known
cuð
whale
hwæl
whaling
hwæhuntoþ
what
hwa; hwelc
what kind of: hwelc
when
mid þam þe mid þy þe
whence
hwanon
where
hwær; hwider
whet
hwettan
whether
which
hwelc
while
hwil
whistle
hwistlian
whistling
hwistlung
whither
hwider
white horse
blanca
who
hwa
whole
ansund; gehal
wicked
fracod
wickedly
manlice
wickedness
fyren
wide
brad; geap
wield
ge-reccan
willingly
gelustfullice; lustfullice
wind around
bewerian
window
eagðyrl, n
wise
frod; gleaw
with
mid
with longing for
æfter (+acc)
wither
searian
within (adv)
beinnan; binnan; inne
within (prep)
innan (+dat)
without
butan, buton; -leas
withstand
forstandan; ongeanstandan
woman
cwen, f; cwene, f; fæmne; ides; mægð
womb
hrif, n
wood
holt
word
giedd
work
gedeorf
worker
ceorl
world
middangeard
worry
bisgu
worship
bigong, m.
worthless
idel
wound (vb)
amyrran; forwundian; ge-ræcan
wound (n)
benn, f.; dolg, n.; inwidhlemm; licsar; sar
wounded
feohseoc, adj
wretched
earm; earmcearig; earmsceapen; feasceafig; hean
wretchedlly
earmlice
write
awritan



Y
yard
geard
year
gear
year-by-year: gearmælum
yearning
langung
yield
abugan; bugan; gebugan
yes
giese
yesterday
giestrandæg; gystran
yet
gen; giet; hwæðere
yew
iw, m
yoke (v)
geocian
you
ge (np), eow (ap)
your
eower
young
geong
young people >dd> giogoð
youth (n)
cniht; geoguð; hyse, m.; mago, m



Z
zeal
ellenwodnis
zealously
georne; geornlice